Extermination through labour
Extermination through labour was the practice of concentration camps in Nazi Germany to kill prisoners by means of forced labour. The term "extermination through labour" was not used by the Nazi SS, but the phrase was notably used in late 1942 in negotiations between Albert Bormann, Joseph Goebbels, Otto Georg Thierack, Heinrich Himmler, relating to the transfer of prisoners to concentration camps. Thierack and Goebbels used the term; the phrase was used again during the post-war Nuremberg trials. In the 1980s and 1990s, historians began debating the appropriate use of the term. Falk Pingel believed the phrase should not be applied to all Nazi prisoners, while Hermann Kaienburg and Miroslav Kárný believed "extermination through labour" was a consistent goal of the SS. More Jens-Christian Wagner has argued that not all Nazi prisoners were targeted with annihilation; the Nazis persecuted many individuals because of their race, political affiliation, religion, or sexual orientation. Groups marginalized by the majority population in Germany included welfare-dependent families with many children, alleged vagrants and transients, as well as members of perceived problem groups, such as alcoholics and prostitutes.
While these people were considered "German-blooded", they were categorized as "social misfits" as well as superfluous "ballast-lives". They were recorded in lists by civil and police authorities and subjected to myriad state restrictions and repressive actions, which included forced sterilization and imprisonment in concentration camps. Anyone who opposed the Nazi regime was detained in prison camps. Many of them did not survive the ordeal. While others could redeem themselves in the eyes of the Nazis, there was no room in Hitler's world-view for Jews, although Germany encouraged and supported emigration of Jews to Palestine and elsewhere from 1933 until 1941 with arrangements such as the Haavara Agreement, or the Madagascar Plan. During the war in 1942, the Nazi leadership gathered to discuss what had come to be called "the final solution to the Jewish question" at a conference in Wannsee, Germany; the transcript of this gathering gives historians insight into the thinking of the Nazi leadership as they devised the details of the Jews' future destruction, including using extermination through labour as one component of their so-called "Final Solution".
Under proper leadership, the Jews shall now in the course of the Final Solution be suitably brought to their work assignments in the East. Able-bodied Jews are to be led to these areas to build roads in large work columns separated by sex, during which a large part will undoubtedly drop out through a process of natural reduction; as it will undoubtedly represent the most robust portion, the possible final remainder will have to be handled appropriately, as it would constitute a group of naturally-selected individuals, would form the seed of a new Jewish resistance. — Wannsee Protocol, 1942. In Nazi camps, "extermination through labour" was principally carried out through a slave-based labour organization, why, in contrast with the forced labour of foreign work forces, a term from the Nuremberg Trials is used for "slave work" and "slave workers". Working conditions were characterized by: no remuneration of any kind. Torture and physical abuse were used. Torstehen forced victims to stand outside naked with arms raised, like a gate hanging on its hinges.
When they collapsed or passed out, they would be beaten. Pfahlhängen involved tying the inmate's hands behind their back and hanging them by their hands from a tall stake; this would dislocate and disjoint the arms, the pressure would be fatal within hours. Imprisonment in concentration camps aimed not to break, but to destroy inmates; the admission and registration of the new prisoners, the forced labour, the prisoner housing, the roll calls — all aspects of camp life — were accompanied by humiliation and harassment. Admission and interrogation of the detainees was accompanied by scornful remarks from SS officials; the prisoners were beaten during roll call. Forced labour consisted of pointless tasks and heavy labour, which aimed to wear down the prisoners. Many of the concentration camps channeled forced labour to benefit the German war machine. In these cases the SS saw excessive working hours as a means of maximizing output. Oswald Pohl, the leader of the SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt, who oversaw the employment of forced labour at the concentration camps, ordered on April 30, 1942: The camp commander alone is responsible for the use of man power.
