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Archaeocyatha is a taxon of extinct, reef-building marine organisms of warm tropical and subtropical waters that lived during the early Cambrian Period. It is believed that the centre of the Archaeocyatha origin are now located in East Siberia, where they are first known from the beginning of the Tommotian Age of the Cambrian, 525 million years ago. In other regions of the world, they appeared much during the Atdabanian, diversified into over a hundred families, they became the planet's first reef-building animals and are an index fossil for the Lower Cambrian worldwide. The remains of Archaeocyatha are preserved as carbonate structures in a limestone matrix; this means that the fossils cannot be chemically or mechanically isolated, save for some specimens that have eroded out of their matrices, their morphology has to be determined from thin cuts of the stone in which they were preserved. Today, the archaeocyathan families are recognizable by small but consistent differences in their fossilized structures: Some archaeocyathans were built like nested bowls, while others were as long as 300mm.

Some archaeocyaths were solitary organisms. In the beginning of the Toyonian Age around 516 mya, the archaeocyaths went into a sharp decline. All species became extinct by the Middle Cambrian, with the final-known species, Antarcticocyathus webberi, disappearing just prior to the end of the Cambrian period, their rapid decline and disappearance coincided with a rapid diversification of the Demosponges. The archaeocyathids were important reef-builders in the early to middle Cambrian, with reefs becoming rare after the group's extinction until the diversification of new taxa of coral reef-builders in the Ordovician; the typical archaeocyathid resembled a hollow horn coral. Each had a vase-shaped porous skeleton of calcite similar to that of a sponge; the structure appeared like a pair of nested ice cream cones. Their skeletons consisted of either a single porous wall, or more as two concentric porous walls, an inner and outer wall separated by a space. Inside the inner wall was a cavity. At the base, these pleosponges were held to the substrate by a holdfast.

The body occupied the space between the inner and outer shells. Flow tank experiments suggest that archaeocyathan morphology allowed them to exploit flow gradients, either by passively pumping water through the skeleton, or, as in present-day, extant sponges, by drawing water through the pores, removing nutrients, expelling spent water and wastes through the pores into the central space; the size of the pores places a limit on the size of plankton. The archaeocyathans inhabited coastal areas of shallow seas, their widespread distribution over the entire Cambrian world, as well as the taxonomic diversity of the species, might be explained by surmising that, like true sponges, they had a planktonic larval stage that enabled their wide spread. Their phylogenetic affiliation has been subject to changing interpretations, yet the consensus is growing that the archaeocyath was indeed a kind of sponge, thus sometimes called a pleosponge, but some invertebrate paleontologists have placed them in an extinct, separate phylum, known appropriately as the Archaeocyatha.

However, one cladistic analysis suggests that Archaeocyatha is a clade nested within the phylum Porifera. The clade Archaeocyatha have traditionally been divided into Regulares and Irregulares: Hetairacyathida Regulares Monocyathida Capsulocyathida Ajacicyathida Irregulares Thalassocyathida Archaeocyathida KazakhstanicyathidaHowever, who at the time regarded the archaeocyathans as outside of Porifera, divided the phylum in three classes: Phylum Archaeocyatha Vologdin, 1937 Class Monocyathea Okulitch, 1943 Class Archaeocyathea Okulitch, 1943 Class Anthocyathea Okulitch, 1943 Emiliani, Cesare.. Planet Earth: Cosmology, Geology, & the Evolution of Life & the Environment. Cambridge University Press. P 451 Okulitch, V. J. 1955: Part E – Archaeocyatha and Porifera. Archaeocyatha, E1-E20 in Moore, R. C. 1955: Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Geological Society of America & University of Kansas Press, Kansas, 1955, xviii-E122. Knowledge base and interactive key for identification of archaeocyathan genera: Archaeocyathans Archaeocyatha

Siege of Athens and Piraeus (87–86 BC)

The Siege of Athens and Piraeus was a siege of the First Mithridatic War that took place from Autumn of 87 BC to the Spring and Summer of 86 BC. The battle was fought between the forces of the Roman Republic, commanded by Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix on the one hand, the forces of the Kingdom of Pontus and the Athenian City-State on the other; the Greek Pontian forces were commanded by Archelaus. In the spring of 87 BC Sulla landed in Illyria. Asia was occupied by the forces of Mithridates VI of Pontus under the command of Archelaus. Sulla’s first target was Athens, ruled by a Mithridatic puppet. Sulla moved southeast, picking up reinforcements as he went. Sulla’s chief of staff was Lucullus, who went ahead of him to scout the way and negotiate with Bruttius Sura, the existing Roman commander in Greece. After speaking with Lucullus, Sura handed over the command of his troops to Sulla. At Chaeronea, ambassadors from all the major cities of Greece met with Sulla, who impressed on them Rome's determination to drive Mithridates from Greece and Asia Province.

