Contulmo is a Chilean town and commune in Arauco Province, Biobío Region. Colonized by Germans of Berlin since 1884. Contulmo spans an area of 961.5 km2 It is bordered by the commune of Cañete to the north and northwest, Tirúa to the southwest, Purén to the east and Lumaco to the southeast. The commune includes part of the lakes Lleulleu; the town of Contulmo is surrounded by hills of the Nahuelbuta Range. According to the 2002 census of the National Statistics Institute, Contulmo has 5,838 inhabitants. Of these, 2,442 lived in urban areas and 3,396 in rural areas; the population fell by 13.3 % between the 2002 censuses. In architecture and urban design the town shows the German colonization; every year in April is celebrated the "Fest der Kolonisten" which means "feast of the colonists" in German, in December is the "Feast of the White Strawberry", among other festivities. As a commune, Contulmo is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde, directly elected every four years.
The 2008-2012 alcalde is Eduardo Aguayo Thiele. Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Contulmo is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Manuel Monsalve and Iván Norambuena as part of the 46th electoral district; the commune is represented in the Senate by Victor Pérez Varela and Mariano Ruiz -Esquide Jara as part of the 13th senatorial constituency. Municipality of Contulmo
Cañete is a city and commune in Chile, located in the Arauco Province of the Biobío Region. It is located 135 km to the south of Concepción. Cañete is known as a "Historic City"; the Battle of Tucapel and Pedro de Valdivia's death happened near the city's current location. Cañete was an important location in the Arauco War. Cañete was founded under the name of "Cañete de la Frontera" in 1558; the city was established by Governor García Hurtado de Mendoza and named in honor of his father, Andrés Hurtado de Mendoza, 3rd Marquis of Cañete. The marquis' title originated from the Castile town Cañete; the area was known as Tucapel. In October 1553, Pedro de Valdivia founded the Fort Tucapel, next to the present city of Cañete. Two months native Mapuches destroyed the fort. Valdivia returned on 25 December 1553, to rebuild the fort, but the Spanish army was once again defeated in the Battle of Tucapel, an early battle in the Arauco War. Valdivia died in the fight. In January 1558, Governor García Hurtado de Mendoza founded the city as Cañete de la Frontera three kilometers to the west of the present location of the city.
Hurtado de Mendoza named Alonso de Reinoso as corregidor of the Corregimiento of Cañete. The Mapuches, led by Caupolican, besieged the city, but they were defeated in the battle of the Fort of Cañete. Subsequent military defeats forced governor Francisco de Villagra to abandon the city in January 1563. Three years a new city was started under the orders of Rodrigo de Quiroga but it did not prosper either due to constant attacks by the Mapuches; the present city was founded on 12 November 1868 by colonel Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez as part of the pacification of Araucanía. On 12 November 2006 a major car accident occurred near Canete when a bus with 28 people fell into the River Tucapel and 19 passengers died. 17 of the victims were soldiers who were members of the band Reinforced Regiment No. 7 "Chacabuco" Concepción. The group was traveling to a celebration for the anniversary of the founding of Cañete; the press titled the accident "tragedy of Cañete," like the tragedy of Antuco. President Michelle Bachelet, the minister of National Defense Vivianne Blanlot and Commander-in-Chief Óscar Izurieta traveled to Concepción for the funerals.
The 2010 Chilean earthquake caused major damage to the city. The Kallvu Llanka hospital, being constructed, was impacted, delaying its opening from 8 October 2010 till 22 October 2013. According to the National Statistics Institute's 2002 census, Cañete spans over an area of 760.4 km2 and has 31,270 inhabitants. 63.4 % live in 36.6 % reside in rural areas. The population grew by 6.6 % between the 2002 censuses. Projections indicated. Cañete is the smallest administrative subdivision in Chile, it is a third-level administrative division administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde, directly elected by the public every four years and leading a six-member council. The municipality of Cañete is a member of the Association of Municipalities of the Arauco Province known as Arauco 7. Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Cañete is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Manuel Monsalve and Iván Norambuena as part of the 46th electoral district; the commune is represented in the Senate by Víctor Pérez Varela and Felipe Harboe Bascuñán as part of the 13th senatorial constituency.