This work must be exhausting in the true sense of the word. There are no limits to working hours. Time consuming walks and mid-day breaks only for the purpose of eating are prohibited, he must connect clear technical knowledge in military and economic matters with sound and wise leadership of groups of people, which he should bring together to achieve a high performance potential. Up
Gross-Rosen concentration camp
Gross-Rosen concentration camp was a German network of Nazi concentration camps built and operated during World War II. The main camp was located in the German village of Gross-Rosen, now the modern-day Rogoźnica in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland. At its peak activity in 1944, the Gross-Rosen complex had up to 100 subcamps located in eastern Germany, on the territory of occupied Poland; the population of all Gross-Rosen camps at that time accounted for 11% of the total number of inmates incarcerated in the Nazi concentration camp system. KZ Gross-Rosen was set up in the summer of 1940 as a satellite camp of the Sachsenhausen concentration camp from Oranienburg; the slave labour was carried out in a huge stone quarry owned by the SS-Deutsche Erd- und Steinwerke GmbH. In the fall of 1940 the use of labour in Upper Silesia was taken over by the new Organization Schmelt formed on the orders of Heinrich Himmler, it was named after its leader SS-Oberführer Albrecht Schmelt. The company was put in charge of employment from the camps with Jews intended to work for food only.
The Gross-Rosen location close to occupied Poland was of considerable advantage. Prisoners were put to work in the construction of a system of subcamps for expelees from the annexed territories. Gross Rosen became an independent camp on 1 May 1941; as the complex grew, the majority of inmates were put to work in the new Nazi enterprises attached to these subcamps. In October 1941 the SS transferred about 3,000 Soviet POWs to Gross-Rosen for execution by shooting. Gross-Rosen was known for its brutal treatment of the so-called Nacht und Nebel prisoners vanishing without a trace from targeted communities. Most died in the granite quarry; the brutal treatment of the political and Jewish prisoners was not only in the hands of guards and German criminal prisoners brought in by the SS, but to a lesser extent fuelled by the German administration of the stone quarry responsible for starvation rations and denial of medical help. In 1942, for political prisoners, the average survival time-span was less than two months.
Due to a change of policy in August 1942, prisoners were to survive longer because they were needed as slave workers in German war industries. Among the companies that benefited from the slave labour of the concentration camp inmates were German electronics manufacturers such as Blaupunkt, Siemens, as well as Krupp, IG Farben, Daimler-Benz, among others; some prisoners who were not able to work but not yet dying were sent to the Dachau concentration camp in so-called invalid transports. The largest population of inmates, were Jews from the Dachau and Sachsenhausen camps, from Buchenwald. During the camp's existence, the Jewish inmate population came from Poland and Hungary. At its peak activity in 1944, the Gross-Rosen complex had up to 100 subcamps, located in eastern Germany and occupied Poland. In its final stage, the population of the Gross-Rosen camps accounted for 11% of the total inmates in Nazi concentration camps at that time. A total of 125,000 inmates of various nationalities passed through the complex during its existence, of whom an estimated 40,000 died on site, on death marches and in evacuation transports.
The camp was liberated on 14 February 1945 by the Red Army. A total of over 500 female camp guards were served in the Gross-Rosen complex. Female SS staffed the women's subcamps of Brünnlitz, Gruenberg, Gruschwitz Neusalz, Kratzau II, Oberaltstadt and Schlesiersee Schanzenbau; the Gabersdorf labour camp had been part of a network of forced labor camps for Jewish prisoners that had operated under Organization Schmelt since 1941. The spinning mill where the female Jewish prisoners worked had been "Aryanized" in 1939 by a Vienna-based company called Vereinigte Textilwerke K. H. Barthel & Co; the prisoners worked in factories operated by the companies Aloys Haase and J. A. Kluge und Etrich. By 18 March 1944 Gabersdorf had become a subcamp of Gross-Rosen. One subcamp of Gross-Rosen was the Brünnlitz labor camp, situated in the Czechoslovakian town of Brněnec, where Jews rescued by Oskar Schindler were interned; the Brieg subcamp, located near the village of Pampitz, had been the location of a Jewish forced labor camp until August 1944, when the Jewish prisoners were replaced by the first transport of prisoners from the Gross-Rosen main camp.
