Partition of India
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions and Pakistan. The Dominion of India became, as of 1950, the Republic of India, the Dominion of Pakistan became, as of 1956, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan In 1971, the People's Republic of Bangladesh came into being after Bangladesh Liberation War; the partition involved the division of three provinces, Assam and Punjab, based on district-wide Hindu or Muslim majorities. The boundary demarcating India and Pakistan came to be known as the Radcliffe Line, it involved the division of the British Indian Army, the Royal Indian Navy, the Indian Civil Service, the railways, the central treasury, between the two new dominions. The partition was set forth in the Indian Independence Act 1947 and resulted in the dissolution of the British Raj, as the British government there was called; the two self-governing countries of Pakistan and India came into existence at midnight on 14–15 August 1947.
The partition displaced over 14 million people along religious lines, creating overwhelming refugee crises in the newly constituted dominions. The violent nature of the partition created an atmosphere of hostility and suspicion between India and Pakistan that plagues their relationship to the present; the term partition of India does not cover the secession of Bangladesh from Pakistan in 1971, nor the earlier separations of Burma and Ceylon from the administration of British India. The term does not cover the political integration of princely states into the two new dominions, nor the disputes of annexation or division arising in the princely states of Hyderabad and Jammu and Kashmir, though violence along religious lines did break out in some princely states at the time of the partition, it does not cover the incorporation of the enclaves of French India into India during the period 1947–1954, nor the annexation of Goa and other districts of Portuguese India by India in 1961. Other contemporaneous political entities in the region in 1947, Bhutan and the Maldives were unaffected by the partition.
In 1905, the viceroy, Lord Curzon, in his second term, divided the largest administrative subdivision in British India, the Bengal Presidency, into the Muslim-majority province of East Bengal and Assam and the Hindu-majority province of Bengal. Curzon's act, the Partition of Bengal—which some considered administratively felicitous, contemplated by various colonial administrations since the time of Lord William Bentinck, but never acted upon—was to transform nationalist politics as nothing else before it; the Hindu elite of Bengal, among them many who owned land in East Bengal, leased out to Muslim peasants, protested fervidly. The large Bengali Hindu middle-class, upset at the prospect of Bengalis being outnumbered in the new Bengal province by Biharis and Oriyas, felt that Curzon's act was punishment for their political assertiveness; the pervasive protests against Curzon's decision took the form predominantly of the Swadeshi campaign and involved a boycott of British goods. Sporadically—but flagrantly—the protesters took to political violence that involved attacks on civilians.
The violence, was not effective, as most planned attacks were either preempted by the British or failed. The rallying cry for both types of protest was the slogan Bande Mataram, the title of a song by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, which invoked a mother goddess, who stood variously for Bengal and the Hindu goddess Kali; the unrest spread from Calcutta to the surrounding regions of Bengal when Calcutta's English-educated students returned home to their villages and towns. The religious stirrings of the slogan and the political outrage over the partition were combined as young men, in groups such as Jugantar, took to bombing public buildings, staging armed robberies, assassinating British officials. Since Calcutta was the imperial capital, both the outrage and the slogan soon became nationally known; the overwhelming, but predominantly Hindu, protest against the partition of Bengal and the fear, in its wake, of reforms favouring the Hindu majority, now led the Muslim elite in India, in 1906, to meet with the new viceroy, Lord Minto, to ask for separate electorates for Muslims.