Las Misiones Airport is located in northern Cañete. The city has several bus terminals downtown, including Pedro de Valdivia terminal, Jeldres terminal, Biobio-Jota Ewert terminal. Intercity buses run to Santiago, Concepción, Temuco. Cañete has 34 secondary schools, of which 24 are public. Top schools include Liceo Gabriela Mistral, Instituto San José and Liceo B-56. Higher education institutions include the Technological Institute of the Catholic University of the Most Holy Conception and the CFT Lota Arauco of the University of Concepción; the Intercultural Hospital Kallvu Llanka is located in northern Cañete. It offers traditional medicine while channeling and honoring mapuche culture through aspects such a circular waiting rooms similar to rukas; the hospital was opened in 2013. The Mapuche Museum of Cañete is located in the southern part of the city and has been open since 1968; every year, between January and February the Agricultural and Forestry Fair of Cañete takes place on the Anike farm two kilometers from the city.
The fair is considered the largest in the region and one of the most important agricultural events in Chile. It hosts more than one hundred exhibitors and features activities such as loose mare threshing and forestry machinery exhibitions and gastronomy contests, amongst other activities. Additionally, the fair incorporates the local culture by showcasing Mapuche and Chilean farm traditions. Since 2015, the fair has been held in conjunction with Cañete Week which features singers, music groups and comedians. Another event, the Farmer Fest of Cayucupil, takes place 14 km from the city center in a rural area. Cañete is continuing to grow its entertainment presence; the Lebu International Film Festival is headquartered in the city. Jorge Olguín's 2014 movie Whispers of the Forest was filmed around Cañete in Reussland Park and Morales Castle, 10 km north of the city. Juan Antonio Ríos – Chilean politic
Curanilahue is a Chilean commune and city in Arauco Province, Biobío Region. According to the 2002 census of the National Statistics Institute, Curanilahue spans an area of 994.3 km2 and has 31,943 inhabitants. Of these, 30,126 lived in urban areas and 1,817 in rural areas. Between the 1992 and 2002 censuses, the population fell by 5%; as a commune, Curanilahue is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde, directly elected every four years. The 2013-2016 alcalde is Luis Gengnagel. Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Curanilahue is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Manuel Monsalve and Iván Norambuena as part of the 46th electoral district; the commune is represented in the Senate by Victor Pérez Varela and Mariano Ruiz -Esquide Jara as part of the 13th senatorial constituency. Municipality of Curanilahue
Independent Democratic Union
The Independent Democratic Union is a Chilean right-wing, conservative political party, founded in 1983. Its founder was the lawyer and law professor Jaime Guzmán, a civilian who collaborated with Augusto Pinochet and a member of the Opus Dei. Guzmán was a senator from 1990 until his assassination on April 1, 1991, its ideological origins date back to Guzmán's Guildist Movement, born out of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile in 1966, espousing the independence and depoliticization of intermediate bodies of civil society. The UDI is today a conservative political party with strong links to the Opus Dei, that opposes women reproductive rightsUDI, together with National Renewal and other minor movements, formed a coalition of right-wing parties called Coalition for Change, the successor to Alliance for Chile and rose to power in March 2010, after victory in the presidential elections of January 2010, it was the largest political party in Congress between 2010 and 2014. In the Chilean parliamentary election, 2009, UDI held the largest majority in the election of deputies, electing 40 deputies with 23.04%, got 21.21% in the election of senators.
