Aramaic is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family. More it is part of the Northwest Semitic group, which includes the Canaanite languages such as Hebrew and Phoenician; the Aramaic alphabet was adopted for other languages and is ancestral to the Hebrew and Arabic alphabets. During its 3,100 years of written history, Aramaic has served variously as a language of administration of empires, as a language of divine worship and religious study, as the spoken tongue of a number of Semitic peoples from the Near East. Aramaic was the language of the Arameans, a Semitic-speaking people of the region between the northern Levant and the northern Tigris valley. By around 1000 BC, the Arameans had a string of kingdoms in what is now part of Syria and Mesopotamia. Aramaic rose to prominence under the Neo-Assyrian Empire, under whose influence Aramaic became a prestige language, its use spread throughout most of Mesopotamia and the Levant. At its height, variants of Aramaic were spoken all over in what is today Iraq, Lebanon, Israel, Kuwait, Eastern Arabia, Northern Arabia, to a lesser extent parts of southeast and south central Turkey, parts of northwest Iran.
Aramaic was the language of Jesus, who spoke the Galilean dialect during his public ministry, as well as the language of large sections of the biblical books of Daniel and Ezra, one of the languages of the Talmud. The scribes of the Neo-Assyrian bureaucracy had used Aramaic, this practice—together with other administrative practices—was subsequently inherited by the succeeding Neo-Babylonians, the Achaemenids. Mediated by scribes, trained in the language standardized written Aramaic progressively become the lingua franca of trade and commerce throughout the Achaemenid territories, which extended as far east as the Indus valley.. Aramaic's long history and diverse and widespread use has led to the development of many divergent varieties, which are sometimes considered dialects, though they have become distinct enough over time that they are now sometimes considered as separate languages. Therefore, there is not static Aramaic language; the more spoken Eastern Aramaic and Mandaic forms are today restricted to Iraqi Kurdistan, northeastern Syria, northwestern Iran and southeastern Turkey, whilst the endangered Western Neo-Aramaic is spoken by small communities in northwestern Syria.
Certain dialects of Aramaic are retained as a sacred language by certain religious communities. One of those liturgical dialects is Mandaic, which besides being a living variant of Aramaic is the liturgical language of Mandaeism. More widespread is Syriac, the liturgical language of Syriac Christianity, in particular the Assyrian Church of the East, the Chaldean Catholic Church, the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Assyrian Pentecostal Church, Assyrian Evangelical Church, Ancient Church of the East, Syriac Catholic Church, the Maronite Church, the Saint Thomas Christian denominations of India. Syriac was the liturgical language of several now-extinct gnostic faiths, such as Manichaeism. Neo-Aramaic languages are still spoken today as a first language by many communities of Syriac Christians and Mandaeans of Western Asia, most numerously by Chaldeans and Assyrians with numbers of fluent speakers ranging from 1 million to 2 million, with the main languages among Assyrians being Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Chaldean Neo-Aramaic and Turoyo, together with a number of smaller related languages with no more than 5,000 to 10,000 speakers between them.
They have retained use of the once dominant lingua franca despite subsequent language shifts experienced throughout the Middle East. However, the Aramaic languages are now considered endangered; the languages are used by the older generation, all beyond retirement age, so could go extinct within a generation. However, researchers are working to record all the dialects of Neo-Aramaic languages before they go extinct. Royal Aramaic inscriptions from the Aramean city-states date from 10th century BC, making Aramaic one of the world's oldest recorded living languages. "Aram" is used as a proper name of several people in the Torah including descendants of Shem and Jacob. The ancient Greeks did not use the term Aramaic, instead referring to “Syrians”. Josephus and Strabo both stated that the “Syrians” called themselves “Arameans”; the connection between Chaldean and Samaritan as "Aramaic" was first identified in 1679 by German theologian Johann Wilhelm Hilliger. The connection between the names Syrian and Aramaic was made in 1835 by Étienne Marc Quatremère.
Ancient Aram, bordering northern Israel and what is now called Syria, is considered the linguistic center of Aramaic, the language of the Arameans who settled the area during the Bronze Age circa 3500 BC. The language is mistakenly considered to have originated within Assyria. In fact, Arameans carried their language and writing into Mesopotamia by voluntary
Jordan Carrell is an American football defensive tackle, a free agent. He played college football at the University of Colorado. Carrell attended Roseville High School, he became a starter as playing center and defensive end. As a senior, he contributed to an offense that averaged 439 yards and 33.4 points per game, while not allowing a quarterback sack. On defense, he registered 2 sacks, 10 quarterback hurries and 2 interceptions, he suffered a wrist injury in the playoffs and had to wait seven months to get surgery, while he was saving for the procedure. He was a three-year letterman in baseball. Carrell didn't receive any college offers and moved on to American River College, becoming a defensive starter as a freshman, making 30 tackles, 10 tackles for loss, 4 sacks, 4 passes defensed, 11 quarterback hurries, one interception, 2 fumble recoveries and one blocked field goal; the next year, he posted 80 tackles, 8 quarterback sacks, 24 quarterback hurries, 2 passes defensed and one forced fumble, while receiving ACCFCA All-American, All-California Region I, All-Norcal Conference and the conference's Defensive Player of the Year honors.