In conjunction, they demanded proportional legislative representation reflecting both their status as former rulers and their record of cooperating with the British. This led, to the founding of the All-India Muslim League in Dacca. Although Curzon, by now, had resigned his position over a dispute with his military chief Lord Kitchener and returned to England, the League was in favour of his partition plan; the Muslim elite's position, reflected in the League's position, had crystallized over the previous three decades, beginning with the 1871 Census of British India, which had first estimated the populations in regions of Muslim majority. In the three decades since that census, Muslim leaders across northern India, had intermittently experienced public animosity from some of the new Hindu p
Arikamedu is an archaeological site in Southern India, in Kakkayanthope, Ariyankuppam Commune, Puducherry. It is 4 kilometres from Pondicherry of the Indian territory of Puducherry. Sir Mortimer Wheeler 1945, Jean-Marie Casal conducted archaeological excavations there in 1947–1950; the site was identified as the port of Podouke, known as an "emporium" in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea and Ptolemy. Digs have found Amphorae, Arretine ware, Roman lamps, glassware and stone beads, gems at the site. Based on these excavations, Wheeler concluded that the Arikamedu was a Greek trading post that traded with Rome, starting during the reign of Augustus Caesar, lasted about two hundred years—from the late first century BCE to the first and second centuries CE. Subsequent investigation by Vimala Begley from 1989 to 1992 modified this assessment, now place the period of occupation from the 2nd century BCE to the 8th century CE. Significant findings at Arikamedu include numerous Indo-Pacific beads, which facilitated fixing the period of its origin.
Red and black ceramics—known as megalithic stones or Pandukal in Tamil meaning "old stones" and used to mark graves—have existed at the site prior to and during Roman occupation of the site, in periods. Arikamedu is a coastal fishing village, under the Ariankuppam Panchayat, on the southeastern coast of India, 4 kilometres from Pondicherry, on the Pondicherry-Cuddalore road, it is located on the bank of the Ariyankuppam River known as Virampattinam River, which forms the northern outlet of the Gingee River as it joins the Bay of Bengal. As the site is located at the bend of the river it provides protection to sea-going vessels that dock there; the site has been subject to extensive archaeological excavations. The archaeological site is spread over an area of 34.57 acres and has been under the control of the Archaeological Survey of India since 1982. The name Arikamedu, an archaeological usage for the excavated site, originates in a Tamil word that means Mound of Arakan, based on the figurine of an avatar of the Jain Tirthankara Mahavira found at the site.
It is linked with Viraiyapattinam or Virampattinam, meaning Port of Virai, a village next to Arikamedu. Virai, according to Sangam literature, was well known as a port and for its salt pans during the Velir dynasty. Arikamedu-Virampatnam together find mention as Poduke, a major port in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea in the first century CE and as Poduke emporion in Ptolemy's Geographia of mid first century CE. Poduke is a Roman name and is said to be a corrupted version of the Tamil name Potikai, meaning a "meeting place" known for the local Poduvar clan; the first mention about Arikamedu was in 1734, in a communication from the Consul of the Indo-French colony of Pondicherry. It informed the French East India Company that villagers were extracting old bricks from the Virampattinam; the earliest mention of the Arikamedu archaeological site was by Le Gentil of France, who the King of France had assigned to observe notable astronomical occurrences in the world. Gentil, after visiting Arikamedu, confirmed the earlier report of the Consul of the Indo-French colony.
In 1765, when he visited the ruins at the site, he found the people of the village collecting large ancient bricks exposed at the river bank. The villagers told him that they had retrieved the bricks from an old fort of the king the Vira-Raguen. In 1937, Jouveau Dubreuil, an Indologist from France, purchased gem stone antiquities from local children, gathered some exposed on the site's surface. In particular, he found an intaglio carved with the picture of a man; as a numismatist, he identified the intaglio as Augustus Caesar. He found fine beads and gems, he concluded. Dubreuil informed the local Governor of Pondicherry about his find, called Arikamedu "a true Roman city." He published a short note about his findings. In the early 1940s, Service des Travaux Publics carried out random excavations. Father Fancheux and Raymand Surleau, who were not qualified archaeologists, carried out the excavations at Arikamedu and sent a few antiquities to Indian museums, to the École française d'Extrême-Orient in Hanoi.
