Rhetoric is the art of persuasion. Along with grammar and logic, it is one of the three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the capacities of writers or speakers needed to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations. Aristotle defines rhetoric as "the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion" and since mastery of the art was necessary for victory in a case at law or for passage of proposals in the assembly or for fame as a speaker in civic ceremonies, calls it "a combination of the science of logic and of the ethical branch of politics". Rhetoric provides heuristics for understanding and developing arguments for particular situations, such as Aristotle's three persuasive audience appeals: logos and ethos; the five canons of rhetoric or phases of developing a persuasive speech were first codified in classical Rome: invention, style and delivery. From Ancient Greece to the late 19th century, rhetoric played a central role in Western education in training orators, counsellors, historians and poets.
Scholars have debated the scope of rhetoric since ancient times. Although some have limited rhetoric to the specific realm of political discourse, many modern scholars liberate it to encompass every aspect of culture. Contemporary studies of rhetoric address a much more diverse range of domains than was the case in ancient times. While classical rhetoric trained speakers to be effective persuaders in public forums and institutions such as courtrooms and assemblies, contemporary rhetoric investigates human discourse writ large. Rhetoricians have studied the discourses of a wide variety of domains, including the natural and social sciences, fine art, journalism, digital media, history and architecture, along with the more traditional domains of politics and the law; because the ancient Greeks valued public political participation, rhetoric emerged as a crucial tool to influence politics. Rhetoric remains associated with its political origins; however the original instructors of Western speech—the Sophists—disputed this limited view of rhetoric.
According to the Sophists, such as Gorgias, a successful rhetorician could speak convincingly on any topic, regardless of his experience in that field. This method suggested. In his Encomium to Helen, Gorgias applied rhetoric to fiction by seeking for his own pleasure to prove the blamelessness of the mythical Helen of Troy in starting the Trojan War. Looking to another key rhetorical theorist, Plato defined the scope of rhetoric according to his negative opinions of the art, he criticized the Sophists for using rhetoric as a means of deceit instead of discovering truth. In "Gorgias", one of his Socratic Dialogues, Plato defines rhetoric as the persuasion of ignorant masses within the courts and assemblies. Rhetoric, in Plato's opinion, is a form of flattery and functions to cookery, which masks the undesirability of unhealthy food by making it taste good. Thus, Plato considered any speech of lengthy prose aimed at flattery as within the scope of rhetoric. Aristotle both redeemed rhetoric from his teacher and narrowed its focus by defining three genres of rhetoric—deliberative, forensic or judicial, epideictic.
Yet as he provided order to existing rhetorical theories, Aristotle extended the definition of rhetoric, calling it the ability to identify the appropriate means of persuasion in a given situation, thereby making rhetoric applicable to all fields, not just politics. When one considers that rhetoric included torture, it is clear that rhetoric cannot be viewed only in academic terms. However, the enthymeme based upon logic was viewed as the basis of rhetoric. However, since the time of Aristotle, logic has changed. For example, Modal logic has undergone a major development that modifies rhetoric. Yet, Aristotle outlined generic constraints that focused the rhetorical art squarely within the domain of public political practice, he restricted rhetoric to the domain of the contingent or probable: those matters that admit multiple legitimate opinions or arguments. The contemporary neo-Aristotelian and neo-Sophistic positions on rhetoric mirror the division between the Sophists and Aristotle. Neo-Aristotelians study rhetoric as political discourse, while the neo-Sophistic view contends that rhetoric cannot be so limited.
