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Arcangelo Corelli

Arcangelo Corelli was an Italian violinist and composer of the Baroque era. His music was key in the development of the modern genres of sonata and concerto, in establishing the preeminence of the violin, as the first coalescing of modern tonality and functional harmony. Baptismal records indicate that Corelli was born on 17 February 1653 in the small Romagna town of Fusignano in the diocese of Ferrara, Papal States, his ancestors had been in Fusignano and land-owners there since 1506, when a Corelli moved to the area from Rome. Although prosperous, they were certainly not of the nobility, as several fanciful accounts of the composer's genealogy subsequently claimed. Corelli's father, from whom he took the name Arcangelo, died five weeks before the composer's birth, he was raised by his mother, alongside four elder siblings. The wealth of anecdotes and legends attached to Corelli contrast with the paucity of reliable contemporary evidence documenting events in his life; this gap is pronounced for his formative years, including his musical education though traditional accounts of a idealized childhood have long been debunked.

According to the poet Giovanni Mario Crescimbeni, who knew the composer well, Corelli studied music under a priest in the nearby town of Faenza, in Lugo, before moving in 1666 to Bologna. A major centre of musical culture of the time, Bologna had a flourishing school of violinists associated with Ercole Gaibara and his pupils, Giovanni Benvenuti and Leonardo Brugnoli. Reports by sources link Corelli's musical studies with several master violinists, including Benvenuti, Bartolomeo Laurenti and Giovanni Battista Bassani. Although plausible, these accounts remain unconfirmed, as does the claim that the papal contralto Matteo Simonelli first taught him composition. A remark Corelli made to a patron suggests that his musical education focused on the violin. Chronicles of the Accademia Filarmonica of Bologna indicate that Corelli was accepted as a member by 1670, at the exceptionally young age of seventeen; the credibility of this attribution has been disputed. Although the nickname Il Bolognese appears on the title-pages of Corelli's first three published sets of works, the duration of his stay in Bologna remains unclear.

Anecdotes of trips outside Italy to France and Spain lack any contemporary evidence. For example, the anecdote that Corelli's continental fame stemmed from a trip to Paris at the age of nineteen, where he was chased away by an envious Jean-Baptiste Lully, seems to have originated with Jean-Jacques Rousseau, it was claimed that Corelli spent time in Germany in the service of Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria, as well as in the house of his friend and fellow violinist-composer Cristiano Farinelli. Although it is unclear quite when Corelli arrived in Rome, he was active there by 1675, when "Arcangelo Bolognese" was engaged to play as one of the supporting violinists in lenten oratorios at the church of San Giovanni dei Fiorentini, as well as in the French national celebrations held each year on 25 August at San Luigi dei Francesi and during the ordination of a member of the powerful Chigi family at Santi Domenico e Sisto. In August 1676, he was playing second violin to the renowned Carlo Mannelli at San Luigi dei Francesi.

Although Rome did not have any permanent orchestra providing stable employment for instrumentalists, Corelli made a name for himself, playing in a variety of ensembles sponsored by wealthy patrons, such as Cardinal Benedetto Pamphili, for whom he played in Lenten oratorios at San Marcello from 1676 to 1679. In 1687 Corelli led the festival performances of music for Queen Christina of Sweden, he was a favorite of Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni, grandnephew of another Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni, who in 1689 became Pope Alexander VIII. From 1689 to 1690 he was in Modena; the Duke of Modena was generous to him. In 1706 Corelli was elected a member of the Pontificia Accademia degli Arcadi, he received the Arcadian name of Arcomelo Erimanteo. In 1708 he returned to Rome, his visit to Naples, at the invitation of the king, took place in the same year. The style of execution introduced by Corelli and preserved by his pupils, such as Francesco Geminiani, Pietro Locatelli, Pietro Castrucci, Francesco Antonio Bonporti, Giovanni Stefano Carbonelli, Francesco Gasparini, others, was of vital importance for the development of violin playing.