Sir R. E. M. Wheeler, the Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India, in the 1940s saw a few potsherds of Arikamedu site displayed in the Madras Museum, which he identified as Arrentine ware, an expensive ceramic made until 50 CE in Arizzo, Italy. Thereafter, when he visited the Pondicherry Museum and saw more of the findings from the Arikamedu site, he was impressed and thought that he had found the links between the Classical Mediterranean and Ancient India. Soon thereafter in 1945, the penultimate year of World War II, he mounted excavations in a scientific manner, he was looking for an archaeological site in India that could establish its cultural link, a datum of the Indian antiquities to the Greco-Roman period, this quest led him to the Arikamedu site. These excavations involved Indian archaeologists, who were trained on the site. Wheeler published his findings in 1946, he noted that, for the local fishermen of the village, the antiquities were strange—as they consisted of lamps, glass items, gemstones and crockery, wine containers, etc.
He observed that traders traveled from west coast and from Ceylon and the Ganges area to trade goods such as gems and spices, silk. He carried out excavations so that none of the antiquities were damaged; this was followed by investigations from 1947 -- 1950 by Jean-Marie Casal. His report of excava
Maski is a town and an archaeological site in the Raichur district of the state of Karnataka, India. It lies on the bank of the Maski river, a tributary of the Tungabhadra. Maski derives its name from Masangi; the site came into prominence with the discovery of a minor rock edict of Emperor Ashoka by C. Beadon in 1915, it was the first edict of Emperor Ashoka that contained the name Ashoka in it instead of the earlier edicts that referred him as Devanampiye piyadasi. This edict was important to conclude that many edicts found earlier in the Indian sub-continent in the name of Devanampiye piyadasi, all belonged to Emperor Ashoka; the edict is etched on a rock-face of Durgada-gudda, one of the gneissic outcrops that are present in the site. Maski is the place on the Raichur Doab, under the hegemony of the imperial Chola empire and it was here that Rajendra Chola I defeated Jayasimha II, the Western Chalukya ruler in battle in 1019-1020 AD. Maski was studied by Robert Bruce Foote in 1870 and 1888.
In 1915, C. Beadon, a mining engineer, discovered Ashoka's rock edict here. In 1935-37, the archaeological department of Hyderabad state explored this region and in 1954, Amalananda Ghosh excavated this place on behalf of the Archaeological Survey of India; the Maski version of Minor Rock Edict No.1 was especially important in that it confirmed the association of the title "Devanampriya" with Ashoka: of Devanampriya Asoka. Two and a half years since I am a Buddha-Sakya. Somewhat more I have visited the Samgha and have shown zeal; those gods, unmingled in Jambudvipa, have how become mingled. This object can be reached by a lowly, devoted to morality. One must not think thus, --. Both the lowly and the exalted must be told: "If you act thus, this matter prosperous and of long duration, will thus progress to one and a half; the excavations indicated. In Period I, microliths and blades made of agate, chert and opal are found. Ornamental beads of agate, coral and other materials are found. Dull-grey ware and painted-buff ware pottery are found, some of which were painted with linear patterns.
Animal remains of cattle, buffalo and goat are found. Period II saw five different forms of burials were discovered. Lances, ferrules and arrowheads were found, apart from beads of gold and terracotta objects; the pottery of Period II consisted of the megalithic red-and-black ware, all-black ware and red-slipped ware, some of which had graffiti on them. Coins were discovered in the Period III which saw the use of Russet-coated painted ware; the earliest specimens of Indian glass were discovered at Maski. A cylinder seal has been found here. Maski is well connected by road, it lies on Bangalore-Gulbarga road. Maski ia around 80 km from raichur and 22 km from Sindhanur. Maski can be reached by KSRTC buses from all Major cities in Karnataka. Raichur Junction, 80 km away, is the nearest railway station. Hatti Gold Mines Mudgal Raichur Hampi
John Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence
John Laird Mair Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence, known as Sir John Lawrence, Bt. between 1858 and 1869, was an English-born Ulsterman who became a prominent British Imperial statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1864 to 1869. Lawrence was born in Richmond, North Yorkshire, he was the youngest son born into an Ulster-Scots family, his mother being from County Donegal while his father was from Coleraine. Lawrence spent his early years in Derry, a city in the Province of Ulster in the northern part of Ireland, was educated at Foyle College and Wraxhall School in Bath, his father had served in India as a soldier in the British Army and his elder brothers included George Lawrence and Henry Lawrence. At the age of sixteen, despite wishing for a military career like his brothers, his father enrolled him at the East India Company College, believing a career as a civil servant offered better prospects, he attended Haileybury for two years, where by his own admission he was neither idle nor industrious, yet he won prizes in history, political economy and Bengali.