Rhetorical scholar Michael Leff characterizes the conflict between these positions as viewing rhetoric as a "thing contained" versus a "container". The neo-Aristotelian view threatens the study of rhetoric by restraining it to such a limited field, ignoring many critical applications of rhetorical theory and practice; the neo-Sophists threaten to expand rhetoric beyond a point of coherent theoretical value. Over the past century, people studying rhetoric have tended to enlarge its object domain beyond speech texts. Kenneth Burke asserted humans use rhetoric to resolve conflicts by identifying shared characteristics and interests in symbols. By nature, humans engage in identification, either to identify themselves or another individual with a group; this definition of rhetoric as identification broadened the scope from strategic and overt political persuasion to the more implicit tactics of identification found in an immense range of sources. Among the many scholars who have since pursued Burke's line of thought, James Boyd White sees rhetoric as a broader domain of social experience in his notion of constitutive rhet
Autolycus of Pitane
Autolycus of Pitane was a Greek astronomer and geographer. The lunar crater Autolycus was named in his honour. Autolycus was born in a town of Aeolis within Ionia, Asia Minor. Of his personal life nothing is known, although he was a contemporary of Aristotle and his works seem to have been completed in Athens between 335–300 BC. Euclid references some of Autolycus' work, Autolycus is known to have taught Arcesilaus. Autolycus' surviving works include a book on spheres entitled On the Moving Sphere and another On Risings and Settings of celestial bodies. Autolycus' works were translated by Maurolycus in the sixteenth century. On the Moving Sphere is believed to be the oldest mathematical treatise from ancient Greece, preserved. All Greek mathematical works prior to Autolycus' Sphere are taken from summaries, commentaries, or descriptions of the works. One reason for its survival is that it had been a part of a used collection called "Little Astronomy", preserved by translation into Arabic in the 9th century.
In Europe it was lost, but was brought back during the Crusades in the 12th century, translated back into Latin. In his Sphere, Autolycus studied the characteristics and movement of a sphere; the work is simple and not original, since it consists of only elementary theorems on spheres that would be needed by astronomers, but its theorems are enunciated and proved. Its prime significance, therefore, is that it indicates that by his day there was a established textbook tradition in geometry, today regarded as typical of classical Greek geometry; the theorem statement is enunciated, a figure of the construction is given alongside the proof, a concluding remark is made. Moreover, it gives indications of. Two hundred years Theodosius' wrote Sphaerics, a book, believed to have a common origin with On the Moving Sphere in some pre-Euclidean textbook written by Eudoxus. In astronomy, Autolycus studied the relationship between the rising and the setting of the celestial bodies in his treatise in two books entitled On Risings and Settings.
The second book is an expansion of his first book and of higher quality. He wrote that "any star which rises and sets always rises and sets at the same point in the horizon." Autolycus relied on Eudoxus' astronomy and was a strong supporter of Eudoxus' theory of homocentric spheres. Boyer, Carl B.. A History of Mathematics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0-471-54397-7. Huxley, G. L.. "Autolycus of Pitane". Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Pp. 338–39. ISBN 0-684-10114-9. On line at "Autolycus of Pitane". HighBeam Research. Retrieved 26 March 2015. O'Connor, John J.. Autolycus On The Moving Sphere from the Million Books Project ΠΕΡΙ ΚΙΝΟΥΜΕΝΗΣ ΣΦΑΙΡΑΣ and ΠΕΡΙ ΕΠΙΤΟΛΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΔΥΣΕΩΝ
Platonism, rendered as a proper noun, is the philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered derived from it. In narrower usage, rendered as a common noun, refers to the philosophy that affirms the existence of abstract objects, which are asserted to "exist" in a "third realm" distinct both from the sensible external world and from the internal world of consciousness, is the opposite of nominalism. Lower case "platonists" need not accept any of the doctrines of Plato. In a narrower sense, the term might indicate the doctrine of Platonic realism; the central concept of Platonism, a distinction essential to the Theory of Forms, is the distinction between the reality, perceptible but unintelligible, the reality, imperceptible but intelligible. The forms are described in dialogues such as the Phaedo and Republic as transcendent perfect archetypes of which objects in the everyday world are imperfect copies. In the Republic the highest form is identified as the Form of the Good, the source of all other forms, which could be known by reason.
In the Sophist, a work, the forms being and difference are listed among the primordial "Great Kinds". In the 3rd century BC, Arcesilaus adopted skepticism, which became a central tenet of the school until 90 BC when Antiochus added Stoic elements, rejected skepticism, began a period known as Middle Platonism. In the 3rd century AD, Plotinus added mystical elements, establishing Neoplatonism, in which the summit of existence was the One or the Good, the source of all things. Platonism had a profound effect on Western thought, many Platonic notions were adopted by the Christian church which understood Plato's forms as God's thoughts, while Neoplatonism became a major influence on Christian mysticism, in the West through St Augustine, Doctor of the Catholic Church whose Christian writings were influenced by Plotinus' Enneads, in turn were foundations for the whole of Western Christian thought; the primary concept is the Theory of Forms. The only true being is founded upon the forms, the eternal, perfect types, of which particular objects of moral and responsible sense are imperfect copies.
