Palau Sant Jordi
Palau Sant Jordi is an indoor sporting arena and multi-purpose installation, part of the Olympic Ring complex located in Barcelona, Spain. Designed by the Japanese architect Arata Isozaki, it was opened in 1990; the maximum seating capacity of the arena is 17,960. It is the largest indoor arena in Spain; the Palau Sant Jordi was one of the main venues of the 1992 Summer Olympics hosting the artistic gymnastics, handball final, volleyball final events. Today, it is used for all kinds of indoor sport events as well as for concerts and other cultural activities, due to its great flexibility; the arena was the venue of the 1995 IAAF World Indoor Championships in Athletics. It was the venue of three EuroLeague Final Fours in 1998, 2003, 2011, it hosted the EuroBasket 1997, from the quarterfinals on, the 2012 Spanish Basketball Cup. The final of 2000 Davis Cup was the 89th edition of the most important tournament between nations in men's tennis. Spain defeated Australia at Palau Sant Jordi on 8 -- 10 December.
The arena hosted the finals of 2009 Davis Cup between Spain and Czech Republic with the victory for the Spaniards 5-0. Palau Sant Jordi was the main venue of the 2003 FINA World Championships. A temporary, regulation swimming pool was installed for the occasion, it played the same role for the 2013 FINA World Championships, since the city of Barcelona hosted the Championships again after 10 years. It was one of six sites, it was one of six sites to host the 2014 FIBA Basketball World Cup in Spain. On October 5, 2016, the arena hosted an NBA preseason game between the Oklahoma City Thunder and local team FC Barcelona Regal; the 3,000-seat Sant Jordi Club is located behind the main building. The Pet Shop Boys – 22 May 1991 and 12 October 2007 Gloria Estefan – 10 June 1991, 25 October 1996 and 17 September 2008 Sopa de Cabra – 14 June 1991, with Sau, Els Pets and Sangtraït and 9–11 September 2011 Diana Ross – 10 July 1991 Paul Simon – 15 July 1991 Simple Minds – 22 July 1991 Mecano – 1–2 October 1991 U2 – 16 and 18 May 1992, with The Fatima Mansions, 8 August 2001, with The Stereophonics and 5–10 October 2015 Frank Sinatra – 3 June 1992 Dire Straits – 2–4 October 1992 Metallica – 12 November 1992, with Metal Church and 23 September 1996, with Corrosion of Conformity Peter Gabriel – 10 May 1993, 1 June 2003 and 23 September 2010, with Ane Brun Sade – 11 May 1993 Def Leppard – 17 May 1993 Elton John – 7 June 1993, 21 December 2003, 20 October 2009, with Teddy Thompson and 6 December 2014, with Bright Light Bright Light Sting – 28 July 1993, 2 June 2004, with Nellie McKay and 29 October 2010, with The Royal Philharmonic Orchestra Prince & The New Power Generation – 22 August 1993 and 18 December 1998, with Graham Central Station Paul McCartney – 26–27 October 1993 and 28–29 March 2003 Whitney Houston – 16 November 1993 Phil Collins – 4 May 1994, 7 October 1997 and 1 July 2004, with Mike + The Mechanics Roxette – 1 December 1994, 24 October 2001, with Bondage and 19 November 2011 R.