Sulla advanced on Athens. The invasion of Mithridates VI of Pontus, the king of the Kingdom of Pontus into the Kingdom of Bithynia, an ally of Rome, coupled with the assassination of Roman Citizens in the Asiatic Vespers, caused war between Rome and Pontus. Up to 80,000 Roman citizens were massacred. Before long, Mithridates VI had won over all the Greek city states, under Roman rule. After the arrival of Lucius Cornelius Sulla, the majority of the Greek city states returned to the Roman banners. Athens was not amongst the cities that returned to Roman dominance as their tyrant Aristion, imposed by Mithridates VI was not disposed to capitulate to the invaders. Sulla marched upon his arrival he encountered his first problem; the main outer wall that had surrounded the city, connecting the main city with its port at Piraeus, was in ruins. As such, Sulla was forced to conduct two separate sieges, throwing up siege works surrounding both Athens and its port Piraeus. A force commanded by Archelaus defended Piraeus whilst another commanded by Aristion took up the main defense of Athens.

The sea defense was easier as a Pontic fleet dominated the nearby sea, facilitating reinforcement and replenishment whenever necessary. Furthermore, Piraeus had ample supplies from the onset while Athens did not. Sulla decided to first concentrate his attacks on Piraeus, seeing as without its port, there was no way that Athens could be resupplied, he sent Lucius Licinius Lucullus to raise a fleet from the remaining Roman allies in the eastern Mediterranean to deal with the Pontic navy. The first attack on the city was repulsed, so Sulla decided to build huge earthworks. Wood was needed, so he cut down everything, including the sacred groves of Greece, up to 100 miles from Athens main town; when more money was needed he "borrowed" from Sibyls alike. The currency minted from this treasure was to remain in circulation for centuries and prized for its quality. Siege works were built to facilitate the next attack, successful in taking the outer wall of Piraeus. Once the outer wall was taken, Sulla discovered.

Despite the complete encirclement of Athens and its port, several attempts by Archelaus to raise the siege, a stalemate seemed to have developed. Roman attention was temporarily shifted towards Athens. Athens by now was starving, grain was at famine levels in price. Inside the city, the population was reduced to eating shoe grass. A delegation from Athens was sent to treat with Sulla, but instead of serious negotiations they expounded on the glory of their city. Sulla sent them away saying: “I was sent to Athens, not to take lessons, but to reduce rebels to obedience.” Soon Sulla's camp was to fill with refugees from Rome, fleeing the massacres of Cinna. These included his wife and children, as well as those of the Optimate party who had not been killed. With his political enemies having taken power in Rome, Sulla realized that the money and reinforcements he believed were coming to bolster his forces were no longer something to be counted on. For this reason, Sulla ordered the sacking of religious site in the vicinity.

The chronicles state that one of the people sent on such a sacking mission became afraid due to ominous voices having been heard upon entering the temple. Deciding not to continue sacking the temple, the soldier returned to Sulla who ordered him back stating that he had heard laughter because the gods would be pleased with his victory. With Athens on the verge of starvation, Aristion grew less popular by the day. Greek deserters informed Sulla. Sulla sent sappers to undermine the wall. Nine hundred feet of wall was brought down between the Sacred and Piraeic gates on the southwest side of the city. On 1 March 86 BC, after five months under siege, a midnight sack of Athens began. After the taunts of Aristion, Sulla was not in a mood to be magnanimous. Blood was said to have flowed in the streets, it was only after the entreaties of a couple of his Greek friends and the pleas of the Roman Senators in his camp that Sulla decided enough was enough. After setting fire to large portions of the city and his forces fled to the Acropolis where they had gathered a store of supplies over the preceding few weeks.

