The term lithic stage refers to the cultures of the post-glacial hunters and collectors in South America. The stage derived its name from the first appearance of Lithic flaked stone tools, throughout South America, there are stone tool traditions of the lithic stage, such as the fluted fishtail that reflect localized adaptations to the diverse habitats of the continent. During the lithic stage people lived in small, mobile groups that survived on hunting, fishing. The intensive and continual use of plants and animals eventually led to genetic changes to some of the species. This lifestyle continued until around 5000 BC when people started to use domesticated plants, one of the leading figures is Alex Krieger who has documented hundreds of sites that have yielded crude, percussion-flaked tools. The most convincing evidence for a stage is based upon data recovered from sites in South America where such crude tools have been found. Examples include the Clovis culture and Folsom tradition groups, the Lithic stage was followed by the Archaic stage
For this reason the alternative terms of Precontact Americas, Pre-Colonial Americas or Prehistoric Americas are in use. In areas of Latin America the term used is Pre-Hispanic. Other civilizations were contemporary with the period and were described in European historical accounts of the time. A few, such as the Maya civilization, had their own written records, because many Christian Europeans of the time viewed such texts as heretical, men like Diego de Landa destroyed many texts in pyres, even while seeking to preserve native histories. Only a few documents have survived in their original languages, while others were transcribed or dictated into Spanish, giving modern historians glimpses of ancient culture. Indigenous American cultures continue to evolve after the pre-Columbian era, many of these peoples and their descendants continue traditional practices, while evolving and adapting new cultural practices and technologies into their lives. Now, the study of pre-Columbian cultures is most often based on scientific.
Asian nomads are thought to have entered the Americas via the Bering Land Bridge, now the Bering Strait, genetic evidence found in Amerindians maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA supports the theory of multiple genetic populations migrating from Asia. Over the course of millennia, Paleo-Indians spread throughout North and South America, exactly when the first group of people migrated into the Americas is the subject of much debate. One of the earliest identifiable cultures was the Clovis culture, with sites dating from some 13,000 years ago, older sites dating back to 20,000 years ago have been claimed. Some genetic studies estimate the colonization of the Americas dates from between 40,000 and 13,000 years ago, the chronology of migration models is currently divided into two general approaches. The first is the short chronology theory with the first movement beyond Alaska into the New World occurring no earlier than 14, 000–17,000 years ago, followed by successive waves of immigrants. The second belief is the long chronology theory, which proposes that the first group of people entered the hemisphere at an earlier date, possibly 50.
In that case, the Eskimo peoples would have arrived separately and at a date, probably no more than 2,000 years ago. The North American climate was unstable as the ice age receded and it finally stabilized by about 10,000 years ago, climatic conditions were very similar to todays. Within this timeframe, roughly pertaining to the Archaic Period, numerous archaeological cultures have been identified, the unstable climate led to widespread migration, with early Paleo-Indians soon spreading throughout the Americas, diversifying into many hundreds of culturally distinct tribes. The paleo-indians were hunter-gatherers, likely characterized by small, mobile bands consisting of approximately 20 to 50 members of an extended family and these groups moved from place to place as preferred resources were depleted and new supplies were sought. During much of the Paleo-Indian period, bands are thought to have subsisted primarily through hunting now-extinct giant land animals such as mastodon, Paleo-Indian groups carried a variety of tools
Southwest Florida is the region along the south west gulf coast of the U. S. State of Florida. For some purposes, the counties of DeSoto and Hendry. The region includes four areas, the North Port-Bradenton-Sarasota MSA, the Cape Coral-Fort Myers MSA, the Naples-Marco Island MSA. The most populous county in the region is Lee County, inland counties are notably rural, with the primary economic driver being agriculture. Important products grown in area include tomatoes, sugarcane. Agricultural harvesting in Southwest Florida employs approximately 16,000 seasonal workers,90 percent of which are thought to be migrants, each county in the region has its own county government. Within each county, there are self-governing cities, the remaining majority of land in each county is controlled directly by the county government. It is common for incorporated municipalities to contract county services in order to save costs. The region is designated as one of Floridas 4 districts for the Committee of Southern Historic Preservation, the district has been represented by Tommy Stolly since 2013.
Southwest Florida is served by major highways, including the Tamiami Trail. Long-term cooperative infrastructure planning is coordinated by the Southwest Florida Regional Planning Council, and in heavily populated Lee County, greyhound Lines serves several locations in Southwest Florida, including Bradenton, Fort Myers, Port Charlotte, Punta Gorda and Sarasota. The areas secondary airport, Sarasota-Bradenton International Airport, served 1.34 million passengers in 2009, Seminole Gulf Railway provides freight services throughout Southwest Florida. Tourism is an economic driver in the area. In addition, many residents live in the area during the winter months. Armands Circle on St. Armands Key Attractions including and Ford Winter Estates in Fort Myers Lake Okeechobee renowned for fishing, Naples Botanical Garden Naples Zoo at Caribbean Gardens Brighton Seminole Indian Reservation where the Seminole nation operates a sizable casino. The university belongs to the 12-campus State University System of Florida, FGCU competes in the Atlantic Sun Conference in NCAA Division I sports.