It has been said that the paths of all of the famous violinist-composers of 18th-century Italy led to Arcangelo Corelli, their "iconic point of reference". However, Corelli used only a limited portion of his instrument's capabilities; this may be seen from his writings. The parts for violin rarely proceed above D on the highest string, sometimes reaching the E in fourth position on the highest string; the story has been told and retold that Corelli refused to play a passage that extended to A in altissimo in the overture to Handel's oratorio The Triumph of Time and Truth, felt offended when the composer played the note. His compositions for the instrument mark an epoch in the history of chamber music, his influence was not confined to his own country. Johann Sebastian Bach studied the works of Corelli and based an organ fugue on Corelli's Opus 3 of 1689. Handel's Opus 6 Concerti Grossi take Corelli's own older Opus 6 Concerti as models, rather than t


Herscheid is a municipality in the southern Märkischer Kreis, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Herscheid is located in a part of the Sauerland mountains. Altitudes in the municipality extend from 250m above sea level in the valley of the Schwarze Ahe up to the highest elevation, the 663.3m high Nordhelle. The municipality covers an area of 58.924 km², of which 58% is forest and 33% is used agriculturally. Most of the area is protected as the Naturpark Ebbegebirge. Werdohl Plettenberg Meinerzhagen Lüdenscheid The first written document mentioning Hertsceido dates from 1072 in a charter from Grafschaft Abbey of bishop Anno of Cologne. However, the settlements in what is now the municipal area date back to the 4th century. From the 12th century till 1753 the parish of Herscheid formed a court district. During the French occupation, the Mairie Ebbe covered neighbouring Valbert; the station Hüinghausen was made for narrow gauge railway. The coat of arms of Herscheid is above a fess abased chequy of three rows gules and argent, a demi-stag salient proper.

The stag, or deer, has a double significance: it refers both to the etymological origin of the name Herscheid as area where deer live and to the old hunting privileges enjoyed here. The red-and-white chequered fess of the Counts appears, Herscheid having been part of their territory; the coat of arms was designed by Otto Hupp, was granted on October 17, 1935. The coat of arms is featured on the town flag. Wilhelm Ackermann, German mathematician Otto Corbach, journalist Official site

Democratic and Republican Left group

The Democratic and Republican Left group is a parliamentary group in the National Assembly including representatives of the French Communist Party. The electoral record of the French Communist Party in 2007 was marked by dismal performances, first in the presidential election in which the party's national secretary Marie-George Buffet stood as a candidate supported by the PCF within the framework of an anti-liberal alliance; the party's result in the subsequent legislative elections was middling: though it outpaced the projections of pollsters, which placed it between only 5 and 15 seats, it still fell short of the threshold of 20 deputies required for the formation of a parliamentary group in the National Assembly. As a result, Alain Bocquet, outgoing leader of the preceding communist group in the assembly, demanded on 18 June that the requirement for the number of deputies to form a political group be lowered to 15 from 20 needed, with a total of 15 deputies elected under the PCF label in the legislative elections.

Bocquet, referring to the recent election of Nicolas Sarkozy in the presidential election, added "if the president of the Republic is a democrat, he will prove it", further arguing that "contrary to all predictions, the conditions for the constitution of a communist group in the National Assembly have been met, their recognition is only a regulatory formality". During the evening of 17 June, the second round of the legislative elections, Buffet issued an appeal to form an "open" group to carry the "people's voice" in the National Assembly, singling out the Greens as a potential target. PCF spokesperson Olivier Dartigolles speculated that the party could secure an alliance "with the non-inscrits, with the elected officials of the DOM-TOM, with the progressive elected officials of the left", believing that the other forces on the left were sufficient to constitute a parliamentary group. Recognizing the predicament of the PCF, ecologist deputy Noël Mamère proposed that evening that the four members of the Greens elected in the legislative elections join the communist deputies in order to provide the necessary support to form a political group in the National Assembly, saying that he believed that the Green deputies accept the opening proposed by Buffet, hoping to sit along the PCF and others on the left in an "autonomous group" in the National Assembly, independent of the Socialist Party.

Bocuqet on 18 June indicated that "the group was open to the world" but did not signify that it would accept the support of the Greens in order to establish a group. Despite this initial outreach to the Greens, Buffet's initiative to form a common group with the Greens was rebuffed, ending the possibility of a "communist and ecologist" group as envisaged by Mamère. Discussions between Mamère, PCF deputy Patrick Braouezec, miscellaneous left deputies including Gérard Charasse were initiated with the apparent support of the leadership of the PCF, which sought to strengthen its position in the assembly and diminish troublemakers within it ranks. Maxime Gremetz, ousted from the communist federation in the Somme and antagonistic towards the national party, made conditional his membership of a parliamentary group contingent on his demand that he and the other communists in the Somme excluded from the departmental federation be permitted to rejoin. With 18 total communist deputies, it was therefore necessary to seek two additional deputies for the formation of the group.

