Archaeological site

An archaeological site is a place in which evidence of past activity is preserved, which has been, or may be, investigated using the discipline of archaeology and represents a part of the archaeological record. Sites may range from those with few or no remains visible above ground, to buildings and other structures still in use. Beyond this, the definition and geographical extent of a "site" can vary depending on the period studied and the theoretical approach of the archaeologist, it is invariably difficult to delimit a site. It is sometimes taken to indicate a settlement of some sort although the archaeologist must define the limits of human activity around the settlement. Any episode of deposition such as a hoard or burial can form a site as well. Development-led archaeology undertaken as cultural resources management has the disadvantage of having its sites defined by the limits of the intended development. In this case however, in describing and interpreting the site, the archaeologist will have to look outside the boundaries of the building site.

According to Jess Beck in "How Do Archaeologists find sites?" the areas with numerous artifacts are good targets for future excavation, while areas with small number of artifacts are thought to reflect a lack of past human activity. Many areas have been discovered by accident; the most common person to have found artifacts are farmers who are plowing their fields or just cleaning them up find archaeological artifacts. Many people who are out hiking and pilots find artifacts they end up reporting them to archaeologist to do further investigation; when they find sites, they have to first record the area and if they have the money and time for the site they can start digging. There are many ways to find sites, one example can be through surveys. Surveys involve walking around analyzing the land looking for artifacts, it can involve digging, according to the Archaeological Institute of America, “archaeologists search areas that were to support human populations, or in places where old documents and records indicate people once lived.”

This helps archaeologists in the future. In case there was no time, or money during the finding of the site, archaeologists can come back and visit the site for further digging to find out the extent of the site. Archaeologist can sample randomly within a given area of land as another form of conducting surveys. Surveys are useful, according to Jess Beck, “it can tell you where people were living at different points in the past.” Geophysics is a branch of survey becoming more and more popular in archaeology, because it uses different types of instruments to investigate features below the ground surface. It is not as reliable, because although they can see what is under the surface of the ground it does not produce the best picture. Archaeologists have to still dig up the area in order to uncover the truth. There are two most common types of geophysical survey, which is, magnetometer and ground penetrating radar. Magnetometry is the technique of mapping patterns of magnetism in the soil, it uses an instrument called a magnetometer, required to measure and map traces of soil magnetism.

The ground penetrating radar is a method. It uses electro magnetic radiation in the microwave band of the radio spectrum, detects the reflected signals from subsurface structures. There are many other tools that can be used to find artifacts, but along with finding artifacts, archaeologist have to make maps, they do so by taking data from surveys, or archival research and plugging it into a Geographical Information Systems and that will contain both locational information and a combination of various information. This tool is helpful to archaeologists who want to explore in a different area and want to see if anyone else has done research, they can use this tool to see what has been discovered. With this information available, archaeologists can expand their research and add more to what has been found. Traditionally, sites are distinguished by the presence of both features. Common features include the remains of houses. Ecofacts, biological materials that are the result of human activity but are not deliberately modified, are common at many archaeological sites.

In the cases of the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic eras, a mere scatter of flint flakes will constitute a site worthy of study. Different archaeologists may see an ancient town, its nearby cemetery as being two different sites, or as being part of the same wider site; the precepts of landscape archaeology attempt to see each discrete unit of human activity in the context of the wider environment, further distorting the concept of the site as a demarcated area. Furthermore, geoarchaeologists or environmental archaeologists would consider a sequence of natural geological or organic deposition, in the absence of human activity, to constitute a site worthy of study. Archaeological sites form through human-related processes but can be subject to natural, post-depositional factors. Cultural remnants which have been buried by sediments are in many environments more to be preserved than exposed cultural remnants. Natural actions resulting in sediment being deposited include aeolian natural processes. In jungles and other areas of lush plant growth, decomposed vegetative sediment can result in layers of soil deposited over remains.

Colluviation, the burial of a site by sediments moved by gravity can happen at sites on slopes. Human activities (

K. Prithika Yashini

K Prithika Yashini is the first transgender woman to be a police officer in India. She became the first trans woman sub-inspector in India. Prithika Yashini was born and brought up as Pradeep Kumar, the son of a driver-tailor couple in Salem, Tamil Nadu, she had a difficult childhood where her parents took her to temples, astrologers to'set things right'. When she was in grade ninth, she didn't feel like a boy, she completed her undergraduation in computer applications. In 2011, she ran away to Chennai, where she found acceptance and support in the transgender community of the city, she began her career in Chennai working as a warden in a women's hostel. Yashini applied for recruitment as a sub-inspector of police to the Tamil Nadu Uniformed Services Recruitment Board to fill vacancies for 1087 posts. However, her application was rejected as being a trans woman she did not belong to any of the two specified categories, male or female. Subsequently, she challenged the decision of the TNUSRB in different courts including the High Court of Madras.

Accordingly, the High Court of Madras ordered to conduct a written test for her. The test for the recruitment comprises physical endurance test and a viva-voce. With legal recourse in a competent court, she was able to lower the minimum cut-off marks for written test for such a recruitment from 28.5 to 25.00. She cleared all physical endurance tests except missing 100 meter dash by one second. However, she was testified successful in the physical endurance test. In terms of judgement of the Madras High Court, delivered on 6 November 2015, directions were given to the Tamil Nadu Uniformed Services Recruitment Board to appoint K Prithika Yashini as a sub-inspector of police as she is "entitled to get the job"; the judgement further directed the TNUSRB to include transgender people as a "third category", apart from the usual category of "male" and "female". Yashini along with 21 other trans women received the appointment orders from Chennai City Police Commissioner Smith Saran in April 2017In an interview, Prithika Yashini told, "I'm excited.