The camp was staffed by soldiers from the Luftwaffe and a few SS members. Most of the prisoners were Polish, with smaller numbers of Czech prisoners. Most of the Poles had been evacuated from the Pawiak prison in Warsaw. Brieg's camp kitchen was run by Czech prisoners; the three daily meals included 1 pint of mehlzupa, 150 grams of bread, 1 quart of soup made with rutabaga, cabbage, kale or sometimes nettles, 1 pint of black "coffee" and a spoonful of molasses. Sometimes "hard workers" called zulaga would be rewarded with a piece of blood sausage or raw horsemeat sausage and margarine. Prisoners received 1 cup of Knorr soup per week. During the Gross-Rosen initial period of operation as a formal subcamp of Sachsenhausen, the following two SS Lagerführer officers served as the camp commandants, the SS-Untersturmführer Anton Thumann, SS-Untersturmführer Georg Gussregen. From May 1941 until liberation, the following officials served as commandants of a independent concentr
Dachau concentration camp
Dachau concentration camp was the first of the Nazi concentration camps opened in 1933, intended to hold political prisoners. It is located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions factory northeast of the medieval town of Dachau, about 16 km northwest of Munich in the state of Bavaria, in southern Germany. Opened by Heinrich Himmler, its purpose was enlarged to include forced labor, the imprisonment of Jews and Austrian criminals, foreign nationals from countries that Germany occupied or invaded; the Dachau camp system grew to include nearly 100 sub-camps, which were work camps or Arbeitskommandos, were located throughout southern Germany and Austria. The camps were liberated by U. S. forces on 29 April 1945. Prisoners lived in constant fear of brutal treatment and terror detention including standing cells, the so-called tree or pole hanging, standing at attention for long periods. There were 32,000 documented deaths at the camp, thousands that are undocumented. 10,000 of the 30,000 prisoners were sick at the time of liberation.
In the postwar years the Dachau facility served to hold SS soldiers awaiting trial. After 1948, it held ethnic Germans, expelled from eastern Europe and were awaiting resettlement, was used for a time as a United States military base during the occupation, it was closed in 1960. There are several religious memorials within the Memorial Site, open to the public. Dachau served as a model for the other German concentration camps that followed; every community in Germany had members taken away to these camps. Newspapers continually reported "the removal of the enemies of the Reich to concentration camps." As early as 1935, a jingle went around: "Lieber Herr Gott, mach mich stumm, Das ich nicht nach Dachau komm'". The camp's layout and building plans were developed by Commandant Theodor Eicke and were applied to all camps, he had a separate secure camp near the command center, which consisted of living quarters and army camps. Eicke became the chief inspector for all concentration camps, responsible for organizing others according to his model.
The Dachau complex included the prisoners' camp, which occupied 5 acres, the much larger area of SS training school including barracks, plus other facilities of around 20 acres. The entrance gate used by prisoners carries the phrase "Arbeit macht frei"; this phrase was used in Theresienstadt, near Prague, Auschwitz I. Dachau was the concentration camp, in operation the longest from March 1933 to April 1945, nearly all twelve years of the Nazi regime. Dachau's close proximity to Munich, where Hitler came to power and where the Nazi Party had its official headquarters, made Dachau a convenient location. From 1933 to 1938, the prisoners were German nationals detained for political reasons. After the Reichspogromnacht or Kristallnacht, 30,000 male Jewish citizens were deported to concentration camps. More than 10,000 of them were interned in Dachau alone; as the German military occupied other European states, citizens from across Europe were sent to concentration camps. Subsequently, the camp was used for prisoners of all sorts, from every nation occupied by the forces of the Third Reich.:137In the postwar years, the camp continued in use.
From 1945 through 1948, the camp was used by the Allies as a prison for SS officers awaiting trial. After 1948, when hundreds of thousands of ethnic Germans were expelled from eastern Europe, it held Germans from Czechoslovakia until they could be resettled, it served as a military base for the United States, which maintained forces in the country. It was closed in 1960. At the insistence of survivors, various memorials have been constructed and installed here.:138 Demographic statistics vary but they are in the same general range. History will never know how many people were interned or died there, due to periods of disruption. One source gives a general estimate of over 200,000 prisoners from more than 30 countries for the Third Reich's years, of whom two-thirds were political prisoners, including many Catholic priests, nearly one-third were Jews. 25,613 prisoners are believed to have died in the camp and another 10,000 in its subcamps from disease and suicide. In late 1944, a typhus epidemic occurred in the camp caused by poor sanitation and overcrowding, which caused more than 15,000 deaths.