E. M. – 18 February 1995, with Grant Lee Buffalo and 9 January 2005, with Joseph Arthur Janet Jackson – 26 March 1995 Eric Clapton – 4–5 May 1995, with Clarence "Gatemouth" Brown, 26 October 1998, with Bonnie Raitt, 25 February 2001, with Doyle Bramhall II & Smokestack and 24 March 2004, with Robert Randolph and the Family Band Simply Red – 2 December 1995, with Sinéad O'Connor AC/DC – 2–3 July 1996, with The Wildhearts, 14 December 2000, with Slash's Snakepit and The Backyard Babies and 31 March 2009, with The Answer Bryan Adams – 4 July 1996, 21 February 2003 and 27 January 2005 Tina Turner – 15 September and 17–18, 1996 Maria del Mar Bonet – 23 April 1997 Laura Pausini – 25 April 1997, 30 April 2009 and 21 April 2012 Aerosmith – 13 June 1997, with Kula Shaker, 15 July 1999, with The Black Crowes and 27 June 2010, with The Cribs The Spice Girls – 13 March 1998 Genesis – 20 March 1998 The Backstreet Boys – 9 April 1998, 13–14 July 1999, with Mandy Moore and 20 February 2014 Blondie – 2 May 1998 and 2 May 1999, with Bryan Adams and The Sunflowers Luis Miguel – 12 May 1998, 5–6 October 1999, 9 October 2002, 2 October 2004, 30 April 2007, 10 May 2012, 8 July 2018 Alejandro Sanz – 18–19 June 1998, 3–4 and 6 July 2001, 7 and 9 September 2004, 4 September 2007, 12 May and 15 September 2010 and 29–30 May 2013, 8 July 2016 The Corrs – 27 November 1998 Festival Europeo de la Solidaridad – 13 December 1998 Bruce Springsteen – 9 and 11 April 1999, with The E Street Band, 16 October 2002, with The E Street Band and 24 October 2006, with The Seeger Sessions Band The Carles Sabater Tribute Concert – 27 April 1999 Mike Oldfield – 6 July 1999, with Luar na Lubre and 6 July 2000 The Doctor Metal Festival – 12 July 1999 Texas – 14 November 1999, with The Pretenders The Cranberries – 5 December 1999, 15 March 2002, with Weezer and 4 October 2012 Cher – 15 December 1999 Ricky Martin – 29–30 April 2000, 9 May 2006 and 29 June 2011 Santana – 20 May 2000 and 23 September 2003, with Citizen Cope Pearl Jam – 25 May 2000, with The Vandals and 10 July 2018 Joaquín Sabina – 13 July 2000, 29 June 2006, 17 December 2009 and 22–23 December 2014 Iron Maiden – 23 July 2000, with Entombed and Spiritual Beggars, 11 June 2003, with The Murderdolls, 30 November 2006, with Trivium and Lauren Harris and 27 May 2014, with Anthrax Miguel Bosé – 7 September 2000, with Ana Torroja, 16 June 2005, 20 September 2007, 26 June 2008, 29–30 September 2010, 27 September 2012 and 12 September 2013 Britney Spears – 22 October 2000 25 Anys de l'Avui – 23 April 2001 Estopa – 9 May 2001, 30 May 2002, 17 June 2004, 15 June 2006, 13 June 2008 and 25 February 2012, with Juan Maya and India Martínez Westlife – 8 June 2001 Madonna – 9–
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
CityLife is a residential and business district under construction situated a short distance from the old city centre of Milan, Italy. The development is being carried out by a company controlled by Generali Group, that won the international tender for the redevelopment of the historic neighborhood of Fiera Milano with an offer of €523 million; the project is designed by Arata Isozaki and Daniel Libeskind. The new exhibition centre in Rho-Pero opened in 2005, 85 years after the first Trade Fair in April 1920; the Fiera’s move outside Milan benefitted the city by eliminating traffic problems caused by big events and by freeing up a valuable area. An international tender for the redevelopment of the old Fiera area, seeking to create an unprecedented level of connectivity with the surrounding urban context, concluded in 2004; the CityLife project won the competition due to the high level of architectural and environmental quality it offered. The 20 exhibition halls, with a total volume of about 2,500,000 m3, were demolished and submit to remediation in 2007 and 2008.
Painstaking efforts were made to protect and recover the area’s stock of trees, 120 of which were saved and relocated in the public parks over Milan. Since 2007 a Permanent Environmental Observatory has worked to protect the surrounding districts. Administered by local public authorities, it controls the noise and environmental impact during all stages of construction, using among other things, sound-absorbing and dust protective; the project involves the construction of three skyscrapers, with dedicated areas for offices, stores and services. The luxury residential area will cover about 164,000 m2, with around 1,300 apartments. In addition, more than 50% of the available area, 170,000 m2 are dedicated to green spaces. There will be underground parking space for around 7,000 vehicles. Further to the existing public transportation network, the CityLife area will be served by a new extension of the metro line 5, with a dedicated station at the centre of the Piazza Tre Torri. Timeline - Completed works: 2009-13 Daniel Libeskind Residences / Via Spinola, 8.
Its installations use sources such as ground water, district heating, photovoltaics. The Tre Torri offices have been awarded the prestigious GOLD level LEED™ pre-certification. CityLife is one of the biggest in Europe. Cars can reach garages and parking areas along an innovative underground road system. A cycle and pedestrian path crosses the area from east to west. Broad avenues lead from the residences to the centre of the district where to find shops and restaurants overlooking the park. Situated in the south-east part of the CityLife area, the residences on Via Senofonte have been designed by Zaha Hadid; the residences are composed of seven buildings offering a wide range of possibilities from one-bed apartments to double-height penthouses. The residences on Via Senofonte are accessed through spacious lobbies with distinctive architectural features such as large windows overlooking the park; the details and refinement of the design give the entrances a high level of prestige. The furniture, designed by Zaha Hadid, is harmoniously integrated into the spaces by its soft and enveloping lines.