Lawrence entered the Bengal Civil Service and in September 1829 he set sail for India with his brother Henry. On arrival he settled at Fort William where he was expected to pass examinations in local vernacular. Having mastered Persian and Urdu, Lawrence's first job was as a magistrate and tax collector in Delhi. After four years in Delhi he was transferred to Panipat and two years hence was placed in charge of Gurgaon district. In 1837, Lawrence was made a settlement officer at Etawah. Whilst doing the role he was close to death, he spent three months in Calcutta to convalesce but having failed to recover he returned to England in 1840. The following year, whilst in County Donegal he met and married his wife Harriette in August 1841; the couple spent six months travelling Europe until news from the First Anglo-Afghan War led to them returning to England, back to India in the autumn of 1842. On his return to India, Lawrence was appointed a Civil and Sessions Judge in Delhi, given responsibility over Karnal.
During the First Anglo-Sikh War between 1845-46, Sir Henry Hardinge sent orders for Lawrence to assist the armed forces. He played a key role ahead of the Battle of Sobraon, ensuring supplies and guns were collected and transferred to the battle; the East India Company's victory at Sobraon brought the war to an end, his brother Henry was made the Resident at Lahore. Sir Henry Hardinge appointed Lawrence to govern the newly-annexed Jullundur district and Hill-States regions of the Punjab. In that role he was known for his administrative reforms, for subduing the hill tribes, for his attempts to end the custom of suttee, he attempted to tackle the issue of female infanticide threatening the Bedi's with confiscation of their lands if they didn't give up the practice. His assistant Robert Cust described Lawrence's interviews with native land-holders as follows: "John Lawrence was full of energy - his coat off, his sleeves turned up above his elbows and impressing upon his subjects his principles of a just state demand...thou shall not burn thy widow, thou shall not kill thy daughters.
Another assistant, Lewin Bowring, described how he had a rough tongue with the local chiefs, who had a wholesome dread of him. He was described as far abler than his brother at details, but was not held in as much affection by the chiefs. On 30 March 1849, the Punjab was proclaimed a province of British India. A Board of Administration was formed to govern the province, led by Henry Lawrence, with John Lawrence assisting alongside Charles Grenville Mansel. In the role he was responsible for numerous reforms of the province, including the abolition of internal duties, establishment of a common currency and postal system, encouraged the development of Punjabi infrastructure, earning him the sobriquet of "the Saviour of the Punjab". Lawrence was eager to raise money for public works and to raise improve infrastructure after half a century of conflict, however was driven to make ends meet and to deliver a surplus. After three years, revenue had increased by fifty percent and the Punjab was delivering a surplus of over one million pounds sterling.
Lawrence oversaw an extension of the Grand Trunk Road from Delhi to Peshawar, the construction of a highway from Lahore to Multan, the Bari Doab Canal which provided a boon to cultivators in the area. Despite being successful in its output, the Board of Administration saw tensions over Henry's policy of retaining the support of the local aristocracy, with John arguing that the policy was too extravagant and hurting finances. In December 1852, with the success of the Board of Administration ensured, both John and Henry offered their resignation, both with a view of take up the vacant Residency at Hyderabad. Lord Dalhousie feeling the necessity of a Board of Administration was no longer required, sought to replace it with a Chief Commissioner. Dalhousie made John the first Chief Commissioner of the Punjab; as Chief Commissioner, Lawrence carried on the policies from before - public works were extended and education encouraged and surveying completed. He granted greater authority to villages, upheld the decisions of village headsmen.