It was followed by an evacuation. Toward the end of the war, death marches to and from the camp caused the deaths of numerous unrecorded prisoners. After liberation, prisoners weakened beyond recovery by the starvation conditions continued to die. Two thousand cases of "the dread black typhus" had been identified by 3 May, the U. S. Seventh Army was "working day and night to alleviate the appalling conditions at the camp". Prisoners with typhus, a louse-borne disease with an incubation period from 12 to 18 days, were treated by the 116th Evacuation Hospital, while the 127th would be the general hospital for the other illnesses. There were 227 documented deaths among the 2,252 patients cared for by the 127th. Over the 12 years of use as a concentration camp, the Dachau administration recorded the intake of 206,206 prisoners and deaths of 31,951. Crematoria were constructed to dispose of the deceased. Visitors may now walk through the buildings and view the ovens used to cremate bodies, which hid the evidence of many deaths.
It is claimed that in 1
Ytre Arna is a settlement in the borough of Arna in Bergen, Norway. Ytre Arna is principally associated with A/S Arne Fabrikker, the country's first mechanised cotton mill. Ytre Arna Church is located in the village. On January 1, 2008, the Ytre Arna urban settlement, as defined by Statistics Norway, had a population of 2513; the urban settlement covered a land area of 1.52 square kilometres, the population density was 1,653 inhabitants per square kilometre
Nazi concentration camps
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War. The first Nazi camps were erected in Germany in March 1933 after Hitler became Chancellor and his Nazi Party was given control of the police by Reich Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick and Prussian Acting Interior Minister Hermann Göring. Used to hold and torture political opponents and union organizers, the camps held around 45,000 prisoners. In 1933–1939, before the onset of war, most prisoners consisted of German Communists, Social Democrats, Jehovah's Witnesses and persons accused of'asocial' or socially'deviant' behavior by the Germans. Heinrich Himmler's Schutzstaffel took full control of the police and the concentration camps throughout Germany in 1934–35. Himmler expanded the role of the camps to hold so-called "racially undesirable elements", such as Jews, Gypsies/Romanis/Sintis, Poles, disabled people, criminals; the number of people in the camps, which had fallen to 7,500, grew again to 21,000 by the start of World War II and peaked at 715,000 in January 1945.
Beginning in 1934 the concentration camps were administered by the Concentration Camps Inspectorate, which in 1942 was merged into SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt, they were guarded by SS-Totenkopfverbände. Holocaust scholars draw a distinction between concentration camps and extermination camps, which were established by Nazi Germany for the industrial-scale mass murder of Jews in the ghettos by way of gas chambers. Use of the word "concentration" came from the idea of confining people in one place because they belong to a group, considered undesirable in some way; the term itself originated in 1897 when the "reconcentration camps" were set up in Cuba by General Valeriano Weyler. In the past, the U. S. government had used concentration camps against Native Americans and the British had used them during the Second Boer War. Between 1904 and 1908, the Schutztruppe of the Imperial German Army operated concentration camps in German South-West Africa as part of its genocide of the Herero and Namaqua peoples.
The Shark Island Concentration Camp in Lüderitz was the largest camp and the one with the harshest conditions. When the Nazis came to power in Germany, they moved to suppress all real and potential opposition; the general public was intimidated by the arbitrary psychological terror, used by the special courts. During the first years of their existence when these courts "had a strong deterrent effect" against any form of political protest; the first camp in Germany, was founded in March 1933. The press announcement said that "the first concentration camp is to be opened in Dachau with an accommodation for 5,000 people. All Communists and – where necessary – Reichsbanner and Social Democratic functionaries who endanger state security are to be concentrated there, as in the long run it is not possible to keep individual functionaries in the state prisons without overburdening these prisons." Dachau was the first regular concentration camp established by the German coalition government of National Socialist Workers' Party and the Nationalist People's Party.