The residences designed by Zaha Hadid provide their inhabitants with a daily experience of great beauty and lightness. The residences on Via Senofonte follow the sinuous course of the roofs and balconies, creating a dynamic and elegant effect that echoes the landscape below; the gardens of the residences designed by Zaha Hadid follow the flowing lines of the buildings and are moved by paved paths and grassy areas with slight depressions that create pleasant rest areas. The courtyards offer a safe environment offer striking views over the city and the park; the residences on Via Senofonte are Class A certified. Situated in the south-west part of the CityLife area, the residences on Via Spinola have been designed by Daniel Libeskind; the residences are composed of five buildings offering a wide range of possibilities from one-bed apartments to double-height penthouses. The residences on Via Spinola are in the stylish Fiera Milano district, between Piazza Giulio Cesare and Piazza Amendola. On one side they look out over the new public park with panoramic views of the Alps and the city centre.
Daniel Libeskind has designed a residential archipelago to best meet the needs of modern living: the design reinterprets the classic residential courtyard model to create a circular pattern. The alternation of façade materials and the vertical orientation of the alignments give a sculptural effect to the buildings. A system of balconies creates outdoor spaces of different depths for each apartment. There are private gardens and access roads to buildings along the perimeter. In the middle of a natural landscape, with pleasant rest areas, the courtyard is built on a circular hill that descends towards the underground road; the residences on Via Spinola are Class A certified. The residential tower, designed by Daniel Libeskind, is planned; the former Pavilion 3 of Fiera Milano City, located
Manggha is a museum in Kraków, Poland. Until 2005, it was a branch of the National Museum of Kraków. In 1920, Feliks Jasieński—critic and collector of art, whose penname was "Manggha"—donated his collection of artworks connected with Japan to the National Museum in Kraków. After his death, the collection was not exhibited, one reason being the lack of space to arrange the 6500 items; the lone exception was an exhibition in Cloth Hall of Kraków in 1944, organised by the Germans, who occupied Poland at the time. A young Andrzej Wajda became fascinated by Japanese art. In 1987 half a century Andrzej Wajda received a film award in Kyoto, he decided to donate the entire sum to the National Museum in Kraków to build a brand new building in which to exhibit the entire collection. Andrzej Wajda was supported by local authorities, the city, the government of Japan with special help from ambassador Nagao Hyodo; the East Japan Railway Workers' Union with president Akira Matsuzaki donated the equivalent of $1MM U.
S. to the Kyoto-Kraków Foundation created by friends. The building was designed by the Japanese architect Arata Isozaki, who donated the design to the foundation. Krzysztof Ingarden, J. Ewy and JET Atelier were collaborating architects on the Polish side. Manggha was opened on November 30, 1994. In 1997, Manggha received a Special Award of the Japanese Foundation. On July 11, 2002, the museum was visited by Empress Michiko. On the request of the emperor, an exhibition of selected woodcuts of the great Japanese artist Utagawa Hiroshige had been prepared; the imperial couple donated some audio-visual equipment to the centre's school of Japanese language. In a 2006 architectural competition, the centre was chosen as one of twenty most interesting examples of architecture in Poland built after 1989. - "Polska. Ikony architektury"; the exterior features of this modern building—the roof resembles the sea in many old Japanese paintings—echo both the museum's surroundings and some of the art housed within.
It is a contemporary structure that both complements and contrasts with the ancient art of Japan, contains both exhibition and conference rooms. In addition to its permanent exhibitions, the Centre organises temporary ones—mostly relating to Japanese art and technology. In addition, the centre organises courses in Japanese tea ceremony and Japanese language. Manggha is the headquarters of the Polish Bonsai Club. Culture of Kraków National Museum, Kraków Media related to Manggha Museum of Japanese Art and Technology at Wikimedia Commons Official website of Manggha Book: Feliks'Manggha' Jasieński and His Collection at the National Museum in Krakow
Kyoto Kyoto City, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan. It is best known in Japanese history for being the former Imperial capital of Japan for more than one thousand years, as well as a major part of the Kyoto-Osaka-Kobe metropolitan area. In Japanese, Kyoto was called Kyō, Miyako, or Kyō no Miyako. In the 11th century, the city was renamed Kyoto, from the Chinese calligraphic, jingdu. After the city of Edo was renamed Tokyo in 1868, the seat of the Emperor was moved there, Kyoto was for a short time known as Saikyō. Kyoto is sometimes called the thousand-year capital; the National Diet never passed any law designating a capital. Foreign spellings for the city's name have included Kioto and Meaco, utilised by Dutch cartographers. Another term used to refer to the city in the pre-modern period was Keishi, meaning "urba" or "capital". Ample archaeological evidence suggests human settlement in Kyoto began as early as the Paleolithic period, although not much published material is retained about human activity in the area before the 6th century, around which time the Shimogamo Shrine is believed to have been established.
