IMAX is a system of high-resolution cameras, film formats, film projectors and theaters known for having large screens with a tall aspect ratio and steep stadium seating. Graeme Ferguson, Roman Kroitor, Robert Kerr, William C. Shaw were the co-founders of what would be named the IMAX Corporation, they developed the first IMAX cinema projection standards in the late 1960s and early 1970s in Canada. Unlike conventional projectors, the film runs horizontally so that the image width is greater than the width of the film; when IMAX was introduced, it was a radical change in the movie-going experience. Viewers were treated to the scene of a curved giant screen more than seven stories tall and steep stadium seating that made for a visually immersive experience, along with a sound system, far superior to the audio at typical theaters in the years prior to the advent of THX; some IMAX theaters have a dome screen geometry which can give the viewer an more immersive feel. Over the decades since its introduction, IMAX evolved to include "3D" stereoscopic films, introduced in January 1998, began to proliferate with a transition away from analog film into the digital era.
Beginning in May of 1991, a visceral dimension of the movie experience was added by having the audience's seats mounted on a full-motion platform as an amusement park ride in IMAX ride film theaters. Switching to digital projection, introduced in July 2008, came at a steep cost in image quality, with 2K projectors having an order of magnitude less resolution. Maintaining the same 7-story giant screen size would only make this loss more noticeable, so many new theaters were being built with smaller screen sizes, yet being marketed with the same brand name of "IMAX"; these newer theaters with the much lower resolution and much smaller screens were soon being referred to by the derogatory name "LieMAX" because the company did not make this major distinction clear to the public, going so far as to build the smallest "IMAX" screen having 10 times less area than the largest while persisting with the exact same brand name. Since 2002, some feature films have been converted into IMAX format for displaying in IMAX theatres, some have been shot in IMAX.
By late 2017, 1,302 IMAX theatre systems were installed in 1,203 commercial multiplexes, 13 commercial destinations, 86 institutional settings in 75 countries, with less than a quarter of these having the capability to show 70mm film at the resolution of the large format as conceived. The IMAX film standard uses 70 mm film run through the projector horizontally; this technique produces an area, nine times larger than the 35 mm format, three times larger than 70 mm film, run conventionally through the projector in a vertical orientation. The desire to increase the visual impact of film has a long history. In 1929, Fox introduced Fox Grandeur, the first 70 mm film format, but it fell from use. In the 1950s, the potential of 35 mm film to provide wider projected images was explored in the processes of CinemaScope and VistaVision, following multi-projector systems such as Cinerama. While impressive, Cinerama was difficult to install. During Expo 67 in Montreal, the National Film Board of Canada's In the Labyrinth and Ferguson's Man and the Polar Regions both used multi-projector, multi-screen systems.
Each encountered technical difficulties that led them to found a company called "Multiscreen", with a goal of developing a simpler approach. The single-projector/single-camera system they settled upon was designed and built by Shaw based upon a novel "Rolling Loop" film-transport technology purchased from Peter Ronald Wright Jones, a machine shop worker from Brisbane, Australia. Film projectors do not continuously flow the film in front of the bulb, but instead "stutter" the film travel so that each frame can be illuminated in a momentarily paused flicker; this requires a mechanical apparatus to stagger the travel of the film strip. The older technology of running 70 mm film vertically through the projector used only five sprocket perforations on the sides of each frame, however the IMAX method used fifteen perforations per frame; the previous mechanism was inadequate to handle this mechanical staggering, three time larger, so Jones's invention was necessary for the novel IMAX projector method with its horizontal film feed.
As it became clear that a single, large-screen image had more impact than multiple smaller ones and was a more viable product direction, Multiscreen changed its name to IMAX. Cofounder Graeme Ferguson explained how the name IMAX originated: "... the incorporation date September, 1967.... Came a year or two later. We first called the company Multiscreen Corporation because that, in fact, was what people knew us as.... After about a year, our attorney informed us that we could never trademark Multivision, it was too generic. It was a descriptive word; the words that you can copyright are words like Xerox or Coca-Cola. If the name is descriptive, you can't trademark it. So we were sitting at lunch one day in a Hungarian restaurant in Montreal and we worked out a name on a place mat on which we wrote all the possible names we could think of. We kept working with the idea of maximum image. We turned it around and came up with IMAX." The name change happened more than two years because a key patent filed on January 16, 1970, was assigned under the original name Multiscreen Corporation, Limited.