Unable to pass the threshold of 20 deputies on their own, the communists – Bocquet in particular – were forced to reopen the door to the Greens and PRG, with Mamère proposing a "radical and green" group. Though the PCF continued to petition for a lowering of the bar for a parliamentary group from 20 to 15 deputies, the necessary change of regulation required the assent of a majority of the National Assembly controlled by the Union for a Popular Movement. There being no guarantee that this would happen, Bocquet said that the communists needed to act with "pragmatism"; the Democratic and Republican Left group was formed on 26 June with 24 deputies, Jean-Claude Sandrier becoming its first president. After leaving the PS along with Jean-Luc Mélenchon to co-found the Left Party, Marc Dolez left the Socialist, Radical and Miscellaneous Left group to join the GDR group as an associate deputy before becoming a member on 27 January 2009. On 11 July 2010, Anny Poursinoff of the Greens was elected in a by-election in Yvelines's 10th constituency, defeating Jean-Frédéric Poisson, thus becoming the 26th member of the GDR group.

On 1 September 2010, the Green deputy Yves Cochet took over the presidency of the GDR group. Maxime Gremetz was expelled from the group on 12 April 2011 after interrupting a parliamentary meeting about the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, subsequent

The Gutsy Frog

Dokonjō Gaeru is a comedy manga series created and illustrated by Yasumi Yoshizawa. It was serialized in Shueisha's Weekly Shōnen Jump magazine from July 27, 1970 to June 14, 1976, collected into 27 tankōbon volumes. Two anime adaptations of the manga were produced by Tokyo Movie Shinsha, the first aired from October 7, 1972 to September 28, 1974 and the second aired from September 7, 1981 to March 29, 1982. A film was directed by Tsutomu Shibayama and was aired on NTV on March 20, 1982. A live-action sequel was aired on NTV from July 11, 2015 until September 19, 2015; the anime aired subtitled in the U. S. on California's UTB. While frog Pyonkichi is hopping in an empty lot in Nerima, Tokyo's Shakujii Park, middle schooler Hiroshi trips over a rock and squashes him. However, Pyonkichi is reborn as an imprint on the front of Hiroshi's shirt and now gives him advice and commentary on his life. Pyonkichi: Voiced by: Sachiko Chijimatsu, Voiced by Hikari Mitsushima. A frog, crushed by Hiroshi, but his spirit lives on as a talking frog on his shirt, becoming a Flat Surface Frog.

Because said shirt is Hiroshi's only good shirt, he is always forced to travel around and interact with Hiroshi. They are obstinate and gluttonous and are always arguing like siblings, he is capable of forcing Hiroshi to come along with him. Hiroshi: Voiced by: Masako Nozawa Played by Kenichi Matsuyama; the middle schooler. He is never seen without his sunglasses. Though his school has a uniform policy, he is, for some reason. Kyoko Yoshizawa: Voiced by: Yōko Kuri, New: Atsushi Tomii→Kaoru Kurosu, CM: Chinami Nishimura, Played by Atsuko Maeda. Hiroshi's girlfriend, she is the daughter of a rather wealthy family, yet is a strong minded girl who will stand up for herself and participate in pranks. She pretends to dislike Hiroshi but becomes friends with him after he meets Pyonkichi, whom she believes is a cute shirt design. Gorou: Voiced by: Kazue Takahashi, New: Junko Hori, Played by Ryo Katsuji. Hiroshi's sidekick. Despite his diminutive size, he is only a year younger than Hiroshi, who he addresses as senpai.

Imotaro Gorira: Voiced by: Kazuya Tatekabe, New: Kyūji Aozora. The school bully, Hiroshi's rival for Kyoko's attention. Yujiro Nomura: Voiced by: Tetsuo Mizutori→Isao Sakuma, New: Kōji Aozora Umesaburo Sagawa: Voiced by: Kazuo Harada, New: Keiichi Nanba, Played by Ken Mitsuishi. Addressed as "Ume" by everyone, he is an earnest young man. Having grown up at the local orphanage, he cares for the children there and plays Santa for them every Christmas, he is much in love with Miss Yoshiko, which puts him at odds with Mr. Minami. Shinpachi Goto: Voiced by: Keiko Yamamoto; the new boy at school, he is selfish and rude towards everyone. Umesaburo believes that Shimpachi's bad behavior is because his family is poor, but it turns out that his family is rather wealthy and of high social standing. Sakura: Voiced by: Kaneta Kimotsuki Yoshiko Yamanaka: Voiced by: Reiko Mutō, New: Keiko Toda, Played by Yuri Shirahane; the English teacher at Hiroshi's school. Both Umesaburo and Mr. Minami are in love with her.