It's a new beginning for the entire transgender community." She aspires to become an officer of Indian Police Service over a period of time. She took charge as sub-inspector in Dharmapuri district in Tamil Nadu on April 2, 2017 and is posted in the law and order wing

Useful space principle

The Useful Space Principle, or USP, was first articulated in a series of six articles in The Bridge World, from November 1980 through April 1981. The USP is expressed succinctly in The Bridge World glossary as: "a partnership's assigning meanings to actions so that the remaining bidding space matches the needs of the auction." The articles on the USP were the genesis of used conventional methods such as Kickback and transfer advances of overcalls. The USP tells bidding theorists; the Blackwood convention, as formulated, violates the USP. Suppose that the agreed trump suit is spades. After the Blackwood "asker" bids 4NT, "teller" can convey four separate messages without bypassing the safety level of 5♠ – four aces or none with 5♣, one ace with 5♦, two aces with 5♥ and three aces with 5♠, but what if the agreed trump suit is clubs? Suppose that asker and teller each have one ace. After 4NT, teller bids 5♦ to show his ace, the partnership has to play 6♣ off two aces; the problem can occur when the agreed trump suit is diamonds, although it is less because there is more space available for responses than when the agreed trump suit is clubs.

But if the partnership is using Roman Key-Card Blackwood there can be similar problems. Suppose that hearts is agreed, asker has one ace and teller has one ace plus the king and queen of hearts. Asker bids 4NT and teller bids 5♠ to show two key cards plus the trump queen, the partnership is again too high; the problem is that Blackwood ignores the USP. The lower in rank the agreed trump suit, the more space, needed if the partnership is to stay at or below a safety level; the Kickback ace-asking convention deals with the problem by adjusting the asking bid according to which suit is agreed as trump. The ask is always one step above four of the trump suit. So, if clubs is agreed, the ask is 4♦; the responses to the ask might be similar to Blackwood, but instead of associating a specific suit with a specific number of aces, the responses are in terms of the number of steps above the ask. If spades will be trump, 4NT is the ask, 5♣, one step, might show zero or four aces, according to partnership agreement.

If diamonds will be trump, 4♥ is the ask, 4♠, one step above the ask, might show zero or four aces. The effect is to allocate bidding space. If clubs is agreed and each partner has one ace, asker bids 4 teller bids 4 ♠ to show one ace; the partnership can now sign off in 5♣. There is a cost, of course: the partnership that plays Kickback loses the ability to cue-bid the ace of the suit above trumps; that is, assuming that hearts will be trumps, asker can no longer bid 4♠ to show first round control of spades: that would be the Kickback asking bid. The solution is to use 4NT to show a first round control in the Kickback asking suit. With diamonds agreed, 4♥ is the Kickback ask, 4NT shows the ♥A or, if credible in the context of the prior bidding, a void; the agreement that 4NT is a cue-bid still entails a cost, but Kickback users argue that there is a net gain. For example, with clubs agreed, South would bid 4NT to show a first round control in diamonds; this bid not only bypasses the Kickback ask, but prevents North from cue-bidding 4♥ or 4♠.

Kickback users believe that the gain in space from adjusting the ace-ask outweighs getting in the way of partner's cue-bid. Notice that the Gerber convention, the use of 4♣ to ask for aces when NT is the final strain, is a special case of Kickback; the foregoing is meant only to illustrate the USP. It describes neither additional understandings that Kickback can accommodate, nor the special problems that can arise. Suppose that North opens a strong NT, North-South are playing Jacoby transfers, South holds ♠ KQ965 ♥ 6 ♦ 8752 ♣ 854. South bids 2♥, hoping to pass North's 2♠, but South would bid 2♥ with ♠ KQ965 ♥ 6 ♦ 8752 ♣ A54 and ♠ AKQ65 ♥ 6 ♦ 8752 ♣ A54. The transfer gives the partnership plenty of space for any continuation. In contrast, the traditional bid of 2♠ as a signoff over 1NT means that the partnership must give up bidding space in order to make forcing bids that start at the three level, it is when South wants to sign off by bidding 2♠ directly that the smallest amount of bidding space is needed, but that bid takes away three steps.

Transfers, whatever costs they entail, tend to conform to the USP. Now consider competitive bidding. Suppose that West opens 1 ♠, North overcalls 2 East passes. South holds ♠ 854 ♥ 6 ♦ KQ9653 ♣ 854. Now: If 3♦ is nonforcing all is well. South leaves the rest to North. If 3♦ is forcing South must pass and miss a good diamond contract; the 3♦ bid takes up so much space that, if it is forcing, South cannot show a weak hand with a good suit. Again after 1♠ – – P, South holds ♠ 854 ♥ 6 ♦ KQ9653 ♣ KJ4. Now: If 3♦ is nonforcing South must cue bid 2♠ to prepare a rebid in diamonds; the hand is too strong to bid a nonforcing 3♦. But North's rebid often 3♥, may well prevent South from showing the diamonds below 3NT. If 3♦ is forcing all is well on this hand, if South has a heart fit and a good hand he can cue bid 2♠. In this sequence the cue-bid takes up minimal space – but how is that space to be used when South has shown a heart fit in a str