At the same time, Archelaus abandoned the city of Piraeus and concentrated his forces in the citadel of the city. In a bid to stop an escape by Archelaus who would join his reinforcement army sent by Mithridates V


Gebirgsjäger are the light infantry part of the alpine or mountain troops of Germany and Switzerland. The word Jäger is a characteristic term used for light-infantry or light-infantryman in a continental European military context; the mountain infantry of Austria have their roots in the three Landesschützen regiments of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The mountain infantry of Germany carry on certain traditions of the Alpenkorps of World War I. Both countries' mountain infantry share the Edelweiß insignia, it was established in 1907 as a symbol of the Austro-Hungarian Landesschützen regiments by Emperor Franz Joseph I. These troops wore their edelweiss on the collar of their uniforms; when the Alpenkorps came to aid the Landesschützen in defending Austria-Hungary's southern frontier against the Italian attack in May 1915, the grateful Landesschützen honoured the men of the Alpenkorps by awarding them their own insignia: the edelweiss. Together with the Fallschirmjäger they are perceived as the elite infantry units of the German Army.

During World War II the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS raised a number of mountain infantry units. An entire corps was formed in Norway by 1941, its divisions were equipped, with much of the transport provided by mules. These mountain infantry were equipped with fewer automatic weapons than regular infantry, however the MG 34 or MG 42 machine gunners were provided with more ammunition than their regular infantry counterparts. Mountain infantry were identified by the edelweiss insignia worn on their caps. Mountain infantry participated in many battles, including Operation Weserübung, Operation Silver Fox, Operation Platinum Fox and Operation Arctic Fox, the operations in the Caucasus, the Gothic Line, the invasion of Crete and the battles in the Vosges region of France. Special equipment was made for them including the G33/40 mauser rifle based on the VZ.33 rifle. 1st Mountain Division 2nd Mountain Division 3rd Mountain Division 4th Mountain Division 5th Mountain Division 6th Mountain Division 7th Mountain Division 8th Mountain Division 9th Mountain Division 188th Mountain Division 6th SS Mountain Division Nord 7th SS Volunteer Mountain Division Prinz Eugen 13th Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Handschar 21st Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Skanderbeg 23rd Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Kama 24th Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Karstjäger Honouring tradition, upon the creation of the Bundeswehr in 1956, the mountain infantry returned as a distinctive arm of the West German army.

Until 2001, they were organized as the 1. Gebirgsdivision, but this division was disbanded in a general reform; the successor unit is Gebirgsjägerbrigade 23. The battalions of these mountain infantry are deployed in southern Bavaria as this is the only high mountain area in Germany touching the Northern Alps. Since 2008 the unit is called "Gebirgsjägerbrigade 23 Bayern" as a commendation of the close relationship between the state and the Gebirgsjäger. According to the official Bundeswehr website, the brigade has a current strength of 6,500 soldiers; the soldiers of the mountain infantry wear a grey cap with an edelweiß on its left side, stem to the front. This distinguishes them from all other German army soldiers who wear berets and the Austrian army, whose edelweiß has its stem to the back; the formal uniform, based on traditional alpine mountain climbing trekking outfits, is different from the standard mainstream German army uniform, consists of a light-weight grey ski blouse, black Stirrup trousers or during the summer periods "Culottes" knee-breeches similar to knickerbockers, ankle-height mountaineering boots or dual-use mountaineering ski boots.

A soldier is allowed to wear the edelweiß on the forage cap after he has completed the "Edelweißmarsch". This honor is only allowed for the mountain infantry. German Gebirgsjäger traditionally share a close comradeship and distinct esprit de corps. There is a special perception of discipline which can for example be seen in a informal relationship between officers and soldiers during normal day duty; the main tasks of the German mountain infantry are: Warfare in extreme weather conditions Winter warfare Warfare in urban terrain Warfare in arctic and desert terrain List of active mountain infantry in the Bundeswehr as of 2014: Gebirgsjägerbrigade 23 Stab und Stabskompanie in Bad Reichenhall Gebirgsjägerbataillon 231 in Bad Reichenhall Gebirgsjägerbataillon 232 in Bischofswiesen Gebirgsjägerbataillon 233 in Mittenwald Gebirgsaufklärungsbataillon 230 in Füssen Gebirgsfernmeldebataillon 210 in Bad Reichenhall and Bischofswiesen Gebirgspionierbataillon 8 in Ingolstadt Gebirgslogistikbataillon 8 in Füssen Einsatz- und Ausbildungszentrum für Gebirgstragtierwesen 230 in Bad Reichenhall List of mountain units which are not part of the Gebirgsjägerbrigade 23: Gebirgs- und Winterkampfschule (international training center for mountain area and w