In addition, Lawrence now had responsibility for managing the mercurial group of assistants recruited by his brother known as Henry Lawrence's "Young Men". In February 1856, John returned to Calcutta to wish farewell to the departing Lord Dalhousie, retiring to England; as a parting gift, Dalhouse recommended Lawrence for a K. C. B.. Whilst in Calcutta, John would meet Henry for the last
National Museum, New Delhi
The National Museum in New Delhi known as the National Museum of India, is one of the largest museums in India. Established in 1949, it holds variety of articles ranging from pre-historic era to modern works of art, it functions under the Ministry of Government of India. The museum is situated on the corner of Maulana Azad Road; the blue–print of the National Museum had been prepared by the Gwyer Committee set up by the Government of India in 1946. The museum has around 200,000 works of art, both of Indian and foreign origin, covering over 5,000 years, it houses the National Museum Institute of History of Arts and Museology on the first floor, established in 1983 and now is a Deemed University since 1989, runs Masters and Doctoral level courses in History of Art and Museology. The roots of the National Museum begin with an exhibition of Indian art and artefacts at the Royal Academy in London in the winter of 1947-48. At the end of the London exhibition, the exhibition curators had decided to display the same collection intact in India before returning the artefacts to their individual museums.
The Indian exhibition was shown at the Rashtrapati Bhawan in 1949, was so successful that it led to the decision to form a permanent National Museum. On 15 August 1949, the National Museum was formally inaugurated by the Governor-General of India, Chakravarti Rajagopalachari. At that time, it was decided that until a permanent home could be found for the collection, it would continue to be housed at the Rashtrapati Bhawan; the cornerstone of the present museum building was laid by Jawaharlal Nehru, the Prime Minister of India, on 12 May 1955, the building formally opened to the public on 18 December 1960. Today, the museum is funded by the Ministry of Culture and Ministry of Tourism. Presently, there are several departments in the National Museum. Pre-History Archaeology Archaeology Manuscripts Numismatics & Epigraphy Paintings Arms & Armour Decorative Arts Central Asian Antiquities Pre-Columbian Art Jewellery Anthropology Education Public Relations Publication Conservation DisplayThe collections of the National Museum covers nearly all the departments.
It represents all disciplines of art: Archaeology, Armour, Decorative Arts, Manuscripts and Tanjore Paintings, Numismatics, Central Asian Antiquities, Pre-Columbian American and Western Art Collections. The museum has in its possession over 200,000 works of art, of both Indian and foreign origin, covering more than 5,000 years of the rich cultural heritage of different parts of the world, its rich holdings of various creative traditions and disciplines which represents a unity amidst diversity, an unmatched blend of the past with the present and strong perspective for the future, brings history to life. The National Museum building has two floors, it has a rotunda. The museum has various artefacts from the Harappan Civilization known as Indus Valley Civilization or Indo- Saraswati; the whole collection of this gallery represents the advanced technology and sophisticated lifestyle of the Harappan people. Most of the objects on display are permanent loans from the Archaeological Survey of India.
Most famous among the objects are the Priest Head, the Dancing Girl made in Bronze and belongs to the early Harappan period, Skeleton excavated from Rakhigarhi in Haryana, Terracotta images of Mother Goddess and Clay Pottery. Apart from these the gallery has Sculptures in Bronzes & Terracotta, Bone Objects, Steatite, Semi-Precious Stones, Painted Pottery and Jewellery items. Many seals have been discovered during numerous excavations; these seals were used for trading purposes. These seals depict bulls, unicorns, crocodiles, unknown symbols. On one of the seal, there is the depiction of Pasupati The gallery presents the vibrancy of human civilization in India at par with the contemporary civilizations of Mesopotamia and China. Among the artefacts, the most significant is the Dancing Girl, a 4.5 inch bronze statue. It was discovered from Mohenjodaro; the name Dancing Girl was coined by Sir John Marshall. It is made by the Lost Wax Method; the Chola bronzes and the Dhokra castings are still made this way.