During the 8th century, when powerful Buddhist clergy became involved in the affairs of the Imperial government, Emperor Kanmu chose to relocate the capital in order to distance it from the clerical establishment in Nara. His last choice for the site was the village of Uda, in the Kadono district of Yamashiro Province; the new city, Heian-kyō, a scaled replica of the Tang capital Chang'an, became the seat of Japan's imperial court in 794, beginning the Heian period of Japanese history. Although military rulers established their governments either in Kyoto or in other cities such as Kamakura and Edo, Kyoto remained Japan's capital until the transfer of the imperial court to Tokyo in 1869 at the time of the Imperial Restoration; the city suffered extensive destruction in the Ōnin War of 1467–1477, did not recover until the mid-16th century. During the Ōnin War, the shugo collapsed, power was divided among the military families. Battles between samurai factions spilled into the streets, came to involve the court nobility and religious factions as well.
Nobles' mansions were transformed into fortresses, deep trenches dug throughout the city for defense and as firebreaks, numerous buildings burned. The city has not seen such widespread destruction since. In the late 16th century, Toyotomi Hideyoshi reconstructed the city by building new streets to double the number of north-south streets in central Kyoto, creating rectangle blocks superseding ancient square blocks. Hideyoshi built earthwork walls called odoi encircling the city. Teramachi Street in central Kyoto is a Buddhist temple quarter where Hideyoshi gathered temples in the city. Throughout the Edo period, the economy of the city flourished as one of three major cities in Japan, the others being Osaka and Edo; the Hamaguri rebellion of 1864 burnt down 28,000 houses in the city which showed the rebels' dissatisfaction towards the Tokugawa Shogunate. The subsequent move of the Emperor to Tokyo in 1869 weakened the economy; the modern city of Kyoto was formed on April 1, 1889. The construction of Lake Biwa Canal in 1890 was one measure taken to revive the city.
The population of the city exceeded one million in 1932. There was some consideration by the United States of targeting Kyoto with an atomic bomb at the end of World War II because, as an intellectual center of Japan, it had a population large enough to persuade the emperor to surrender. In the end, at the insistence of Henry L. Stimson, Secretary of War in the Roosevelt and Truman administrations, the city was removed from the list of targets and replaced by Nagasaki; the city was spared from conventional bombing as well, although small-scale air raids did result in casualties. As a result, the Imperial City of Kyoto is one of the few Japanese cities that still have an abundance of prewar buildings, such as the traditional townhouses known as machiya. However, modernization is continually breaking down the traditional Kyoto in favor of newer architecture, such as the Kyōto Station complex. Kyoto became a city designated by government ordinance on September 1, 1956. In 1997, Kyoto hosted the conference.
Kyoto is located in a valley, part of the Yamashiro Basin, in the eastern part of the mountainous region known as the Tamba highlands. The Yamashiro Basin is surrounded on three sides by mountains known as Higashiyama and Nishiyama, with a height just above 1,000 metres above sea level; this interior positioning results in cold winters. There are three rivers in the basin, the Ujigawa to the south, the Katsuragawa to the west, the Kamogawa to the east. Kyoto City takes up 17.9% of the land in the prefecture with an area of 827.9 square kilometres. The original city was arranged in accordance with traditional Chinese feng shui following the model of the ancient Chinese capital of Chang'an; the Imperial Palace faced south. The streets in the modern-day wards of Nakagyō, Shimogyō, Kamigyō-ku still follow a grid pattern. Today, the main business district is located to the south of the old Imperial Palace, with the less-populated northern area retaining a fa
Fukuoka is the capital city of Fukuoka Prefecture, situated on the northern shore of Japanese island Kyushu. It is the most populous city on the island, followed by Kitakyushu, it is the largest city and metropolitan area west of Keihanshin. The city was designated on April 1972, by government ordinance. Greater Fukuoka, with a population of 2.5 million people, is part of the industrialized Fukuoka–Kitakyushu zone. As of 2015, Fukuoka is Japan's sixth largest city. In July 2011, Fukuoka surpassed the population of Kyoto. Since the founding of Kyoto in 794, this marks the first time that a city west of the Kinki region has a larger population than Kyoto. In ancient times, the area near Fukuoka, the Chikushi region, was thought by some historians to have been more influential than the Yamato region. Exchanges from the continent and the Northern Kyushu area date as far back as Old Stone Age, it has been thought. Several Kofun exist. Fukuoka was sometimes called the Port of Dazaifu, 15 km southeast from Fukuoka.