Sakura Yosozumi

Sakura Yosozumi is a Japanese professional skateboarder who has competed in the X Games and the Asian Games. Yosozumi was influenced by her older brother to take up the sport. In September 2017, she trains on weekdays for five hours after attending school. At the 2016 World Cup Skateboarding, hosted in Tokyo she competed in the women's park event where she finished 29th among competitors, she returned in the 2018 edition hosted in Orange and competed in the bowl event instead where she placed sixth. Yosozumi skated at the 2017 Vans Park Series Asian Championships in Singapore where she finished third. At the women's division of the VPS Pro Tour in Brazil in June 2018, Yosozumi claimed the top spot by outbesting Yndiara Asp of Brazil and Brighton Zeuner of the United States. At the Huntington Beach, California leg, she finished second in the qualifying round while failed to reach the podium after she ended fifth overall. Yosuzumi competed at X Games Minneapolis 2018 in the women's park event, she finished second in the qualifying round while she obtain a bronze medal in the final behind gold medalist Brighton Zeuner and Sabre Norris of Australia.

Japan at the 2018 Asian Games hosted in Jakarta and Palembang, Indonesia won three gold medals in the skateboard discipline. One of the three gold was won by Yosozumi in the women's park event, she performed ahead of silver medalist and compatriot Kaya Isa and bronze medalist Zhang Xin of China

Vasco Gonçalves

General Vasco dos Santos Gonçalves OA was a Portuguese army officer in the Engineering Corps who took part in the Carnation Revolution and served as the 104th Prime Minister from 18 July 1974 to 19 September 1975. Vasco dos Santos Gonçalves was born on May 1921, in Sintra, Portugal, his father, Vítor Cândido Gonçalves, was an amateur footballer turned foreign exchange dealer. He graduated from the Portuguese military academy as an engineer in 1942. Gonçalves married, in 1950, Aida Rocha Afonso, with whom he had a son, a daughter, Maria João. In 1942, Gonçalves graduated from a Portuguese military academy in the Army Engineering Corps; as an officer, Gonçalves served in Portuguese Goa, spent part of his military career in the Portuguese overseas territories of Angola and Mozambique. In 1973, Gonçalves joined the Armed Forces Movement and was involved in the planning of the overthrow of the Estado Novo regime. Gonçalves's tenure as Prime Minister of Portugal was marked by political instability; the PM oversaw the transition of the Portugal into a democracy known as the Processo Revolucionário Em Curso or the Ongoing Revolutionary Process.

Early in March 1975, Gonçalves's leadership was challenged by a right-wing coup attempt which failed. Emboldened by this, the Prime Minister proceeded to nationalize all Portuguese-owned capital in the banking, petrochemical, tobacco and wood pulp sectors of the economy, as well as the Portuguese iron and steel company, major breweries, large shipping lines, most public transport, two of the three principal shipyards, core companies of the Companhia União Fabril conglomerate, radio and TV networks, important companies in the glass, mining and agricultural sectors. In April 1975, the Socialist Party and its allies gained a majority in the provisional constituent assembly. On August 18, Gonçalves delivered an impassioned speech decrying his political opponents; the tone of this speech raised doubts about his sanity and two weeks amid a growing threat of civil war, President Francisco da Costa Gomes dismissed Gonçalves. Gonçalves' dismissal was met with heavy opposition from the radical Portuguese left, most notably from the Portuguese Workers' Communist Party, which organized mass demonstrations in Lisbon in September 1975.

