Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered a branch of the humanities. In Europe it is viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines, while in North America archaeology is a sub-field of anthropology. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology is distinct from palaeontology, the study of fossil remains, it is important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world. Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and analysis of data collected to learn more about the past. In broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research, it draws upon anthropology, art history, ethnology, geology, literary history, semiology, textual criticism, information sciences, statistics, paleography, paleontology and paleobotany. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, has since become a discipline practiced across the world. Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Since its early development, various specific sub-disciplines of archaeology have developed, including maritime archaeology, feminist archaeology and archaeoastronomy, numerous different scientific techniques have been developed to aid archaeological investigation. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, opposition to the excavation of human remains.
The science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with particular attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts, as well as historical sites. Antiquarianism focused on the empirical evidence that existed for the understanding of the past, encapsulated in the motto of the 18th-century antiquary, Sir Richard Colt Hoare, "We speak from facts not theory". Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. In Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Flavio Biondo, an Italian Renaissance humanist historian, created a systematic guide to the ruins and topography of ancient Rome in the early 15th century, for which he has been called an early founder of archaeology. Antiquarians of the 16th century, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, drawing and interpreting the monuments that they encountered.
The OED first cites "archaeologist" from 1824. "Archaeology", from 1607 onwards meant what we would call "ancient history" with the narrower modern sense first seen in 1837. One of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England. John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other field monuments in southern England, he was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings. He attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out by the Spanish military engineer Roque Joaquín de Alcubierre in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum, both of, covered by ash during the Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79; these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and human shapes, as well the unearthing of frescos, had a big impact throughout Europe.
However, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard. The father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington, he undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798. Cunnington made meticulous recordings of Neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, the terms he used to categorize and describe them are still used by archaeologists today. One of the major achievements of 19th-century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy; the idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton and Charles Lyell. The application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites. In the third and fourth decades of the 19th-century, archaeologists like Jacques Boucher de Perthes and Christian Jürgensen Thomsen began to put the artifacts they had found in chronological order. A major figure in the development of archaeology into a rigorous science was the army officer and ethnologist, Augustus Pitt
Uptown Station is an intermodal transportation center in Normal, United States. It is served by Amtrak, the national railroad passenger system, is the major intercity rail station in north-central Illinois, it appears on Amtrak timetables as Bloomington-Normal. Amtrak runs two routes through the station -- the Texas Eagle; this was a stop for the Ann Rutledge until April 2007. Thruway Motorcoach routes serve the station via Davenport, Peoria, Champaign/Urbana, Indianapolis. In 2014, 261,631 train passengers boarded or alighted from Amtrak trains at Uptown Station, making it the fourth busiest Amtrak station in the Midwest behind Chicago, St. Louis; this is due to the large number of passengers traveling to and from Chicago and St. Louis; the original station serving Bloomington-Normal was Bloomington Union Depot. This station was located on Bloomington's west side, just south of West Washington Street and on the west side of the Chicago & Alton Railroad tracks, it had been constructed in the mid-1880s, survived well into the Amtrak era because Bloomington-Normal is located along the most direct route from Chicago to St. Louis.
The station was closed on June 1990 to be replaced by a much smaller facility in Normal. Seven years on October 31, 1997, a then-partially demolished Union Station was destroyed by fire; the original Normal station was built to the specifications of the Amtrak Standard Stations Program. Located near the campus of Illinois State University, this station lasted until the new facility opened in 2012. On August 7, 2010, construction began on a new intermodal facility, located across the tracks from the 1990 facility; the new facility includes administrative offices and council chambers for the town in addition to serving Amtrak and long-distance buses. The facility opened on July 14, 2012. Construction, which cost between $43 and $47 million, was funded by a combination of federal and local grants; the new 68,000-square-foot transportation center was designed by Ratio Architects of Champaign. The building's prominent corner clock tower has become a landmark for the neighborhood. Numerous environmentally sustainable features are included, such as a green roof planted in vegetation that will absorb rainwater and cool the building.
Bus transportation providers are: Burlington Trailways between Indianapolis, IN and Burlington, IA Connect Transit regular routes A, B, D, E, G, H, I, Nite Ride and Redbird Express serving Illinois State University. Peoria Charter: Peoria - O'Hare/Midway Media related to Uptown Station at Wikimedia Commons Bloomington-Normal Amtrak station informationNormal, IL – Amtrak Bloomington-Normal Amtrak Station Uptown Normal Webcam of Multimodal Station Construction Normal --Great American Stations
Wen Zhang is a Chinese actor. He graduated from the Central Academy of Drama in 2006. Li ranked 58th on Forbes China Celebrity 100 list in 2013, 45th in 2014. Wen first became known for his role in the youth drama Romantic Life. Wen rose to fame for his role in the youth television series Struggle. Based on the popular novel by Shi Kang, Struggle gained unexpected acclaim and was seen as a breakthrough in Chinese TV production as it broke from the usual Chinese TV series focusing in traditional legends and series. Another notable series Wen starred; the series, which focuses on rising property prices in China and the impact it has on youths and their ambitions, was a major hit with the audiences and sparked a discussion among youths online. The same year, he made his film debut in A Tale of Two Donkeys, a black comedy film set in the Cultural Revolution. Wen won the Best New Actor award at the China Movie Channel Media Awards for his performance. Wen had his first major role on the screen in Xue Xiaolu's literary film, Ocean Heaven, playing a 21-year-old autistic man whose only happiness is swimming.
Wen was rejected by the producers, as he did not fit their requirements. After he got the role, Wen underwent arduous training - which involves swimming 5000 m per day and a 180-day's living with a group of autistic people, which Wen says helped him get closer to their inner mind. Wen's efforts paid off to overwhelming positive reviews from critics, he clinched the Best Actor award at the China Movie Channel Media Awards; the same year, Wen won the Best Actor award at the Sichuan Television Festival and Audience's Choice for Actor at the Golden Eagle Awards for his role as a war-time hero in Snow Leopard. In 2011, Wen starred in the romantic comedy Love is Not Blind alongside Bai Baihe; the low-budget film became a surprise hit and ended up grossing over 350 million yuan at the Chinese box office. Wen won the Best Actor award at the Hundred Flowers Award for his performance; the same year, Wen won the Best Actor award at the China TV Drama Awards for his performance in Naked Wedding. The series, which explores the struggles a China couple faces when they marry for love with no house, substantial savings, or elaborate ceremonies, struck a chord with Chinese youths and become a major hit.
In 2013, he starred as Tang Sanzang in Stephen Chow's fantasy blockbuster Journey to the West: Conquering the Demons, which broke records to become the highest grossing Chinese movie then. He starred in action comedy Badges of Fury alongside Jet Li; the same year, Wen launched Little Daddy on the small screen. He received the award for Best TV Series for the production, the Best TV Actor award at the LETV Awards. Wen directed his first film, When Larry Met Mary, released in 2016. However, despite positive reviews, the film failed to do well at the box office. Wen received the Best Directorial Debut award at the Golden Rooster Awards; the same year, Wen made a successful comeback in 2016 with the hit television series, Young Marshal, a biopic based on the life of war hero Zhang Xueliang. Wen married Chinese actress Ma Yili, eight years older, they have a two-year-old daughter, they first met. When they filmed Struggle together, they became lovers. However, in 2014, Wen was exposed by the media to be involved in an affair with Yao Di, a Chinese actress who starred with Wen in the 2011 television series Naked Marriage.
His affair attracted widespread discussion on Sina Weibo with over millions of comments. On 28 July 2019, they announced their divorce on Sina Weibo