The gallery has objects from the 4th century BCE to the 1st century BCE. It has objects spanning three major dynasties. Objects in the gallery have Greek influence characterized by the mirror like finishing; the gallery houses fragments of railings from various ancient Stupas that are carved on with episodes from Buddha's Life. A major object is the one showing Sage Asita's visit to baby Siddharta and the Bharhut railings that depicts the story related to the Relics associated with Buddha by the sage Drona. A typical feature of the period to which objects in the gallery belongs to is that the sculpture do not depict Buddha in the physical form, he is always shown using symbols like the Dharmachakra, the Bodhi tree, empty throne, etc. This gallery has art objects from the Kushan period; the major school of arts were the Mathura School of Art. The Gandhara school had huge influence of Greek Iconography and the themes were Buddhist. Most prominent among the objects is the Standing Buddha, made in Grey schist stone in Gandhara School of Arts and it belongs to the 2nd century CE.
This period was the first time. The Mathura school of arts had primary themes of Buddhism and Brahmanism while the Gandhara Arts were of Buddhist themes. Other sculptures i
Mohenjo-daro is an archaeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. Built around 2500 BCE, it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation, one of the world's earliest major cities, contemporaneous with the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Minoan Crete, Norte Chico. Mohenjo-daro was abandoned in the 19th century BCE as the Indus Valley Civilization declined, the site was not rediscovered until the 1920s. Significant excavation has since been conducted at the site of the city, designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980; the site is threatened by erosion and improper restoration. The city's original name is unknown. Based on his analysis of a Mohenjo-daro seal, Iravatham Mahadevan speculates that the city's ancient name could have been Kukkutarma. Cock-fighting may have had ritual and religious significance for the city, with domesticated chickens bred there for sacred purposes, rather than as a food source. Mohenjo-daro may have been a point of diffusion for the eventual worldwide domestication of chickens.
Mohenjo-daro, the modern name for the site, has been variously interpreted as "Mound of the Dead Men" in Sindhi, as "Mound of Mohan". Mohenjo-daro is located west of the Indus River in Larkana District, Pakistan, in a central position between the Indus River and the Ghaggar-Hakra River, it is situated on a Pleistocene ridge in the middle of the flood plain of the Indus River Valley, around 28 kilometres from the town of Larkana. The ridge was prominent during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization, allowing the city to stand above the surrounding flood, but subsequent flooding has since buried most of the ridge in silt deposits; the Indus still flows east of the site, but the Ghaggar-Hakra riverbed on the western side is now dry. Mohenjo-daro was built in the 26th century BCE, it was one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization known as the Harappan Civilization, which developed around 3,000 BCE from the prehistoric Indus culture. At its height, the Indus Civilization spanned much of what is now Pakistan and North India, extending westwards to the Iranian border, south to Gujarat in India and northwards to an outpost in Bactria, with major urban centers at Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, Kalibangan and Rakhigarhi.
Mohenjo-daro was the most advanced city of its time, with remarkably sophisticated civil engineering and urban planning. When the Indus civilization went into sudden decline around 1900 BCE, Mohenjo-daro was abandoned; the ruins of the city remained undocumented for around 3,700 years until R. D. Banerji, an officer of the Archaeological Survey of India, visited the site in 1919–20 identifying what he thought to be a Buddhist stupa known to be there and finding a flint scraper which convinced him of the site's antiquity; this led to large-scale excavations of Mohenjo-daro led by Kashinath Narayan Dikshit in 1924–25, John Marshall in 1925–26. In the 1930s major excavations were conducted at the site under the leadership of Marshall, D. K. Dikshitar and Ernest Mackay. Further excavations were carried out in 1945 by his trainee, Ahmad Hasan Dani; the last major series of excavations were conducted in 1965 by George F. Dales. After 1965 excavations were banned due to weathering damage to the exposed structures, the only projects allowed at the site since have been salvage excavations, surface surveys, conservation projects.