At the end of the year, he transferred to the University of Colorado Boulder. As a junior, he started in 12 of 13 games at defensive end in the team's 3-4 defense, registering 52 tackles, 8 tackles for loss, 11 quarterback hurries and 3 forced fumbles and one fumble recovery, he had a career-high 10 tackles in the season finale against the University of Utah. As a senior, he started all 14 games, making 5 1/2 sacks and 13 quarterback hurries, he had 7 tackles against the University of Oregon. He finished his career with 26 starts out of 27 games, while posting 103 tackles, 24 quarterback hurries and 5½ sacks. Carrell was selected by the Dallas Cowboys in the seventh round of the 2017 NFL Draft, to assure obtaining his rights, after he was considering signing with the Buffalo Bills as an undrafted free agent. On May 11, he signed a four-year, $2.46 million contract that includes a signing bonus of $67,484. He was waived on September 2. In 2016, he dedicated his senior season in memory of his father.
Dance Flick is a 2009 American musical comedy film directed by Damien Dante Wayans in his directorial debut and written by and starring many members of the Wayans family. The film was set for release in the United States on February 6, 2009, changed to May 22, 2009. Suburban girl Megan White gets into a series of misadventures when she moves to the inner-city and pursues dance. A nerdy street boy named Thomas Uncles is passionate about street dancing, but he is stuck working for a gang lord. Megan befriends Thomas' ghetto sister Charity who has a baby but poor parenting skills. Charity has her own issues dealing with her dimwitted "baby daddy", a bad parent. Once Megan and Thomas spend more time together, they become dance partners and begin to fall in love. Shoshana Bush as Megan White Damon Wayans Jr. as Thomas Uncles Essence Atkins as Charity Uncles Affion Crockett as A-Con Shawn Wayans as Baby Daddy Amy Sedaris as Ms. Cameltoé David Alan Grier as Sugar Bear Chelsea Makela as Tracy Transfat Chris Elliott as Ron White Brennan Hillard as Jack Lochlyn Munro as The Coach Christina Murphy as Nora Marlon Wayans as Mr. Moody Kim Wayans as Ms. Dontwannabebothered Keenen Ivory Wayans as Mr. Stache Craig Wayans as Truck Ross Thomas as Tyler Gage George Gore II as Ray Charles Tichina Arnold as Aretha Robinson Lauren Bowles as Glynn White Sufe Bradshaw as Keloid Andrew McFarlane as D Casey Lee as Undercover Cop Chaunté Wayans as Free Gas Pedestrian On the opening weekend, the film ranked at No. 5 in the top 10 with $10,643,536 in 2,450 theaters.
Rotten Tomatoes, a review aggregator, reports that 18% of 95 surveyed critics gave the film a positive review. The site's consensus reads: "Dance Flick scores a few laughs thanks to the Wayans brothers' exuberance, but it's a scattershot collection of gags without much direction." On Metacritic, it got a 40/100 "average" score based on 17 critic reviews. Peter Deburge of Variety wrote that it "delivers just enough laughs to justify its existence". Footloose Chappelle's Show Save the Last Dance You Got Served Stomp the Yard Step Up Flashdance Step Up 2: The Streets Hairspray Singin' in the Rain Dirty Dancing Mamma Mia! Little Miss Sunshine The House Bunny Final Destination 2 How She Move Showgirls Black Snake Moan High School Musical Fame Honey Bring It On Center Stage Twilight Roll Bounce Notorious Superbad Catwoman 1 Night in Paris Ray Little Shop of Horrors and Dreamgirls Edward Scissorhands Enchanted and/or Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs Final Destination Crash America's Best Dance Crew Coyote Ugly So You Think You Can Dance ATL White Chicks Alice in Wonderland Uncle Tom's Cabin Dreamgirls Alfie Brokeback Mountain Roots Official website Dance Flick on IMDb Dance Flick at Box Office Mojo Dance Flick at Rotten Tomatoes Shawn and Damien Wayans: The Dance Flick interview with Kam Williams