IMAX Chief Administration O
Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet was a Cornish chemist and inventor, best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, barium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine. He studied the forces involved in these separations, inventing the new field of electrochemistry. In 1799 Davy experimented with nitrous oxide and was astonished at how it made him laugh, so he nicknamed it "laughing gas", wrote about its potential anaesthetic properties in relieving pain during surgery. Berzelius called Davy's 1806 Bakerian Lecture On Some Chemical Agencies of Electricity "one of the best memoirs which has enriched the theory of chemistry." Davy was a baronet, President of the Royal Society, Member of the Royal Irish Academy, Fellow of the Geological Society. He invented the Davy lamp and a early form of arc lamp, he joked. Davy was born in Penzance, Cornwall in England on 17 December, 1778.
Davy's brother, writes that the society of their hometown was characterised by "an unbounded credulity respecting the supernatural and monstrous... Amongst the middle and higher classes, there was little taste for literature, still less for science... Hunting, wrestling, cockfighting ending in drunkenness, were what they most delighted in". At the age of six, Davy was sent to the grammar school at Penzance. Three years his family moved to Varfell, near Ludgvan, subsequently, in term-time Davy boarded with John Tonkin, his godfather and his guardian. On leaving Penzance grammar school in 1793, Tonkin paid for Davy to attend Truro Grammar School in 1793 to finish his education under the Rev Dr Cardew, who, in a letter to Davies Gilbert, said dryly: "I could not discern the faculties by which he was afterwards so much distinguished." Yet, Davy entertained his school friends with writing poetry and telling stories from One Thousand and One Nights. Reflecting on his school days, in a letter to his mother, Davy wrote: "Learning is a true pleasure.
Davy said: "I consider it fortunate I was left much to myself as a child, put upon no particular plan of study... What I am I made myself." Davy's brother praises his "native vigour": "there belonged, however, to his mind, it cannot be doubted, the genuine quality of genius, or of that power of intellect which exalts its possessor above the crowd."After Davy's father died in 1794, Tonkin apprenticed him to John Bingham Borlase, a surgeon with a practice in Penzance. Davy's indenture is dated 10 February 1795. In the apothecary's dispensary, Davy became a chemist, conducted his earliest chemical experiments in a garret in Tonkin's house. Davy's friends said: "This boy Humphry is incorrigible, he will blow us all into the air." His elder sister complained of the ravages made on her dresses by corrosive substances. Davy was taught French by a refugee priest, in 1797 read Lavoisier's Traité élémentaire de chimie: much of his future work can be seen as reacting against Lavoisier's work and the dominance of French chemists.
As a poet, over one hundred and sixty manuscript poems were written by Davy, the majority of which are found in his personal notebooks. Most of his written poems were not published, he chose instead to share a few of them with his friends. Eight of his known poems were published, his poems reflected his views on both his career and his pereception of certain aspects of human life. He wrote on human endeavours and aspects of life like death, geology, natural theology and chemistry. John Ayrton Paris remarked that poetry written by the young Davy "bear the stamp of lofty genius". Davy's first preserved poem entitled The Sons of Genius is dated 1795 and marked by the usual immaturity of youth. Other poems written in the following years On the Mount's Bay and St Michael's Mount, are descriptive verses, showing sensibility but no true poetic imagination. Three of Davy's paintings from around 1796 have been donated to the Penlee House museum at Penzance. One is of the view from above Gulval showing the church, Mount's Bay and the Mount, while the other two depict Loch Lomond in Scotland.
While writing verses at the age of 17 in honour of his first love, he was eagerly discussing the question of the materiality of heat with his Quaker friend and mentor Robert Dunkin. Dunkin remarked:'I tell thee what, thou art the most quibbling hand at a dispute I met with in my life.' One winter day he took Davy to the Larigan River, To show him that rubbing two plates of ice together developed sufficient energy by motion, to melt them, that after the motion was suspended, the pieces were united by regelation. It was a crude form of analogous experiment exhibited by Davy in the lecture-room of the Royal Institution that elicited considerable attention; as professor at the Royal Institution, Davy repeated many of the ingenious experiments he learned from his friend and mentor, Robert Dunkin. Though he started writing his poems, albeit haphazardly, as a reflection of his views on his career and on life most of his final poems concentrated on immortality and death; this was after he started experiencing failing a decline both in health and career.