Its bench is the largest obtained by a single party in Chile since 1990. UDI has 39 deputies and 8 senators. In the Chilean municipal election, 2008, UDI got 347 councilmen by a vote of 15.11%, obtained 58 mayors by a vote of 20.05%. That year, it was the largest party by elected councilmen and the most voted for party in the election of councilmen. UDI is the second largest party by number of mayors in Chile, it was during the university strikes of the 1960s when Jaime Guzmán, President of the Law Students Union at the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile -who opposed the protests and strikes, led by the Christian-democrats and left-wing students- gathered a group of students and founded the Movimiento Gremial and ran for the University's Student Union election. The movement became one of the most important in the Catholic University, won the presidency of the University's Student Union. Jaime Guzmán criticized liberal democracy and sought inspiration in authoritarian corporatism, proposing the principle of subsidiarity and to invigorate intermediate social movements, by the way that these were independent to develop their own specific purposes.
Well into the government of Salvador Allende, some young members of the National Party and the Christian Democrats became part of the Gremialismo Movement of Jaime Guzmán. Guzmán supported a military coup against Allende's government, which happened shortly thereafter on September 11, 1973, he was a close advisor of General Augusto Pinochet. Guzmán was appointed a member of the Commission for the Study of the New Constitution, who worded the new constitution promulgated in 1980. After the 1982 economic crisis, which caused the temporary removal of the "Chicago Boys" from cabinet, Guzmán moved away from the government and decided to found the movement he desired, establishing it on September 24, 1983 under the name Independent Democratic Union Movement; the emerging movement, a supporter of the military government, had a strong empathy with the lower classes, in order to seize from the Marxist left its traditional domain. Amid the growing economic crisis of the time, UDI engaged in empowering leaders in the countryside and peripheral neighbourhoods that would help extend its influence in the middle and lower classes.
One of them was Simon Yévenes, UDI member assassinated by left-wing resistance fighters on April 2, 1986. On April 29, 1987, the Independent Democratic Union merged with other related movements such as National Union Movement, led by Andrés Allamand, National Labour Front, led by Sergio Onofre Jarpa, plus some former members and supporters of the National Party and the Christian Democrats, to form the National Renewal party, who managed to unite all the right movements in the country. However, UDI members maintained their own identity in the new party, which caused a crisis in 1988, culminating in the resignation of all former UDI members to National Renewal. Allamand stayed in charge of National Renewal, while Jaime Guzman managed to register a new political party: Independent Democratic Union in 1989. UDI supported Pinochet's remaining in power in the Chilean national plebiscite, 1988. After the "Yes" option was defeated and presidential elections were announced, the UDI joined National Renewal and formed the "Democracy and Progress" alliance.
Hernan Büchi, the former Minister of Finances under Pinochet, ran for president for this alliance. The alliance ran a common Parliament list; the UDI's option lost the 1989 presidential election, this time against the center-left Concertación's leader, the Christian Democrat Patricio Aylwin. In the 1989 parliamentary elections, the Independent Democratic Union obtained a 9.82% of votes in deputies and 5.11% in the Senate. Jaime Guzmán won a seat as Senator for Western Santiago constituency. Although Guzman took third place with only 17% of the vote, behind Christian Democrat Andrés Zaldívar and Party for Democracy leader Ricardo Lagos, the two main leaders of the Coalition of Parties for Democracy, the binomial system allowed Zaldívar's and his election and deferred Ricardo Lagos who got 30%. By 1990, Guzman was positioned as the leader of the opposition and was one of the harshest critics o
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
A natural region is a basic geographic unit. It is a region, distinguished by its common natural features of geography and climate. From the ecological point of view, the occurring flora and fauna of the region are to be influenced by its geographical and geological factors, such as soil and water availability, in a significant manner, thus most natural regions are homogeneous ecosystems. Human impact can be an important factor in the destiny of a particular natural region; the concept "natural region" may refer to a small, well defined area, or to a large basic geographical unit, like the vast boreal forest region. The term may be used generically, like in alpine tundra, or to refer to a particular place; the term is useful where there is no corresponding or coterminous official region. The Fens of eastern England, the Thai highlands, the Pays de Bray in Normandy, are examples of this. Others might include regions with particular geological characteristics, like badlands, such as the Bardenas Reales, an upland massif of acidic rock, or The Burren, in Ireland.