Dazaifu was an administrative capital in 663 A. D. but a historian proposed. Ancient texts, such as the Kojiki and archaeology confirm this was a critical place in the founding of Japan; some scholars claim that it was the first place outsiders and the Imperial Family set foot, but like many early Japan origin theories, it remains contested. Central Fukuoka is sometimes still referred as Hakata, the name of the central ward. In 923, the Hakozaki-gū in Fukuoka was transferred from Daibu-gū in Daibu, 16 km northeast from Dazaifu, the origin of Usa Shrine and established as a branch of the Usa Shrine at Fukuoka. In Ooho, 15 km south from Dazaifu, there are remains of a big ward office with a temple, because in ancient East Asia, an emperor must have three great ministries. In fact, there is a record in Chinese literature that a king of Japan sent a letter in 478 to ask the Chinese emperor's approval for employing three ministries. In addition, remains of the Korokan were found in Fukuoka underneath a part of the ruins of Fukuoka Castle.
Kublai Khan of the Mongol Empire turned his attention towards Japan starting in 1268, exerting a new external pressure on Japan with which it had no experience. Kublai Khan first sent an envoy to Japan to make the Shogunate acknowledge Khan's suzerainty; the Kamakura shogunate refused. Mongolia sent envoys thereafter, each time urging the Shogunate to accept their proposal, but to no avail. In 1274, Kublai Khan mounted an invasion of the northern part of Kyushu with a fleet of 900 ships and 33,000 troops, including troops from Goryeo on the Korean Peninsula; this initial invasion was compromised by a combination of incompetence and severe storms. After the invasion attempt of 1274, Japanese samurai built a stone barrier 20 km in length bordering the coast of Hakata Bay in what is now the city of Fukuoka; the wall, 2–3 metres in height and having a base width of 3 metres, was constructed between 1276 and 1277, was excavated in the 1930s. Kublai sent another envoy to Japan in 1279. At that time, Hōjō Tokimune of the Hōjō clan was the Eighth Regent.
Not only did he decline the offer, but he beheaded the five Mongolian emissaries after summoning them to Kamakura. Infuriated, Kublai organized another attack on Fukuoka Prefecture in 1281, mobilizing 140,000 soldiers and 4,000 ships; the Japanese defenders, numbering around 40,000, were no match for the Mongols and the invasion force made it as far as Dazaifu, 15 km south of the city of Fukuoka. However, the Japanese were again aided by severe weather, this time by a typhoon that struck a crushing blow to the Mongolian troops, thwarting the invasion, it was this typhoon that came to be called the Kamikaze, was the origin of the term Kamikaze used to indicate suicide attacks by military aviators of the Empire of Japan against Allied naval vessels during World War II. Fukuoka was the residence of the powerful daimyō of Chikuzen Province, played an important part in the medieval history of Japan; the renowned temple of Tokugawa Ieyasu in the district was destroyed by fire during the Boshin War of 1868.
The modern city was formed on April 1, 1889, with the merger of the former cities of Hakata and Fukuoka. Hakata was the port and merchant district, was more associated with the area's culture and remains the main commercial area today. On the other hand, the Fukuoka area was home to many samurai, its name has been used since Kuroda Nagamasa, the first daimyō of Chikuzen Province, named it after his birthplace in Okayama Prefecture and the "old Fukuoka" is the main shopping area, now called Tenjin; when Hakata and Fukuoka decided to merge, a meeting was held to decide the name for the new city. Hakata was chosen, but a group of samurai crashed the meeting and forced those present to choose Fukuoka as the name for the merged city. However, Hakata is still used to refer to the Hakata area of the city and, most famously, to refer to the city's train station, Hakata Station, dialect, Hakata-ben. 1903: Fukuoka Medical College, a campus associated with Kyoto Imperial University, is founded. In 1911, the college is established as a separate entity.