Davies Giddy met Davy in Penzance carelessly swinging on the half-gate of Dr Borlase's house, interested by his talk invited him to his house at Tredrea and offered him the use of his library. This led to an introduction to Dr Edwards. Edwards was a lecturer in
A flashtube called a flashlamp, is an electric arc lamp designed to produce intense, full-spectrum white light for short durations. Flashtubes are made of a length of glass tubing with electrodes at either end and are filled with a gas that, when triggered and conducts a high voltage pulse to produce the light. Flashtubes are used for photographic purposes but are employed in scientific, medical and entertainment applications; the lamp comprises a hermetically sealed glass tube, filled with a noble gas xenon, electrodes to carry electrical current to the gas. Additionally, a high voltage power source is necessary to energize the gas as a trigger event. A charged capacitor is used to supply energy for the flash, so as to allow speedy delivery of high electrical current when the lamp is triggered; the glass envelope is most a thin tube made of fused quartz, borosilicate or Pyrex, which may be straight, or bent into a number of different shapes, including helical, "U" shape, circular. In some applications, the emission of ultraviolet light is undesired, whether due to production of ozone, damage to laser rods, degradation of plastics, or other detrimental effects.
In these cases, a doped fused silica is used. Doping with titanium dioxide can provide different cutoff wavelengths on the ultraviolet side, but the material suffers from solarization. A better alternative is a cerium-doped quartz, its cutoff is at about 380 nm. Conversely, when ultraviolet is called for, a synthetic quartz is used as the envelope; the power level of the lamps is rated in watts/area, total electrical input power divided by the lamp's inner wall surface. Cooling of the electrodes and the lamp envelope is of high importance at high power levels. Air cooling is sufficient for lower average power levels. High power lamps are cooled with a liquid by flowing demineralized water through a tube in which the lamp is encased. Water-cooled lamps will have the glass shrunk around the electrodes, to provide a direct thermal conductor between them and the cooling water; the cooling medium should flow across the entire length of the lamp and electrodes. High average power or continuous-wave arc lamps must have the water flow across the ends of the lamp, across the exposed ends of the electrodes as well, so the deionized water is used to prevent a short circuit.
Above 15 W/cm2 forced air cooling is required. Liquid cooling is necessary above 30 W/cm2. Thinner walls can survive higher average-power loads due to lower mechanical strain across the thickness of the material, caused by a temperature gradient between the hot plasma and cooling water. For this reason, thinner glass is used for continuous-wave arc-lamps. Thicker materials can handle more impact energy from the shock wave that a short-pulsed arc can generate, so quartz as much as 1 mm thick is used in the construction of flashtubes; the material of the envelope provides another limit for the output power. Other glasses such as borosilicate have less than half the power loading capacity of quartz. Aging lamps require some derating, due to increased energy absorption in the glass due to solarization and sputtered deposits; the electrodes protrude into each end of the tube, are sealed to the glass using a few different methods. "Ribbon seals" use thin strips of molybdenum foil bonded directly to the glass, which are durable, but are limited in the amount of current that can pass through.
"Solder seals" bond the glass to the electrode with a solder for a strong mechanical seal, but are limited to low temperature operation. Most common in laser pumping applications is the "rod seal", where the rod of the electrode is wetted with another type of glass and bonded directly to a quartz tube; this seal is durable and capable of withstanding high temperature and currents. The seal and the glass must have the same coefficient of expansion. For low electrode wear the electrodes are made of tungsten, which has the highest melting point of any metal, to handle the thermionic emission of electrons. Cathodes are made from porous tungsten filled with a barium compound, which gives low work function. Anodes are made from pure tungsten, or, when good machinability is required, lanthanum-alloyed tungsten, are machined to provide extra surface area to cope with power loading. DC arc lamps have a cathode with a sharp tip, to help keep the arc away from the glass and to control temperature. Flashtubes have a cathode with a flattened radius, to reduce the incidence of hot spots and decrease sputter caused by peak currents, which may be in excess of 1000 amperes.