The multitude of objects of sense, being involved in perpetual change, are thereby deprived of all genuine existence. The number of the forms is defined by the number of universal concepts which can be derived from the particular objects of sense; the following excerpt may be representative of Plato's middle period metaphysics and epistemology: "Since the beautiful is opposite of the ugly, they are two." "Of course." "And since they are two, each is one?" "I grant that also." "And the same account is true of the just and unjust, the good and the bad, all the forms. Each of them is itself one, but because they manifest themselves everywhere in association with actions and one another, each of them appears to be many." "That's right." "So, I draw this distinction: On one side are those you just now called lovers of sights, lovers of crafts, practical people. "How do you mean?" "The lovers of sights and sounds like beautiful sounds, colors and everything fashioned out of them, but their thought is unable to see and embrace the nature of the beautiful itself."
"That's for sure." "In fact, there are few people who would be able to reach the beautiful itself and see it by itself. Isn't that so?" "Certainly." "What about someone who believes in beautiful things, but doesn't believe in the beautiful itself and isn't able to follow anyone who could lead him to the knowledge of it? Don't you think he is living in a dream rather than a wakened state? Isn't this dreaming: whether asleep or awake, to think that a likeness is not a likeness but rather the thing itself that it is like?" "I think that someone who does, dreaming." "But someone who, to take the opposite case, believes in the beautiful itself, can see both it and the things that participate in it and doesn't believe that the participants are it or that it itself is the participants--is he living in a dream or is he awake? "He's much awake." Book VI of the Republic identifies the highest form as the Form of the Good, the cause of all other Ideas, that on which the being and knowing of all other Forms is contingent.
Conceptions derived from the impressions of sense can never give us the knowledge of true being. It can only be obtained by the soul's activity within itself, apart from the troubles and disturbances of sense. Dialectic, as the instrument in this process, leading us to knowledge of the forms, to the highest form of the Good, is the first of sciences. Neoplatonism, beginning with Plotinus, identified the Good of the Republic with the so-called transcendent, absolute One of the first hypothesis of the Parmenides. Platonist ethics is based on the Form of the Good. Virtue is the recognition of the supreme form of the good. And, since in this cognition, the three parts of the soul, which are reason and appetite, all have their share, we get the three virtues, Wisdom and Moderation; the bond which unites the other virtues is the virtue of Justice, by which each part of the soul is confined to the performance of its proper function. Platonism had a profound effect on Western thought. In many interpretations of the Timaeus Platonism, like Aristotelianism, poses an eternal universe, as opposed to the nearby Judaic tradition that the universe had bee
Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, with its recorded history spanning over 3,400 years and its earliest human presence starting somewhere between the 11th and 7th millennium BC. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state that emerged in conjunction with the seagoing development of the port of Piraeus, a distinct city prior to its 5th century BC incorporation with Athens. A center for the arts and philosophy, home of Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum, it is referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy because of its cultural and political impact on the European continent, in particular the Romans. In modern times, Athens is a large cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, industrial, maritime and cultural life in Greece. In 2012, Athens was ranked the world's 39th richest city by purchasing power and the 67th most expensive in a UBS study. Athens is a global one of the biggest economic centres in southeastern Europe.
It has a large financial sector, its port Piraeus is both the largest passenger port in Europe, the second largest in the world. While at the same time being the sixth busiest passenger port in Europe; the Municipality of Athens had a population of 664,046 within its administrative limits, a land area of 38.96 km2. The urban area of Athens extends beyond its administrative municipal city limits, with a population of 3,090,508 over an area of 412 km2. According to Eurostat in 2011, the functional urban area of Athens was the 9th most populous FUA in the European Union, with a population of 3.8 million people. Athens is the southernmost capital on the European mainland; the heritage of the classical era is still evident in the city, represented by ancient monuments and works of art, the most famous of all being the Parthenon, considered a key landmark of early Western civilization. The city retains Roman and Byzantine monuments, as well as a smaller number of Ottoman monuments. Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Acropolis of Athens and the medieval Daphni Monastery.
Landmarks of the modern era, dating back to the establishment of Athens as the capital of the independent Greek state in 1834, include the Hellenic Parliament and the so-called "architectural trilogy of Athens", consisting of the National Library of Greece, the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and the Academy of Athens. Athens is home to several museums and cultural institutions, such as the National Archeological Museum, featuring the world's largest collection of ancient Greek antiquities, the Acropolis Museum, the Museum of Cycladic Art, the Benaki Museum and the Byzantine and Christian Museum. Athens was the host city of the first modern-day Olympic Games in 1896, 108 years it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics, making it one of only a handful of cities to have hosted the Olympics more than once. In Ancient Greek, the name of the city was Ἀθῆναι a plural. In earlier Greek, such as Homeric Greek, the name had been current in the singular form though, as Ἀθήνη, it was rendered in the plural on, like those of Θῆβαι and Μυκῆναι.
The root of the word is not of Greek or Indo-European origin, is a remnant of the Pre-Greek substrate of Attica. In antiquity, it was debated whether Athens took its name from its patron goddess Athena or Athena took her name from the city. Modern scholars now agree that the goddess takes her name from the city, because the ending -ene is common in names of locations, but rare for personal names. During the medieval period, the name of the city was rendered once again in the singular as Ἀθήνα. However, after the establishment of the modern Greek state, due to the conservatism of the written language, Ἀθῆναι became again the official name of the city and remained so until the abandonment of Katharevousa in the 1970s, when Ἀθήνα, Athína, became the official name. According to the ancient Athenian founding myth, the goddess of wisdom, competed against Poseidon, the god of the seas, for patronage of the yet-unnamed city. According to the account given by Pseudo-Apollodorus, Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a salt water spring welled up.
In an alternative version of the myth from Vergil's Georgics, Poseidon instead gave the Athenians the first horse. In both versions, Athena offered the Athenians the first domesticated olive tree. Cecrops declared Athena the patron goddess of Athens. Different etymologies, now rejected, were proposed during the 19th century. Christian Lobeck proposed as the root of the name the word ἄθος or ἄνθος meaning "flower", to denote Athens as the "flowering city". Ludwig von Döderlein proposed the stem of the verb θάω, stem θη- to denote Athens as having fertile soil. In classical literature, the city was sometimes referred to as the City of the Violet Crown, first documented in Pindar's ἰοστέφανοι Ἀθᾶναι, or as τὸ κλεινὸν ἄστυ. In medieval texts, variant names include Setines and Astines, all derivations involving false splitting of p
Carneades was an Academic skeptic born in Cyrene. By the year 159 BC, he had started to refute all previous dogmatic doctrines Stoicism, the Epicureans whom previous skeptics had spared; as head of the Academy, he was one of three philosophers sent to Rome in 155 BC where his lectures on the uncertainty of justice caused consternation among leading politicians. He left many of his opinions are known only via his successor Clitomachus, he seems to have doubted the ability not just of reason too in acquiring truth. His skepticism was, moderated by the belief that we can ascertain probabilities of truth, to enable us to live and act correctly. Carneades, the son of Epicomus or Philocomiis, was born at Cyrene, North Africa in 214/213 BC, he migrated early to Athens, attended the lectures of the Stoics, learned their logic from Diogenes. He studied the works of Chrysippus, exerted his energy of a acute and original mind in their refutation, he attached himself to the Academy. His great eloquence and skill in argument revived the glories of his school.