In the 1980s, German and Italian survey groups led by Dr. Michael Jansen and Dr. Maurizio Tosi used less invasive archeological techniques, such as architectural documentation, surface surveys, localized probing, to gather further information about Mohenjo-daro. A dry core drilling conducted in 2015 by Pakistan's National Fund for Mohenjo-daro revealed that the site is larger than the unearthed area. Mohenjo-daro has a planned layout with rectilinear buildings arranged on a grid plan. Most were built of mortared brick; the covered area of Mohenjo-daro is estimated at 300 hectares. The Oxford Handbook of Cities in World History offers a "weak" estimate of a peak population of around 40,000; the sheer size of the city, its provision of public buildings and facilities, suggests a high level of social organization. The city is divided into the so-called Citadel and the Lower City; the Citadel – a mud-brick mound around 12 metres high – is known to have supported public baths, a large residential structure designed to house about 5,000 citizens, two large assembly halls.
The city had a central marketplace, with a large central well. Individual households or groups of households obtained their water from smaller wells. Waste water was channeled to covered drains; some houses those of more prestigious inhabitants, include rooms that appear to have been set aside for bathing, one building had an underground furnace for heated bathing. Most houses had inner courtyards, with doors; some buildings had two stories. In 1950, Sir Mortimer Wheeler identified one large building in Mohenjo-daro as a "Great Granary". Certain wall-divisions in its massive wooden superstructure appeared to be grain storage-bays, complete with air-ducts to dry the grain. According to Wheeler, carts would have brought grain from the countryside and unloaded them directly into the bays. However, Jonathan Mark Kenoyer noted the complete lack of evidence for grain at the "granary", which, he argued, might therefore be bett
James Burgess (archaeologist)
James Burgess CIE FRSE FRGS MRAS LLD, was the founder of The Indian Antiquary in 1872 and an important archaeologist of India in the 19th century. Burgess was born on 14 August 1832 in Dumfriesshire, he was educated at Dumfries and the University of Glasgow and the University of Edinburgh. He did educational work in Calcutta, 1856 and Bombay, 1861, was Secretary of the Bombay Geographical Society 1868-73, he was Head of the Archaeological Survey, Western India, 1873, of South India, 1881. From 1886-89 he was Archaeological Survey of India. In 1881 the University of Edinburgh awarded him an honorary Doctor of Letters, he retired to Edinburgh around 1892. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1894, he won its Keith Medal for 1897-99, served as their Vice President 1908 to 1914. He died on 3 October 1916, at 22 Seton Place in Edinburgh; the temples of Shatrunjaya. 1869. The rock temples of Elephanta. 1871. Temples of Somanath and Girnar. 1870. Scenery and architecture in Guzarat and Rajputana.
1873. Notes on Ajanta paintings. 1879. The cave temples of India. 1880. Archaeological survey of Western India. 9 vols. 1874 - 1905. Buddhist stupas of Amaravati, etc. 1887. Antiquities of Dabhoi. 1888. The Sharqi architecture of Jaiinpur. 1889. Archaeological research in India. 1890. Epigraphia Indica. 1889-94. On Hindu astronomy. 1893. Constable's hand-Gazetteer of India. 1898. Hypsometry by boiling-point. 1858 and 1863. Transliteration of Indian place-names. 1868, 1894-95. On the error-function definite integral. 1898. The Gandhara sculptures. 1899 and 1900. Buddhist art in India. 1901. The Indian sect of the Jainas. 1903. Fergusson's eastern architecture. 1919. Works by James Burgess at Project Gutenberg Works by or about James Burgess at Internet Archive