Electrode design is influenced by the average power. At high levels of average power, care has to be taken to achieve sufficient cooling of the electrodes. While anode temperature is of lower importance, overheating the cathode can reduce the lamp's life expectancy. Depending on the size and application of the flashtube, gas fill pressures may ran
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts motive power into electrical power for use in an external circuit. Sources of mechanical energy include steam turbines, gas turbines, water turbines, internal combustion engines and hand cranks; the first electromagnetic generator, the Faraday disk, was invented in 1831 by British scientist Michael Faraday. Generators provide nearly all of the power for electric power grids; the reverse conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy is done by an electric motor, motors and generators have many similarities. Many motors can be mechanically driven to generate electricity and make acceptable manual generators. Electromagnetic generators fall into one of two broad categories and alternators. Dynamos generate pulsing direct current through the use of a commutator. Alternators generate alternating current. Mechanically a generator consists of a rotating part and a stationary part: Rotor The rotating part of an electrical machine.
Stator The stationary part of an electrical machine, which surrounds the rotor. One of these parts generates a magnetic field, the other has a wire winding in which the changing field induces an electric current: Field winding or field magnets The magnetic field producing component of an electrical machine; the magnetic field of the dynamo or alternator can be provided by either wire windings called field coils or permanent magnets. Electrically-excited generators include an excitation system to produce the field flux. A generator using permanent magnets is sometimes called a magneto, or permanent magnet synchronous generators. Armature The power-producing component of an electrical machine. In a generator, alternator, or dynamo, the armature windings generate the electric current, which provides power to an external circuit; the armature can be on either the rotor or the stator, depending on the design, with the field coil or magnet on the other part. Before the connection between magnetism and electricity was discovered, electrostatic generators were invented.
They operated on electrostatic principles, by using moving electrically charged belts and disks that carried charge to a high potential electrode. The charge was generated using either of two mechanisms: electrostatic induction or the triboelectric effect; such generators generated high voltage and low current. Because of their inefficiency and the difficulty of insulating machines that produced high voltages, electrostatic generators had low power ratings, were never used for generation of commercially significant quantities of electric power, their only practical applications were to power early X-ray tubes, in some atomic particle accelerators. The operating principle of electromagnetic generators was discovered in the years of 1831–1832 by Michael Faraday; the principle called Faraday's law, is that an electromotive force is generated in an electrical conductor which encircles a varying magnetic flux. He built the first electromagnetic generator, called the Faraday disk, it produced a small DC voltage.
This design was inefficient, due to self-cancelling counterflows of current in regions of the disk that were not under the influence of the magnetic field. While current was induced directly underneath the magnet, the current would circulate backwards in regions that were outside the influence of the magnetic field; this counterflow limited the power output to the pickup wires, induced waste heating of the copper disc. Homopolar generators would solve this problem by using an array of magnets arranged around the disc perimeter to maintain a steady field effect in one current-flow direction. Another disadvantage was that the output voltage was low, due to the single current path through the magnetic flux. Experimenters found that using multiple turns of wire in a coil could produce higher, more useful voltages. Since the output voltage is proportional to the number of turns, generators could be designed to produce any desired voltage by varying the number of turns. Wire windings became a basic feature of all subsequent generator designs.
Independently of Faraday, the Hungarian Ányos Jedlik started experimenting in 1827 with the electromagnetic rotating devices which he called electromagnetic self-rotors. In the prototype of the single-pole electric starter both the stationary and the revolving parts were electromagnetic, it was the discovery of the principle of dynamo self-excitation, which replaced permanent magnet designs. He may have formulated the concept of the dynamo in 1861 but didn't patent it as he thought he wasn't the first to realize this. A coil of wire rotating in a magnetic field produces a current which changes direction with each 180° rotation, an alternating current; however many early uses of electricity required direct current. In the first practical electric generators, called dynamos, the AC was converted into DC with a commutator, a set of rotating switch contacts on the armature shaft; the commutator reversed the connection of the armature winding to the circuit every 180° rotation of the shaft, creating a pulsing DC current.