Heinrich Himmler Chief of Police of Munich described the camp as "the first concentration camp for political prisoners." On 26 June 1933, Himmler appointed Theodor Eicke commandant of Dachau, who in 1934 was appointed the first Inspector of Concentration Camps. In addition, the remaining SA-run camps were taken over by the SS. Dachau served as a model for the other Nazi concentration camps; every community in Germany had members who were taken there. The newspapers continuously reported on "the removal of the enemies of the Reich to concentration camps" making the general population more aware of their presence. There were jingles warning as early as 1935: "Dear God, make me dumb, that I may not come to Dachau."Between 1933 and the fall of Nazi Germany in 1945, more than 3.5 million Germans were forced to spend time in concentration camps and prisons for political reasons, 77,000 Germans were executed for one or another form of resistance by Special Courts, courts-martial, the civil justice system.
Many of these Germans had served in government, the military, or in civil positions, which enabled them to engage in subversion and conspiracy against the Nazis. As a result of the Holocaust, the term "concentration camp" carries many of the connotations of "extermination camp" and is sometimes used synonymously; because of these ominous connotations, the term "concentration camp" itself a euphemism, has been replaced by newer terms such as internment camp, resettlement camp, detention facility, etc. regardless of the actual circumstances of the camp, which can vary a great deal. After September 1939, with the beginning of the Second World War, concentration camps became places where millions of ordinary people were enslaved as part of the war effort starved and killed. During the war, new Nazi concentration camps for "undesirables" spread throughout the continent. According to statistics by the German Ministry of Justice, about 1,200 camps and subcamps were run in countries occupied by Nazi Germany, while the Jewish Virtual Library estimates that the number of Nazi camps was closer to 15,000 in all of occupied Europe and that many of these camps were run for a limited amount of time before they were closed.
Camps were being created near the centers of dense populations focusing on areas with large communities of Jews, Polish intelligentsia, Communists or Romani. Since millio
Arbeit macht frei (album)
Arbeit macht frei is the debut album of the Jazz fusion band Area. It features Patrick Djivas on bass and Eddie Busnello on saxophone, who parted after the release of the album. According to the booklet the lyrics were written by Frankestein, the music was written by Demetrio Stratos, Giulio Capiozzo and Patrick Djivas except "Consapevolezza". All tracks were registered on Italian SIAE to Terzo Fariselli, due to the fact that the musicians were not members of SIAE. "Luglio, Settembre" became Area's first hit. Most of the 7" censored the word "nero", a reference to Black September), it was released as a juke box item only, the b-side was the song "Miña" by Italian prog band Aktuala. On the posthumous live release "Concerto Teatro Uomo", Demetrio Stratos says that "L'abbattimento dello Zeppelin" was composed after a pub at which they were playing asked them to perform "Whole Lotta Love", they didn't know the song and played that one instead, they got fired. Guitarist Paolo Tofani can be heard quoting the main riff during his solo.
"L'abbattimento dello Zeppelin" was released as a 7", backed by the title track of the album, but failed to enter the charts. Side one"Luglio, Settembre" – 4:27 "Arbeit macht frei" – 7:56 "Consapevolezza" – 6:06Side two"Le labbra del tempo" – 6:00 "240 chilometri da Smirne" – 5:10 "L'Abbattimento dello Zeppelin" – 6:45 Eddie Busnello - saxophone Giulio Capiozzo - drums, percussion Patrick Djivas - bass, double bass Patrizio Fariselli - electric and acoustic pianos Demetrio Stratos - vocals, steel drums Giampaolo Tofani - guitar, VCS3 Ria Gaetano - engineering
Bergen Bjørgvin, is a city and municipality in Hordaland on the west coast of Norway. At the end of the first quarter of 2018, the municipality's population was 280,216, the Bergen metropolitan region has about 420,000 inhabitants. Bergen is the second-largest city in Norway; the municipality is on the peninsula of Bergenshalvøyen. The city centre and northern neighbourhoods are on Byfjorden,'the city fjord', the city is surrounded by mountains. Many of the extra-municipal suburbs are on islands. Bergen is the administrative centre of Hordaland, consists of eight boroughs: Arna, Fana, Laksevåg, Ytrebygda, Årstad, Åsane. Trading in Bergen may have started as early as the 1020s. According to tradition, the city was founded in 1070 by king Olav Kyrre and was named Bjørgvin,'the green meadow among the mountains', it served as Norway's capital in the 13th century, from the end of the 13th century became a bureau city of the Hanseatic League. Until 1789, Bergen enjoyed exclusive rights to mediate trade between Northern Norway and abroad and it was the largest city in Norway until the 1830s when it was overtaken by the capital, Christiania.