After his tenure as Prime Minister, Gonçalves retired from politics and would attend rallies in support of movements from the left. His last public appearance was in 2004 at an event with Portuguese Prime Minister José Manuel Durão Barroso. While remaining independent throughout his life, Gonçalves identified as a Marxist. Vasco dos Santos Gonçalves died on June 11, 2005 at the age of 84 after drowning in his brother's swimming pool due to cardiac complications


Yamato-damashii or Yamato-gokoro is a Japanese language term for the cultural values and characteristics of the Japanese people. The phrase was coined in the Heian period to describe the indigenous Japanese'spirit' or cultural values as opposed to cultural values of foreign nations such as those identified through contact with Tang dynasty China. A qualitative contrast between Japanese and Chinese spirit was elicited from the term. Edo period writers and samurai used it to augment and support the Bushido concept of honor and valor. Japanese nationalists propagandized Yamato-damashii – "the brave and indomitable spirit of Japanese people" – as one of the key Japanese military-political doctrines in the Shōwa period. English translations of Yamato-damashii include the "Japanese spirit", "Japanese soul", "Yamato spirit", "The Soul of Old Japan". Lafcadio Hearn mentions the latter in connection with Shinto. For this national type of moral character was invented the name Yamato-damashi, — the Soul of Yamato, — the appellation of the old province of Yamato, seat of the early emperors, being figuratively used for the entire country.

We might though less interpret the expression Yamato-damashi as "The Soul of Old Japan". Yamato-damashi did not bear the bellicose weight or ideological timbre that it assumed in pre-war modern Japan, it first occurs in the Otome section of The Tale of Genji, as a native virtue that flourishes best, not as a contrast to foreign civilization but, rather when it is grounded on a solid basis in Chinese learning. Thus we read: No, the safe thing is to give him a good, solid fund of knowledge, it is. Yamato-damashii "Japan, Japanese" compounds Yamato with damashii, the voiced rendaku pronunciation of tamashii. Both these kanji readings Yamato and damashii are native Japanese kun'yomi, while the Wakon reading is Sinitic on'yomi borrowed from Chinese Héhún. Yamato is the second of three common Japanese endonyms for'Japan. Wa is Japan's oldest endonym and derives from the Han dynasty Chinese exonym Wō 倭 "Japan, Japanese"; this character 倭, which graphically combines the 亻 "human, person" radical and a wěi 委 "bend" phonetic, was pronounced wēi in Classical Chinese compounds like wēichí 倭遲 "winding, circuitous", but scholars have interpreted Wō 倭 "Japanese" as connoting either "submissive.

In the 8th century, Japanese scribes replaced the pejorative Chinese character 倭 for Wa "Japan" with Wa 和 "harmony. Yamato is the oldest native name for "Japan". Daiwa and Taiwa are on'yomi readings; this name Yamato referred to "Yamato Province", around present-day Nara Prefecture, where Emperor Jimmu legendarily founded Japan. Common words with this prefix include Yamato-jidai, Yamato-minzoku, Yamato-e. In current Japanese usage, Wa 倭 is an archaic variant Chinese character for Wa 和, Yamato is a literary and historical term, Nihon is the usual name for "Japan. Tamashii or tama is Japanese kun ` yomi, while gon is Chinese on ` yomi; the Shinto-influenced semantics of Japanese tama/tamashii exceed customary English concepts of "spirit", "soul", or "ghost", besides the human soul, it includes diverse spiritual forces found in nature. Roy Andrew Miller suggests that German Geist or French élan are better translations than English spirit or soul: But we must conclude that nothing in any used European language, including English does justice to Japanese tama.

The spirit, Geist, or élan to which the Japanese term has reference, whether it is the tama of Yamato-damashii or the tama of kotodama, is a vital and active entity that plays no part in any usual Western-language imagery or expression. We have no such word, we make use of no imagery capitalizing upon the concepts that it employs. Kotodama illustrate this traditional Japanese belief about tama energies. Kenkyūsha's New Japanese-English Dictionary gives kotodama translation equivalents and a revealing usage example: "ことだま【言霊】, the soul of language. ̍ ⇨ 言霊の幸う国 Japan, "the land where the mysterious workings of language bring bliss"." Yamato nadeshiko is a floral metaphor for "the idealized traditional Japanese woman". During World War II, ultra-nationalists popularized Yamato-nadeshiko as the female manifestation of Yamato-damashii; the record of Yamato-damashii dates back one millennium to the Heian period of Japanese history, when Chinese culture and Chinese language were influential. Yamato-gokoro (大和心 "Japanese heart.

The Heian poet Akazome Emon first used Yamato-gokoro in her Goshūi Wakashū. Since Wa 和 abbreviates Yamato 大和 "Japan; the Konjaku Monogatarishū first uses it describing a burglar who murdered a n