One of the first dynamos was built by Hippolyte Pixii in 1832. The dynamo was the first electrical generator capable of delivering power for industry; the Woolrich Electrical Generator of 1844, now in Thinktank, Birmingham Science Museum, is the earliest electrical generator used in an industrial process. It was used by the firm of Elkingtons for commercial electroplating; the modern dynamo, fit for use in industrial applications, was invented independently by Sir Charles
Michael Faraday FRS was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. His main discoveries include the principles underlying electromagnetic induction and electrolysis. Although Faraday received little formal education, he was one of the most influential scientists in history, it was by his research on the magnetic field around a conductor carrying a direct current that Faraday established the basis for the concept of the electromagnetic field in physics. Faraday established that magnetism could affect rays of light and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena, he discovered the principles of electromagnetic induction and diamagnetism, the laws of electrolysis. His inventions of electromagnetic rotary devices formed the foundation of electric motor technology, it was due to his efforts that electricity became practical for use in technology; as a chemist, Faraday discovered benzene, investigated the clathrate hydrate of chlorine, invented an early form of the Bunsen burner and the system of oxidation numbers, popularised terminology such as "anode", "cathode", "electrode" and "ion".
Faraday became the first and foremost Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution, a lifetime position. Faraday was an excellent experimentalist who conveyed his ideas in simple language. James Clerk Maxwell took the work of Faraday and others and summarized it in a set of equations, accepted as the basis of all modern theories of electromagnetic phenomena. On Faraday's uses of lines of force, Maxwell wrote that they show Faraday "to have been in reality a mathematician of a high order – one from whom the mathematicians of the future may derive valuable and fertile methods." The SI unit of capacitance is named in his honour: the farad. Albert Einstein kept a picture of Faraday on his study wall, alongside pictures of Isaac Newton and James Clerk Maxwell. Physicist Ernest Rutherford stated, "When we consider the magnitude and extent of his discoveries and their influence on the progress of science and of industry, there is no honour too great to pay to the memory of Faraday, one of the greatest scientific discoverers of all time."
Michael Faraday was born on 22 September 1791 in Newington Butts, now part of the London Borough of Southwark but was a suburban part of Surrey. His family was not well off, his father, was a member of the Glassite sect of Christianity. James Faraday moved his wife and two children to London during the winter of 1790 from Outhgill in Westmorland, where he had been an apprentice to the village blacksmith. Michael was born in the autumn of that year; the young Michael Faraday, the third of four children, having only the most basic school education, had to educate himself. At the age of 14 he became an apprentice to George Riebau, a local bookbinder and bookseller in Blandford Street. During his seven-year apprenticeship Faraday read many books, including Isaac Watts's The Improvement of the Mind, he enthusiastically implemented the principles and suggestions contained therein, he developed an interest in science in electricity. Faraday was inspired by the book Conversations on Chemistry by Jane Marcet.
In 1812, at the age of 20 and at the end of his apprenticeship, Faraday attended lectures by the eminent English chemist Humphry Davy of the Royal Institution and the Royal Society, John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. Many of the tickets for these lectures were given to Faraday by William Dance, one of the founders of the Royal Philharmonic Society. Faraday subsequently sent Davy a 300-page book based on notes that he had taken during these lectures. Davy's reply was immediate and favourable. In 1813, when Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, he decided to employ Faraday as an assistant. Coincidentally one of the Royal Institution's assistants, John Payne, was sacked and Sir Humphry Davy had been asked to find a replacement. Soon Davy entrusted Faraday with the preparation of nitrogen trichloride samples, they both were injured in an explosion of this sensitive substance. In the class-based English society of the time, Faraday was not considered a gentleman.
When Davy set out on a long tour of the continent in 1813–15, his valet did not wish to go, so instead, Faraday went as Davy's scientific assistant and was asked to act as Davy's valet until a replacement could be found in Paris. Faraday was forced to fill the role of valet as well as assistant throughout the trip. Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat Faraday as an equal, made Faraday so miserable that he contemplated returning to England alone and giving up science altogether; the trip did, give him access to the scientific elite of Europe and exposed him to a host of stimulating ideas. Faraday married Sarah Barnard on 12 June 1821, they met through their families at the Sandemanian church, he confessed his faith to the Sandemanian congregation the month after they were married. They had no children. Faraday was a devout Christian. Well after his marriage, he served as deacon and for two terms as an elder in the meeting house of his youth, his church was located at Paul's Alley in the Barbican.
This meeting house relocated in 1862 to Islington.