1910: Fukuoka streetcar service begins. 1929: Flights commence along the Fukuoka-Osaka-Tokyo route. 1945: Fukuoka was firebombed on 19 June, with the attack destroying 21.5 percent of the city's urban area. 1947: First Fukuoka Marathon. 1951: F
Kenzō Tange was a Japanese architect, winner of the 1987 Pritzker Prize for architecture. He was one of the most significant architects of the 20th century, combining traditional Japanese styles with modernism, designed major buildings on five continents. Tange was an influential patron of the Metabolist movement, he said: "It was, I believe, around 1959 or at the beginning of the sixties that I began to think about what I was to call structuralism", a reference to the architectural movement known as Dutch Structuralism. Influenced from an early age by the Swiss modernist, Le Corbusier, Tange gained international recognition in 1949 when he won the competition for the design of Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park, he was a member of CIAM in the 1950s. He did not join the group of younger CIAM architects known as Team X, though his 1960 Tokyo Bay plan was influential for Team 10 in the 1960s, as well as the group that became Metabolism, his university studies on urbanism put him in an ideal position to handle redevelopment projects after the Second World War.
His ideas were explored in designs for Skopje. Tange's work influenced a generation of architects across the world. Born on 4 September 1913 in Osaka, Tange spent his early life in the Chinese cities of Hankow and Shanghai. In contrast to the green lawns and red bricks in their Shanghai abode, the Tange family took up residence in a thatched roof farmhouse in Imabari on the island of Shikoku. After finishing middle school, Tange moved to Hiroshima in 1930 to attend high school, it was here that he first encountered the works of Le Corbusier. His discovery of the drawings of the Palace of the Soviets in a foreign art journal convinced him to become an architect. Although he graduated from high school, Tange's poor results in mathematics and physics meant that he had to pass entrance exams to qualify for admission to the prestigious universities, he spent two years doing so and during that time, he read extensively about western philosophy. Tange enrolled in the film division at Nihon University's art department to dodge Japan's drafting of young men to its military and attended classes.
In 1935 Tange began the tertiary studies he desired at University of Tokyo's architecture department. He studied under Shozo Uchida. Although Tange was fascinated by the photographs of Katsura villa that sat on Kishida's desk, his work was inspired by Le Corbusier, his graduation project was a seventeen-hectare development set in Tokyo's Hibiya Park. After graduating from the university, Tange started to work as an architect at the office of Kunio Maekawa. During his employment, he travelled to Manchuria, participating in an architectural design competition for a bank, toured Japanese-occupied Jehol on his return; when the Second World War started, he left Maekawa to rejoin the University of Tokyo as a postgraduate student. He developed an interest in urban design, referencing only the resources available in the university library, he embarked on a study of Greek and Roman marketplaces. In 1942, Tange entered a competition for the design of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere Memorial Hall.
He was awarded first prize for a design. The design was not realised. In 1946, Tange opened Tange Laboratory. In 1963, he was promoted to professor of the Department of Urban Engineering, his students included Kisho Kurokawa, Arata Isozaki, Hajime Yatsuka and Fumihiko Maki. Tange's interest in urban studies put him in a good position to handle post war reconstruction. In the summer of 1946 he was invited by the War Damage Rehabilitation Board to put forward a proposal for certain war damaged cities, he submitted plans for Maebashi. His design for an airport in Kanon, Hiroshima was accepted and built, but a seaside park in Ujina was not; the Hiroshima authorities took advice about the city's reconstruction from foreign consultants, in 1947 Tam Deling, an American park planner, suggested they build a Peace Memorial and preserve buildings situated near ground zero, that point directly below the explosion of the atomic bomb. In 1949 the authorities enacted the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Reconstruction Act, which gave the city access to special grant aid, in August 1949, an international competition was announced for the design of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park.
Tange was awarded first prize for a design that proposed a museum whose axis runs through the park, intersecting Peace Boulevard and the atomic bomb dome. The building is raised on massive columns; the Centro Direzionale is a service center in Italy. The district is devoted to business; the project of the Centro Direzionale dates back to 1964. It was designed in 1982 by Tange; the layout includes 18 blocks of buildings, with high-rises up to 100 meters. There are office buildings as well as residential flats; the Center is meant to accommodate most, if not all, of the administrative offices of the city of Naples, such as the new Hall of Justice. It includes a pedestrian zone at ground level with shops and hotels. There is an underground parking facility with escalators running up into the middle of the large pedestrian concourse, an area adorned with fountains, greenery and a church; the Centro Direzionale is home to the tallest building in souther