What remains of the quays, Bryggen, is a World Heritage Site. The city was hit by numerous fires over the years; the Bergen School of Meteorology was developed at the Geophysical Institute starting in 1917, the Norwegian School of Economics was founded in 1936, the University of Bergen in 1946. From 1831 to 1972, Bergen was its own county. In 1972 the municipality absorbed four surrounding municipalities and became a part of Hordaland county; the city is an international center for aquaculture, the offshore petroleum industry and subsea technology, a national centre for higher education, media and finance. Bergen Port is Norway's busiest in terms of both freight and passengers, with over 300 cruise ship calls a year bringing nearly a half a million passengers to Bergen, a number that has doubled in 10 years. Half of the passengers are German or British; the city's main football team is SK Brann and a unique tradition of the city is the buekorps. Natives speak a distinct dialect, known as'Bergensk'.
The city features Bergen Airport and Bergen Light Rail, is the terminus of the Bergen Line. Four large bridges connect Bergen to its suburban municipalities. Bergen has a mild winter climate, though with a lot of precipitation. From December to March, Bergen can be, in rare cases, up to 30°C warmer than Oslo though both cities are at about 60° North; the Gulf Stream keeps the sea warm, considering the latitude, the mountains protect the city from cold winds from the north, north-east and east. The city of Bergen was traditionally thought to have been founded by king Olav Kyrre, son of Harald Hardråde in 1070 AD, four years after the Viking Age in England ended with the Battle of Stamford Bridge. Modern research has, discovered that a trading settlement had been established in the 1020s or 1030s. Bergen assumed the function of capital of Norway in the early 13th century, as the first city where a rudimentary central administration was established; the city's cathedral was the site of the first royal coronation in Norway in the 1150s, continued to host royal coronations throughout the 13th century.
Bergenhus guards the entrance to the harbour in Bergen. The functions of the capital city were lost to Oslo during the reign of King Haakon V. In the middle of the 14th century, North German merchants, present in substantial numbers since the 13th century, founded one of the four Kontore of the Hanseatic League at Bryggen in Bergen; the principal export traded from Bergen was dried cod from the northern Norwegian coast, which started around 1100. The city was granted a monopoly for trade from the north of Norway by King Håkon Håkonsson. Stockfish was the main reason. By the late 14th century, Bergen had established itself as the centre of the trade in Norway; the Hanseatic merchants lived in their own separate quarter of the town, where Middle Low German was used, enjoying exclusive rights to trade with the northern fishermen who each summer sailed to Bergen. Today, Bryggen, is on UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites. In 1349, the Black Death was brought to Norway by an English ship arriving in Bergen.
Outbreaks occurred in 1618, 1629 and 1637, on each occasion taking about 3,000 lives. In the 15th century, the city was attacked several times by the Victual Brothers, in 1429 they succeeded in burning the royal castle and much of the city. In 1665, the city's harbour was the site of the Battle of Vågen, when an English naval flotilla attacked a Dutch merchant and treasure fleet supported by the city's garrison. Accidental fires sometimes got out of control, one in 1702 reduced most of the town to ashes. Throughout the 15th and 16th centuries, Bergen remained one of the largest cities in Scandinavia, it was Norway's biggest city until the 1830s, when the capital city of Oslo became the largest. From around 1600, the Hanseatic dominance of the city's trade declined in favour of Norwegian merchants, in the 1750s, the Hanseatic Kontor closed. Bergen retained its monopoly of trade with northern Norway until 1789; the Bergen stock exchange, the Bergen børs, was established in 1813. Bergen was separated from Hordaland as a county of its own in 1831.
It was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdis