click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Arch of Galerius and Rotunda

The Arch of Galerius or Kamara and the Rotunda are neighbouring early 4th-century AD monuments in the city of Thessaloniki, in the region of Central Macedonia in northern Greece. The 4th-century Roman Emperor Galerius commissioned these two structures as elements of an imperial precinct linked to his Thessaloniki palace. Archeologists have found substantial remains of the palace to the southwest; these three monumental structures were connected by a road that ran through the arch, which rose above the major east-west road of the city. At the crux of the major axes of the city, the Arch of Galerius emphasized the power of the emperor and linked the monumental structures with the fabric of 4th-century Thessaloniki; the arch was composed of a masonry core faced with marble sculptural panels celebrating a victory over Narses, the seventh emperor in the Sassanid Persian Empire, in 299 AD. About two-third of the arch is preserved; the Rotunda was a massive circular structure with a masonry core that had an oculus like the Pantheon in Rome.

It has gone through multiple periods of use and modification as a polytheist temple, a Christian basilica, a Muslim mosque, again a Christian church. A minaret is preserved from its use as a mosque, ancient remains are exposed on its southern side; the Arch of Galerius stands on what is now the intersection of Dimitriou Gounari streets. The arch was built in 298 to 299 AD and dedicated in 303 AD to celebrate the victory of the tetrarch Galerius over the Sassanid Persians at the Battle of Satala and capture of their capital Ctesiphon in 298; the structure was an octopylon forming a triple arch, built of a rubble masonry core faced first with brick and with marble panels with sculptural relief. The central arched opening was 9.7 m wide and 12.5 m high, the secondary openings on other side were 4.8 m wide and 6.5 m high. The central arch spanned the portion of the Via Egnatia. A road connecting the Rotunda with the Palace complex passed through the arch along its long axis. Only the northwestern three of the eight pillars and parts of the masonry cores of the arches above survive: i.e. the entire eastern side and the southernmost one of the western pillars are lost.

Extensive consolidation with modern brick has been performed on the exposed masonry cores to protect the monument. The two pillars flanking the central arched passageway retain their sculpted marble slabs, which depict the wars of Galerius against the Persians in broadly panegyric terms. Understanding of the sculptural program of the arch is limited by the loss of the majority of the marble panels, but the remains give an impression of the whole. Four vertically stacked registers of sculpted decoration were carved on each pillar, each separated by elaborate moldings. A label for the Tigris River indicates that there were labels on other representations as the builders deemed necessary. Artistic license was taken in the representations, for instance, the Caesar Galerius is shown in personal combat with the Sassanid Shah Narses in one of the panels. On the arch a mounted Galerius attacks a mounted Narses with a lance as an eagle bearing a victory wreath in its talons approaches Galerius; the Caesar sits securely on his rearing horse.

Terrified Persians cower under the hooves of the Caesar's horse in the chaos of battle. The panel expresses the power of the Caesar Galerius; the relief of the imperial family conjoined in a sacrifice of thanksgiving owes its distant prototype to the Augustan reliefs on the Ara Pacis in Rome. Galerius' wife, Diocletian's daughter Valeria, is shown at his side, helping authenticate his connection to his predecessor. Here as elsewhere all the faces have been chiselled off, whether as damnatio memoriae or in cultural intolerance of images. In another panel, the tetrarchs are all arrayed in the toga as a Victoria holds a victory wreath out to the heads of the two Augusti. A third panel celebrates the unity of the tetrarchy, with a depiction of the tetrarchs standing together. Only Galerius is dressed in armor, he makes the offering upon the altar. What remains of the arch asserts the glory of the tetrarchy and the prominence of Galerius within that system; the arch celebrates the Roman Empire as part of Galerius’ victory over the Sassanid king.

Galerius is pictured on his horse at the right, while attacking a Sassanid guard. The Rotunda of Galerius is 125m northeast of the Arch of Galerius at 40°37'59.77"N, 22°57'9.77"E. It is known as the Greek Orthodox Church of Agios Georgios, is informally called the Church of the Rotunda; the cylindrical structure was built in 306 AD on the orders of the tetrarch Galerius, thought to have intended it to be his mausoleum. The Rotunda has a diameter of 24.5 m. Its walls are more than 6 m thick, why it has withstood Thessaloniki's earthquakes; the walls are interrupted with the west bay forming the entrance. A flat brick dome, 30 m high at the peak, crowns the cylindrical structure. In its original design, the dome of the Rotunda had an oculus. After Galerius's death in 311, he was buried at Gamzigrad near Serbia; the Rotunda stood empty for several decades until the Emperor Theodosius I orde

Tromper Wiek

The Tromper Wiek is a bay on the Baltic Sea between the peninsulas of Wittow and Jasmund on the island of Rügen in northeast Germany. This bay runs in a wide arc from Cape Arkona in the north, through the villages of Juliusruh and Glowe either side of the River Schaabe to the start of the chalk cliffs of the Stubnitz near Lohme; the bay is named after the Dutch admiral, Cornelis Tromp, who, in the second half of the 17th century, led numerous sea battles in the service of Denmark and Brandenburg. For example, he was the commander of the Brandenburg fleet, that landed near Neukamp near Putbus on 23 September 1678 – supported by Denmark – in order to drive the Swedes from the island of Rügen for a short period. On 8 August 1715, during the Great Northern War, the Danish fleet threw a Swedish supply flotilla out of the Tromper Wiek sending them back to Bornholm; the Swedish king, Charles XII is supposed to have watched this sea battle from Königsstuhl on Rügen, hence the name

Boom Boom (Justice Crew song)

"Boom Boom" is a song recorded by Australian hip hop dance and pop group Justice Crew. It was produced by Orange Factory Music. "Boom Boom" was released digitally in Australia on 2 July 2012, as the group's fifth overall single and the first single from their debut studio album Live by the Words. It peaked at number one on the ARIA Singles Chart and was certified six times platinum by the Australian Recording Industry Association, denoting sales of 420,000 copies; the song peaked at number three on the New Zealand Singles Chart and was certified two times platinum by the Recording Industry Association of New Zealand, denoting sales of 30,000 copies. "Boom Boom" was written by British recording artist Jay Sean, produced by Jeremy Skaller and Robert Larow under their stage name Orange Factory Music. It was released digitally on 2 July 2012, physically on 6 July 2012. On 1 October 2012, it was announced that Justice Crew signed to American rapper Pitbull's record label Mr. 305 Inc. a joint venture with RCA Records, to release "Boom Boom" in the United States.

"Boom Boom" was recorded by Pitbull for his own album. However, he turned it down and the song was given to Justice Crew. Pitbull heard "Boom Boom" during his visit to Australia for his Planet Pit World Tour in August 2012 and recognised the song, he visited the Sony Music Australia headquarters and watched the music video for "Boom Boom", he and his management were impressed with Justice Crew's dancing skills. They invited Justice Crew to perform the song at his concert in sydney. A writer for Take 40 Australia called "Boom Boom" a "definite winter party anthem!", while a writer for The Hot Hits Live from LA described it as a "killer new song". "Boom Boom" debuted at number 24 on the ARIA Singles Chart on 9 July 2012. It peaked at number one in its fifth week in the chart, becoming Justice Crew's first number one single, they became the first Australian group in five years to reach number one. "Boom Boom" remained atop the ARIA Singles Chart for two consecutive weeks. The song was certified six times platinum by the Australian Recording Industry Association, denoting sales of 420,000 copies.

In New Zealand, it debuted at number 32 on 13 August 2012, peaked at number three in its fifth week in the chart. "Boom Boom" was certified two times platinum by the Recording Industry Association of New Zealand, denoting sales of 30,000 copies. The accompanying music video for "Boom Boom" premiered on Vevo on 29 June 2012. Justice Crew performed "Boom Boom" on Australia's Got Talent on 4 July 2012, they performed the song during the Sunrise Street Party in Hawthorn, Victoria on 6 July 2012. Digital download"Boom Boom" – 3:05CD single"Boom Boom" – 3:05 "Boom Boom" "Boom Boom" "Boom Boom" "Boom Boom" List of number-one singles of 2012 Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Thanin Kraivichien

Thanin Kraivichien is a Thai former judge and law professor. He was the prime minister of Thailand between 1976 and 1977. Subsequently, he was a member of the Privy Council until 2016. Thanin is a son of Pa-ob Kraivichien, he was born in Bangkok. His father was a Chinese-born owner of one of the biggest pawnshops in Bangkok. Thanin studied law at Thammasat University, graduating in 1948, he went to the London School of Economics to continue with his law studies. He graduated in 1953, in 1958 was called to the Bar at Gray's Inn. In Britain, he met a native of Denmark, whom he married, they have five children. After he returned to Thailand in 1954, Thanin worked in the ministry of justice, becoming an associate judge, he rose finally becoming President of the Supreme Court of Thailand. Additionally, he taught law at Thammasat and Chulalongkorn universities and the Thai Bar Association; as an avocation, he published books. After the democratic uprising against military dictatorship in 1973, Thanin was a member of the transitional legislative assembly appointed by the king.

He became a member of the far-right anti-communist Nawaphon movement. He had a TV show in which he attacked communism, the students' movement, progressive politicians. After the Thammasat University massacre of 6 October 1976, the democratically elected prime minister Seni Pramoj was toppled by a military coup led by Admiral Sangad Chaloryu. Two days King Bhumibol Adulyadej appointed his favourite, Thanin, to be interim prime minister. Thanin insisted on selecting his cabinet himself and rejected most of the military junta's nominations; the military occupied deputy minister of defence. Thanin led the first Thai cabinet in which women, Wimolsiri Chamnarnvej and Lursakdi Sampatisiri, held ministerial posts. Thanin was seen as honest and intelligent but eminently ideological and politically extreme. After his taking office, he sent police special forces to notoriously liberal book shops, ordered the confiscation and burning of 45,000 books, including works of Thomas More, George Orwell, Maxim Gorky.

Thanin announced. The parliament was dissolved and all political parties outlawed. Thanin's crackdown on trade unions, progressive students' and farmers' associations drove activists into the underground structures of the Communist Party of Thailand. Instead of weakening the communists, it fuelled their armed struggle against the government. In March 1977, a group of younger army officers known as the "Young Turks", who had an interest in political matters, tried to topple Thanin, their attempted coup failed. On 20 October 1977, Admiral Sangad again seized power and pressed Thanin to resign; the military justified their intervention because Thanin's government had divided the country and had no public support, the economic situation had worsened, people in general disagreed with such a long-term suspension of democracy. King Bhumibol Adulyadej appointed Thanin to his Privy Council. During the vacancy of the throne after Bhumibol's death on 13 October 2016, the former President of the Privy Council, Prem Tinsulanonda, served as regent and interim head of state.

Thanin temporarily assumed the office of President of the Privy Council during this period. After King Vajiralongkorn's accession to the throne on 1 December 2016, Prem returned to his earlier position, while Thanin was not reappointed to the Privy Council at all. Professor of Chulalongkorn University

Keep Calm and Carry On

Keep Calm and Carry On is a motivational poster produced by the British government in 1939 in preparation for World War II. The poster was intended to raise the morale of the British public, threatened with predicted mass air attacks on major cities. Although 2.45 million copies were printed, although the Blitz did in fact take place, the poster was only publicly displayed and was little known until a copy was rediscovered in 2000 at Barter Books, a bookshop in Alnwick. It has since been re-issued by a number of private companies, has been used as the decorative theme for a range of products. Evocative of the Victorian belief in British stoicism – the "stiff upper lip", self-discipline and remaining calm in adversity – the poster has become recognised around the world, it was thought that only two original copies survived until a collection of 15 was brought in to the Antiques Roadshow in 2012 by the daughter of an ex-Royal Observer Corps member. A few further examples have come to light since.

The Keep Calm and Carry On poster was designed by the Ministry of Information during the period of 27 June to 6 July 1939. It was produced as part of a series of three "Home Publicity" posters; each poster showed the slogan under a representation of a "Tudor Crown". They were intended to be distributed to strengthen morale in the event of a wartime disaster, such as mass bombing of major cities using high explosives and poison gas, expected within hours of an outbreak of war. A career civil servant named A. P. Waterfield came up with "Your Courage" as "a rallying war-cry that will bring out the best in everyone of us and put us in an offensive mood at once". Others involved in the planning of the early posters included: John Hilton, Professor of Industrial Relations at Cambridge University, responsible overall as Director of Home Publicity. Ernest Wallcousins was the artist tasked with creating the poster designs. Detailed planning for the posters had started in April 1939 and the eventual designs were prepared after meetings between officials from the Ministry of Information and HM Treasury on 26 June 1939 and between officials from the Ministry of Information and HMSO on 27 June 1939.

Roughs of the poster were completed on 6 July 1939, the final designs were agreed by the Home Secretary Samuel Hoare, 1st Viscount Templewood on 4 August 1939. Printing began on 23 August 1939, the day that Nazi Germany and the USSR signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, the posters were ready to be placed up within 24 hours of the outbreak of war; the posters were produced in 11 different sizes, ranging from 15 × 10 inches up to large 48-sheet versions. The background colour was either blue; the lettering was hand-drawn by Wallcousins: it is similar, but not identical, to humanist sans-serif typefaces such as Gill Sans and Johnston. 2,500,000 copies of Keep Calm and Carry On were printed between 23 August and 3 September 1939 but the poster was not sanctioned for immediate public display. It was instead decided. Copies of Keep Calm and Carry On were retained until April 1940, but stocks were pulped as part of the wider Paper Salvage campaign. A few copies do appear to have been displayed, but such instances were rare and unauthorised: an October 1940 edition of the Yorkshire Post reports the poster hung in a shop in Leeds.

The remainder of the Ministry of Information publicity campaign was cancelled in October 1939 following criticism of its cost and impact. Many people claimed not to have seen the posters. Design historian Susannah Walker regards the campaign as "a resounding failure" and reflective of a misjudgement by upper-class civil servants of the mood of the people. In late May and early June 1941, 14,000,000 copies of a leaflet entitled "Beating the Invader" were distributed with a message from Prime Minister Winston Churchill; the leaflet begins "If invasion comes..." and exhorts the populace to "Stand Firm" and "Carry On". The two phrases do not appear in one sentence, as they applied to different segments of the population depending on their circumstances, with those civilians finding themselves in areas of fighting ordered to stand firm and those not in areas of fighting ordered to carry on; each mandate is identified as a "great duty" should invasion come. The leaflet lists 14 questions and answers on practical measures to be taken.

In 2000, Stuart Manley, co-owner with his wife Mary of Barter Books Ltd. in Alnwick, was sorting through a box of second-hand books bought at auction when he uncovered one of the original "Keep Calm and Carry On" posters. The couple framed it and hung it up by the cash register. In late 2005, Guardian journalist Susie Steiner featured the replica posters as a Christmas gift suggestion, raising their profile still further. Other

√Čtienne Constantin de Gerlache

Étienne Constantin, Baron de Gerlache was a lawyer and politician in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, became in 1831 the first Prime Minister of the newly founded Belgian state. He was born as son of Margarethe de Groulart, he studied law in Paris and practised there for some time, but settled at Liège after the establishment of the kingdom of the Netherlands. As member of the states-general he was an energetic member of the opposition, though he repudiated an ultramontane policy, he supported the alliance of the extreme Catholics with the Liberal party, which paved the way for the revolution of 1830. On the outbreak of disturbance in August 1830 he still, thought the Orange-Nassau dynasty and the union with the Dutch states essential. In 1832 he was president of the chamber of representatives, for thirty-five years he presided over the court of appeal, he presided over the Catholic congresses held at Mechelen between 1863 and 1867. That his early Liberal views underwent some modification is plain from the Conservative principles enunciated in his Essai sur le mouvement des partis en Belgique.

As an historian his work was colored by his anti-Dutch prejudices and his Catholic predilections. His Histoire des Pays-Bas depuis 1814 jusquen 1830, which reached a fourth edition in 1875, was a piece of special pleading against the Dutch domination; the most important of his other works were his Histoire de Liège and his Études sur Salluste et sur quelques-uns des principaux historiens de l'antiquité. In 1831, he was elected in Liège for the Belgian Chamber of Representatives, of which he was president until 1832. On, he became the first 1st president of the Belgian Court of Cassation, a position he occupied until 1867, he died on 10 February 1871 in Ixelles. Belgium: Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold. Belgium: War Cross. France: Officer of the Legion of Honour. Knight of the Order of Saint Gregory the Great. Étienne Constantin de Gerlache in ODIS - Online Database for Intermediary Structures Media related to Etienne Constantin de Gerlache at Wikimedia Commons