Kuniko Obayashi: Voiced by: Eiko Masuyama. Hiroshi's childhood sweetheart, it was she. Kuniko is a flirtatious girl who charms all the boys, saving most of her attention for Hiroshi, which does not sit well with Kyoko. Machida: Voiced by: Ichirō Nagai, Played by Denden. A teacher at Hiroshi's school, he references his 25 years' teaching experience in nearly every episode of the anime. Yoshio Minami: Voiced by: Shūsei Nakamura, New: Hideyuki Tanaka. Another teacher at Hiroshi's school, he is dueling with Umesaburo for Yoshiko's affection. He is proud of his car, the Buran-go, offers to drive Yoshiko around in it. Misako Watanabe: Voiced by: Kazuko Sawada. Goro's girlfriend. Kaa-chan: Voiced by: Noriko Ohara, New: Shō Saitō, Played by Hiroko Yakushimaru. Hiroshi's long-suffering mother; because Hiroshi's father is deceased, she is the money earner for the family, working as a tailor and seamstress out of the modest home where she and Hiroshi live. Pyonko: Voiced by: Eiko Masuyama. Pyonkichi's girlfriend, before he ended up flattened onto Hiroshi's shirt.

Pyonkichi reluctantly breaks up with her because, now that he is a two-dimensional frog stuck to Hiroshi's shirt, he feels like he cannot give her the life she deserves. Sushi Restaurant Owner: Voiced by: Masashi Amenomori→Osamu Kobayashi, New: Kenichi Ogata. Sankakubei: Voiced by: Kei Tomiyama In 2005, Japanese television network TV Asahi conducted a "Top 100" nationwide survey. In 2006, TV Asahi conducted an online poll for the top one hundred anime, Dokonjō Gaeru placed 56th in the "Celebrity List". In 2013, animator Masaaki Yuasa recommended among other anime, Dokonjō Gaeru, highlighting episodes 145 and 146. In 2013, an American TV-movie remake of The Gutsy Frog was reported to be in development as a pilot for a new TV series; the pilot film was to contain both live action and CGI animation and to feature a cast including Frankie Jonas as "Frankie" as well as Maxwell Perry Cotton, Mischa Barton, others, features both American and Japanese names among the production staff although TMS is not reported to be invol

Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens

The Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens is a Parisian theatre founded in 1855 by the composer Jacques Offenbach for the performance of opéra bouffe and operetta. The current theatre is located in the 2nd arrondissement at 4 rue Monsigny with an entrance at the back at 65 Passage Choiseul. In the 19th century the theatre was referred to as the Salle Choiseul. With the decline in popularity of operetta after 1870, the theatre expanded its repertory to include comedies. In February 1855 Offenbach requested a license from the Parisian authorities for the performance of what he described as a "new and original" genre of musical theatre, he justified his proposed endeavour by saying that these works would have mass appeal and would provide opportunities for young French composers. The company gave its first performances during the summer of 1855 at the Salle Lacaze; this theatre was unusually small with a capacity of only 300 spectators, but was located on the Carré Marigny, near the crowds attending the Exposition Universelle.

The inaugural performance was on 5 July with Offenbach conducting four of his own works: a prologue called Entrez, mesdames, a one-act pièce d'occasion written by Joseph Méry and "Jules Servières". The latter was cut, since the invited audience who attended the dress rehearsal failed to laugh, but Offenbach decided to retain it, it was the hit of the opening night; this little piece soon acquired an international reputation, Offenbach's admirers soon included Tolstoy and Thackeray. Further performances in the summer of 1855 were of satirical sketches which only included a few musical numbers; the season, was so successful that Offenbach was able to resign his position as conductor of the Théâtre Français. In October Offenbach submitted another petition to the authorities, this time to merge his company with the Théâtre des Jeunes Élèves de Monsieur Comte; this company's theatre, not much larger than the Salle Lacaze, was demolished, the larger Salle Choiseul with a capacity of about 900 was constructed.

The new theatre was not only larger, but warmer, more luxurious and more comfortable than the Salle Lacaze. The orchestra was enlarged from sixteen players to thirty. Offenbach's new license permitted performances of one-act comedies, with or without music, but with fewer than five characters, it specifically excluded sketches and required the performance of at least two works by composers other than Offenbach. The first performance of the merged company was on 29 December 1855 at the Salle Choiseul and included the premiere of Offenbach's Ba-ta-clan, a one-act chinoiserie musicale with a libretto by Halévy. From this time performances were given at the Salle Choiseul during the winter theatre season; the company performed at the Salle Lacaze during the 1856, 1857 and 1859 summer seasons, however, in March 1861 legislation was enacted which prevented the company from using both theatres, appearances at the Salle Lacaze were discontinued. In spite of the restrictions of the license, Offenbach began including longer, more substantial works which violated its terms.