In the year 155 BC, when he was fifty-eight years old, he was chosen with Diogenes the Stoic and Critolaus the Peripatetic to go as ambassador to Rome to deprecate the fine of 500 talents, imposed on the Athenians for the destruction of Oropus. During his stay at Rome, he attracted great notice from his eloquent speeches on philosophical subjects, it was here that, in the presence of Cato the Elder, he delivered his several orations on Justice; the first oration was in commendation of the virtue of Roman justice, the next day the second was delivered, in which all the arguments he'd made on the first were refuted, as he persuasively attempted to prove that justice was problematic, not a given when it came to virtue, but a compact device deemed necessary for the maintenance of a well-ordered society. Recognizing the potential danger of the argument, Cato was shocked at this and he moved the Roman Senate to send the philosopher home to his school, prevent exposure of Roman youth to the threat of re-examining all Roman doctrines.
Carneades lived twenty-seven years after this at Athens. Carneades was succeeded, by his namesake Carneades, son of Polemarchus, but the younger Carneades died 131/0 BC and was succeeded by Crates of Tarsus; the elder Carneades died at the advanced age of 85, in 129/128 BC. After the death of Crates of Tarsus in 127/126 BC Clitomachus became head of the Academy. Carneades is described as a man of unwearied industry, he was so engrossed in his studies, that he let his hair and nails grow to an immoderate length, was so absent at his own table, that his servant and concubine, was obliged to feed him. Latin writer and author Valerius Maximus, to whom we owe the last anecdote, tells us that Carneades, before discussing with Chrysippus, was wont to purge himself with hellebore, to have a sharper mind. In his old age, he suffered from cataract in his eyes, which he bore with great impatience, was so little resigned to the decay of nature, that he used to ask angrily, if this was the way in which nature undid what she had done, sometimes expressed a wish to poison himself.
Carneades is known as an Academic skeptic. Academic skeptics hold that all knowledge is impossible, except for the knowledge that all other knowledge is impossible. Carneades left no writings, all, known of his lectures is derived from his intimate friend and pupil, Clitomachus. In ethics, which more were the subject of his long and laborious study, he seems to have denied the conformity of the moral ideas with nature; this he insisted on in the second oration on Justice, in which he manifestly wished to convey his own notions on the subject. All this, was nothing but the special application of his general theory, that people did not possess, never could possess, any criterion of truth. Carneades argued that, if there were a criterion, it must exist either in reason, or sensation, or conception, but reason itself depends on conception, this again on sensation. Therefore, sensation and reason, are alike disqualified for being the criterion of truth, but after all, people must live and act, must have some rule of practical life.
For, although we cannot say that any given conception or sensation is in itself true, yet some sensations appear to us more true than others, we must be guided by that which seems the most true. Ag
Theophrastus, a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos, was the successor to Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. He came to Athens at a young age and studied in Plato's school. After Plato's death, he attached himself to Aristotle; when Aristotle fled Athens, Theophrastus took over as head of the Lyceum. Theophrastus presided over the Peripatetic school for thirty-six years, during which time the school flourished greatly, he is considered the father of botany for his works on plants. After his death, the Athenians honoured him with a public funeral, his successor as head of the school was Strato of Lampsacus. The interests of Theophrastus were wide ranging, extending from biology and physics to ethics and metaphysics, his two surviving botanical works, Enquiry into Plants and On the Causes of Plants, were an important influence on Renaissance science. There are surviving works On Moral Characters, On Sense Perception, On Stones, fragments on Physics and Metaphysics. In philosophy, he continued Aristotle's work on logic.
He regarded space as the mere arrangement and position of bodies, time as an accident of motion, motion as a necessary consequence of all activity. In ethics, he regarded happiness as depending on external influences as well as on virtue. Most of the biographical information we have of Theophrastus was provided by Diogenes Laërtius' Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers, written more than four hundred years after Theophrastus' time, he was a native of Eresos in Lesbos. His given name was Tyrtamus, but he became known by the nickname "Theophrastus," given to him, it is said, by Aristotle to indicate the grace of his conversation. After receiving instruction in philosophy in Lesbos from one Alcippus, he moved to Athens, where he may have studied under Plato, he became friends with Aristotle, when Plato died Theophrastus may have joined Aristotle in his self-imposed exile from Athens. When Aristotle moved to Mytilene on Lesbos in 345/4, it is likely that he did so at the urging of Theophrastus.