Ecoregion Natural regions of Chile Natural regions of Colombia Natural regions of Germany Natural regions of Venezuela Physiographic regions of the world Natural regions of Texas Alberta's Natural Regions Natural regions in Valencia
A municipal council is the legislative body of a municipality such as a city council or a town council. In spite of enormous differences in populations, each of the communes of the French Republic possesses a mayor and a municipal council, which manage the commune from the mairie, with the same powers no matter the size of the commune and council; the one exception is the city of Paris, where the city police is in the hands of the central state, not in the hands of the mayor of Paris. This uniformity of status is a clear legacy of the French Revolution, which wanted to do away with the local idiosyncrasies and tremendous differences of status that existed in the kingdom of France; the size of a commune still matters, however, in two domains: French law determines the size of the municipal council according to the population of the commune. Lists of communes of France Commune List of fifteen largest French metropolitan areas by population Established as the Sanitary Board in 1883, the Municipal Council in Hong Kong Island and Kowloon provided municipal services to the covered regions in the British Hong Kong.
Partial elections were allowed in 1887, though enabling selected persons to vote for members of the Board. The Board was reconstituted in 1935 and hence renamed as Urban Council in the following year after the government had passed the Urban Council Ordinance. Democratisation had been implemented, allowing universal suffrage to happen throughout its development. Two years after the Transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong, the Council was disbanded in 1999 by the Chief Executive of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. All members of the council were elected through universal suffrage by the time of the dissolution; the counterpart of the Municipal Council serving the New Territories was the Regional Council established as the Provisional Regional Council in 1986. The functional select committees, district committees, sub-committees constituted the entire Regional Council. All members were elected from the constituencies and district boards. Both of the Municipal Councils in Hong Kong are now defunct.
See Nagar Palika for municipalities of India. The Municipal Council in Moldova is the governing body in five municipalities: Chișinău, Bălți, Tiraspol and Bendery; the Municipal Council serves as a consultative body with some powers of general policy determination. It is composed of a determined number of counsellors elected every four years, representing political parties and independent counsellors. Once elected, counsellors may form fractions inside of the Municipal Council. Last regional elections of local public administration held in Bălți in June 2007, brought to the power the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova, which holds 21 mandates, 11 mandates are held by representatives of other parties, 3 mandates by independents. There are two fractions in the Municipal Council: "Meleag" fraction; the Mayor of the municipality is elected for four years. In Bălți, Vasile Panciuc is the incumbent from 2001 and was re-elected twice: in 2003 during the anticipated elections, in 2007. In Chișinău, the last mayor elections had to be repeated three times, because of the low rate of participation.
As a result, Dorin Chirtoacă, won the last mayor elections in Chișinău. In the Netherlands the municipal council is the elected assembly of the municipality, it consists of between 45 members who are elected by the citizens once every four years. The council's main tasks are setting the city's policies and overseeing the execution of those policies by the municipality's executive board; the municipal council municipal board, is the highest governing body of the municipality in Norway. The municipal council sets the scope of municipal activity, takes major decisions, delegates responsibility; the council is led by a mayor s divided into an executive council and a number of committees, each responsible for a subsection of tasks. It is not uncommon for some members of the council to sit in the county councils too, but rare that they hold legislative or Government office, without leave of absence; the municipal council dates back to 1837 with the creation of the Formannskabsdistrikt. In cities the council is called a city council.
In the Republic of China, a municipal council represents a special municipality. Members of the councils are elected through municipal elections held every 4-5 years. Councils for the special municipalities in Taiwan are Taipei City Council, New Taipei City Council, Taichung City Council, Tainan City Council, Kaohsiung City Council and Taoyuan City Council. City council Town council