For instance, his two-act Orphée aux enfers with a cast of 16 received its first performance at the Salle Choiseul on 21 October 1858. After Offenbach resigned as the director in January 1862, the company continued at the Salle Choiseul, performing light operas by other composers as well as Offenbach. Upon the departure of Offenbach, the new director tore down the existing hall to erect a larger one with a capacity of 1100 spectators. While the Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens is indelibly linked to Offenbach, it has been the venue for a number of other important works. In addition to Offenbach's own operettas, the theatre has seen the premieres of musical works by Hervé, Emmanuel Chabrier and Claude Terrasse and playwrights such as Robert de Flers, Albert Willemetz, Sacha Guitry and Henri Bernstein. From 1986 to 2007, the Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens was under the directorship of Jean-Claude Brialy, who died of cancer in May 2007; the Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens was founded as a private entrepreneurship.

Notes SourcesDickens, Charles. Dicken's Dictionary of Paris, 1882. An Unconventional Handbook. London: Macmillan. View at Google Books. Faris, Alexander. Jacques Offenbach. London & Boston: Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-11147-3. Fauser, editor. Music and cultural transfer. Paris, 1830–1914. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-23926-2. Galignani, A. and W. publishers. Galignani's New Paris Guide for 1862. Paris: A. and W. Galignani. View at Google Books. Gammond, Peter. Offenbach. London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-7119-0257-2. Gänzl, Kurt; the Encyclopedia of the Musical Theatre, second edition. New York: Schirmer Books. ISBN 978-0-02-864970-2. Levin, Alicia. "A documentary overview of musical theaters in Paris, 1830–1900" in Fauser 2009, pp. 379–402. Martin, Jules. Nos Artistes: Annuaire des Théâtres et Concerts, 1901–1902. Paris: Ollendorff. View at Google Books. Sadie, editor; the New Grove Dictionary of Opera. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-56159-228-9. Wagstaff, John. "Véronique" in Sadie 1992, vol.

4, pp. 961–962. Yon, Jean-Claude. Jacques Offenbach.: Galimard. I

Martha Brossier

Martha Brossier was a French woman, infamous for feigning demonic possession at the age of 22. The fraud was discovered by Charles Miron, bishop of either the Diocese of Angers or the Diocese of Orléans. According to Augustin Calmet, the daughter of a weaver in Romorantin, claimed to have been demonically possessed, drawing considerable notoriety, her case of demonic possession is cited by theological historians along with the Loudun possessions because both cases consist of notorious accounts of apparent demonic possession which are now presumed to have been fraudulent. The maladies from which she was recorded to suffer included an extreme shortness of breath, the ability to stick out her tongue unreasonably far, the gnashing of her teeth, she would writhe and move her mouth as if she had convulsions while contorting her face, rolling her eyes and appearing to show deep vexation and torment. She would contort her body parts. A rumbling noise was heard from the area of her spleen under her short ribs on her left side, causing her left thigh to spasm.

She spoke in a violent and roaring voice. She was recorded to have laid flat on her back and skip with her body, being able to span the distance from the altar to the door of a great chapel in four or five lifts, which onlookers described as giving an impression of her being dragged or lifted by demons. During her demonic fits, she was able to endure pin pricks to her hands and neck with limited bleeding, she was able to speak with her mouth shut speaking English and Greek in fluency. Charles Miron discovered the fraud by making her drink holy water under the guise of normal water, he had the exorcists present her with a key wrapped up in red silk and recite various verses from Virgil, which Martha Broisser's demon took for exorcism rites. As both the presence of the wrapped key and the recital of lines from Virgil agitated her immensely, the fraud became clear. Henri de Gondi, Cardinal Bishop of Paris, had her examined by five members of his faculty. Three were of the opinion; the Parliament nominated eleven physicians who all unanimously reported that there was nothing demonic in the matter, suggesting that she used the physical strength of her stomach and breast to speak with her mouth shut.

Abraham Hartwell Augustin Calmet A Guide to Grand-Jury Men Margareta i Kumla Richard Bernard Treatise on the Apparitions of Spirits and on Vampires or Revenants Calmet, Augustin. Treatise on the Apparitions of Spirits and on Vampires or Revenants: of Hungary, Moravia, et al; the Complete Volumes I & II. 2015. ISBN 1-5331-4568-7. Bernard, Richard. A Guide to Grand-Jury Men: In Modern English. 2017. ISBN 1542697077. Abraham Hartwell. A True Discourse Upon the Matter of Martha Brossier of Romorantin, pretended to be possessed by a Devil. 2018. ISBN 1987654439