It seems that it was on Lesbos that Aristotle and Theophrastus began their research into natural science, with Aristotle studying animals and Theophrastus studying plants. Theophrastus accompanied Aristotle to Macedonia when Aristotle was appointed tutor to Alexander the Great in 343/2. Around 335 BC, Theophrastus moved with Aristotle to Athens, where Aristotle began teaching in the Lyceum. When, after the death of Alexander, anti-Macedonian feeling forced Aristotle to leave Athens, Theophrastus remained behind as head of the Peripatetic school, a position he continued to hold after Aristotle's death in 322/1. Aristotle in his will made him guardian of his children, including Nicomachus with whom he was close. Aristotle bequeathed to him his library and the originals of his works, designated him as his successor at the Lyceum. Eudemus of Rhodes had some claims to this position, Aristoxenus is said to have resented Aristotle's choice. Theophrastus presided over the Peripatetic school for thirty-five years, died at the age of eighty-five according to Diogenes.
He is said to have remarked "we die just when we are beginning to live". Under his guidance the school flourished — there were at one period more than 2000 students, Diogenes affirms, at his death, according to the terms of his will preserved by Diogenes, he bequeathed to it his garden with house and colonnades as a permanent seat of instruction; the comic poet Menander was among his pupils. His popularity was shown in the regard paid to him by Philip and Ptolemy, by the complete failure of a charge of impiety brought against him, he was honored with a public funeral, "the whole population of Athens, honouring him followed him to the grave." He was succeeded as head of the Lyceum by Strato of Lampsacus. From the lists of Diogenes, giving 227 titles, it appears that the activity of Theophrastus extended over the whole field of contemporary knowledge, his writing differed little from Aristotle's treatment of the same themes, though supplementary in details. Like Aristotle, most of his writings are lost works.
Thus Theophrastus, like Aristotle, had composed a second Analytic. He had written books on Topics. In addition, Theophrastus wrote on the Warm and the Cold, on Water, the Sea, on Coagulation and Melting, on various phenomena of organic and spiritual life, on the Soul, on Experience and On Sense Perception. We find mention of monographs of Theophrastus on the early Greek philosophers Anaximenes, Empedocles, Diogenes of Apollonia, which were made use of by Simplicius, he studied general history, as we know from Plutarch's lives of Lycurgus, Aristides, Nicias, Lysander and Demosthenes, which were borrowed from the work
Aeolis, or Aeolia, was an area that comprised the west and northwestern region of Asia Minor along the coast, several offshore islands, where the Aeolian Greek city-states were located. Aeolis incorporated the southern parts of Mysia, which bounded it to the north, Ionia to the south and Lydia to the east. Aeolis was an ancient district on the western coast of Asia Minor, it extended along the Aegean Sea from the entrance of the Hellespont south to the Hermus River. It was named for the Aeolians, some of whom migrated there from Greece before 1000 BC. Aeolis was, however, an ethnological and linguistic enclave rather than a geographical unit; the district was considered part of the larger northwest region of Mysia. According to Homer's Odyssey, after his stay with the Cyclopes, reached the floating island of Aeolia, where Aeolus son of Hippotas provided him with the west wind Zephyr. By the 8th century BC the Aeolians' twelve most important cities were independent, they formed a league of twelve cities: Cyme.
The most celebrated of the cities was Smyrna, but in 699 BC, Smyrna became part of an Ionian confederacy. This league or confederation, known as the Ionian League called the Panionic League, was formed at the end of the Meliac War in the mid-7th century BC. Croesus, king of Lydia, conquered the remaining cities, they were held successively by the Persians, Macedonians and Pergamenes. Attalus III, the last king of Pergamum, bequeathed Aeolis to the Roman Republic in 133 BC. Shortly afterwards it became part of the Roman province of Asia. At the partition of the Roman Empire, Aeolis was assigned to the East Roman empire and remained under Byzantine rule until the early 15th century, when the Ottoman Turks occupied the area. Autolycus of Pitane Andriscus Elias Venezis Ancient regions of Anatolia Regions of ancient Greece Pierluigi Bonanno, Aiolis. Storia e archeologia di una regione dell’Asia Minore alla fine del II millennio a. C. USA, 2006