Charles F. Brush
Charles Francis Brush was an American engineer, inventor and philanthropist. Brush was born in Ohio to Isaac Elbert Brush and Delia Williams Phillips. Isaac Brush was a distant cousin of Delia on the Phillips side. Through Delia he was a descendant of the Rev. George Phillips, who settled Watertown, Massachusetts in 1630, Samuel Appleton. Delia was a descendant of Henry Wisner, member of the First and Second Continental Congresses during the American Revolution, as well as Thomas Cornell and the Winthrop family. Brush was raised on a farm about 10.1 miles from downtown Cleveland. He had a great interest in science with Humphry Davy's experiments with the arc light. Brush attended Central High School in Cleveland where he built his first arc light, graduated there with honors in 1867, his high school commencement oration was on the "Conservation of Force". He received his college undergraduate education from the University of Michigan, where he studied mining engineering, graduating in 1869. At Michigan, Brush was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity.
Brush earned his PhD at Western Reserve, graduating in 1880. In 1876 he secured the backing of the Wetting Supply Company in Cleveland to design his "dynamo" for powering arc lights. Brush began with the dynamo design of Zénobe Gramme but his final design was a marked divergence, retaining the ring armature idea that originated with Antonio Pacinotti. Brush remarked on his motivation for improving the generator in his U. S. Patent 189,997: "The best forms of magneto-electric apparatus at present before the public are unnecessarily bulky and expensive, are more or less wasteful of mechanical power." After comparing it to the Gramme dynamo and other European entrants, the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia judged Brush's dynamo superior due to its simpler design and maintainability after completing tests in 1878. Brush produced additional patents refining the design of his arc lights in the coming years and sold systems to several cities for public lighting, equipped Philadelphia's Wanamaker's Grand Depot with a system.
His lights were easier to maintain, had automatic functions and burned twice as long as Yablochkov candles. His generators were reliable and automatically increased voltage with greater load while keeping current constant. By 1881, New York, Philadelphia, Montreal, San Francisco and other cities had Brush arc light systems, producing public light well into the 20th century; the San Francisco system was the first case of a utility selling electricity from a central plant to multiple customers via transmission lines. The California Electric Light Company purchased two generators from Charles Brush's company in 1879 and soon opened a second plant with four additional generators. Service charges for light from sundown to midnight was $10 per lamp per six day week. Brush's system was lighting Broadway two years before Edison's Pearl Street Station began lighting New York. By 1893 there were 1500 arc lights illuminating New York streets. In 1879, the Anglo-American Brush Electric Light Corporation, using Brush's inventions, was formed in Lambeth, England.
This company moved to Loughborough England and became Brush Electrical Engineering Co. Ltd. In 1880, Brush established the Brush Electric Company in the U. S. and, though successful, faced stiff competition from Thomson-Houston Electric Company, whose arc lights could be independently turned off, by Edison, whose incandescent lights had a softer warm glow, didn't flicker and were less costly to maintain than arc lights. In 1882, the Brush Electric Company supplied generating equipment for a hydroelectric power plant at St. Anthony Falls in Minneapolis, among the first to generate electricity from water power in the United States. Thomson-Houston bought out Brush in 1889 and merged to become part of General Electric in 1891. After selling his interests in Brush Electric, Brush never returned to the electric industry. In 1884, Brush built a mansion on Euclid Avenue in Cleveland. There he lived the remainder of his life; the basement housed Brush's private laboratory. In 1888, he powered the mansion with the world's first automatically operated wind turbine generator which charged the home's 12 batteries.
It was the first home in Cleveland to have electricity. Over its 20-year life, the turbine never failed to keep the home continuously powered. In 1926, Brush pioneered the first piezo-electric featherweight stylus. In 1898, Brush claimed to have discovered a new gas, which he named "etherion"; this gas had remarkable properties, being 10,000 times lighter than hydrogen and conducting heat 20 times faster than it. In 1900, Marian Smoluchowski identified the gas as water vapor. Between 1910 and 1929 he wrote several papers on his version of a kinetic theory of gravitation, based on some sort of electromagnetic waves, he died on June 1929 in Cleveland, Ohio. Charles F. Brush High School in Lyndhurst, Ohio is named after Brush, whose sports teams and other groups are named the "Arcs", after Brush's lamp. Charles F. Brush Preparatory High School in Dansha, Ethiopia opened in 2018, constructed by Brush alumni and the Tigray Development Association. Metro Parks, Serving Summit County's Furnace Run Metro Park in Richfield, received a donation of land from the Family of Charles F. Brush.
The donated tract is known as Brushwood