The following table shows the teams and major NCAA Division 1 teams that play in Southwest Florida. Florida is the home for Major League Baseball spring training
Poverty Point is a prehistoric earthworks of the Poverty Point culture, now a U. S. National Monument and World Heritage Site located in the Southern United States. It is 15.5 miles from the current Mississippi River, Poverty Point comprises several earthworks and mounds built between 1650 and 700 BC, during the Archaic period in the Americas by a group of Native Americans of the Poverty Point culture. The culture extended 100 miles across the Mississippi Delta, the 910-acre site, which has been described as the largest and most complex Late Archaic earthwork occupation and ceremonial site yet found in North America is a registered National Monument. The monument was brought to the attention of archaeologists in the early 20th century, since then, various excavations have taken place at the site. Scholars have advanced various theories regarding the purpose of the site, including religious. Other writers have proposed pseudo-archaeological and New Age associations, the complex attracts many tourists as a destination.
Poverty Point is constructed entirely of earthworks, the core of the site measures approximately 500 acres, although archaeological investigations have shown that the total occupation area extended for more than three miles along the river terrace. The monumental construction is a group of six concentric, crescent ridge earthworks, the site has several mounds both on the outside and inside of the ring earthworks. The name Poverty Point came from the plantation which once surrounded the site, in January 2013, the United States Department of the Interior nominated Poverty Point for inclusion on the UNESCO World Heritage List. State Senator Francis C. Thompson of Delhi in Richland Parish said the matter is not just a local or even state issue of international importance, the prestige of having a World Heritage Site in our region and state would be of great significance both culturally and economically. The designation makes Poverty Point the first World Heritage Site in Louisiana, the main part of the monument is the six concentric curving earthworks located in the center of the site.
Each is separated from one another by a corridor of earth. Dividing the ridges into three sections are two ramps that slope inwardly, leading to Bayou Maçon, each of the ridge earthworks is about three feet high. Archaeologists believe they were five feet high, but have been worn down through agricultural ploughing over the last few centuries. The approximate diameter of the ridge is three-quarters of a mile, while the innermost ridge’s diameter is about three-eighths of a mile. Alongside these ridges are other earthworks, primarily platform mounds, the largest of these, Mound A, is to the west of the ridges, and is roughly T-shaped when viewed from above. Many have interpreted it as being in the shape of a bird and as an Earth island, researchers have learned that Mound A was constructed quickly, probably over a period of less than three months. Prior to construction, the covering the site was burned
Mean sea level is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earths oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured. A common and relatively straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a low and mean high tide at a particular location. Sea levels can be affected by factors and are known to have varied greatly over geological time scales. The careful measurement of variations in MSL can offer insights into ongoing climate change, the term above sea level generally refers to above mean sea level. Precise determination of a sea level is a difficult problem because of the many factors that affect sea level. Sea level varies quite a lot on several scales of time and this is because the sea is in constant motion, affected by the tides, atmospheric pressure, local gravitational differences, salinity and so forth. The easiest way this may be calculated is by selecting a location and calculating the mean sea level at that point, for example, a period of 19 years of hourly level observations may be averaged and used to determine the mean sea level at some measurement point.
One measures the values of MSL in respect to the land, hence a change in MSL can result from a real change in sea level, or from a change in the height of the land on which the tide gauge operates. In the UK, the Ordnance Datum is the sea level measured at Newlyn in Cornwall between 1915 and 1921. Prior to 1921, the datum was MSL at the Victoria Dock, in Hong Kong, mPD is a surveying term meaning metres above Principal Datum and refers to height of 1. 230m below the average sea level. In France, the Marégraphe in Marseilles measures continuously the sea level since 1883 and it is used for a part of continental Europe and main part of Africa as official sea level. Elsewhere in Europe vertical elevation references are made to the Amsterdam Peil elevation, satellite altimeters have been making precise measurements of sea level since the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon in 1992. A joint mission of NASA and CNES, TOPEX/Poseidon was followed by Jason-1 in 2001, height above mean sea level is the elevation or altitude of an object, relative to the average sea level datum.
It is used in aviation, where some heights are recorded and reported with respect to sea level, and in the atmospheric sciences. An alternative is to base height measurements on an ellipsoid of the entire Earth, in aviation, the ellipsoid known as World Geodetic System 84 is increasingly used to define heights, differences up to 100 metres exist between this ellipsoid height and mean tidal height. The alternative is to use a vertical datum such as NAVD88. When referring to geographic features such as mountains on a topographic map, the elevation of a mountain denotes the highest point or summit and is typically illustrated as a small circle on a topographic map with the AMSL height shown in metres, feet or both. In the rare case that a location is below sea level, for one such case, see Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can be considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16. 5% of the land area. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 565 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7. 5% of the worlds population, North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge. The so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago, the Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era ended with the migrations and the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery.
Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect different kind of interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants, European influences are strongest in the northern parts of the continent while indigenous and African influences are relatively stronger in the south. Because of the history of colonialism, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, the Americas are usually accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass previously unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a map, in which he placed the word America on the continent of South America. He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio, for Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer.
He used the Latinized version of Vespuccis name, but in its feminine form America, following the examples of Europa and Africa. Later, other mapmakers extended the name America to the continent, In 1538. Some argue that the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries except in the case of royalty, a minutely explored belief that has been advanced is that America was named for a Spanish sailor bearing the ancient Visigothic name of Amairick. Another is that the name is rooted in a Native American language, the term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with location and context. In Canadian English, North America may be used to refer to the United States, usage sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands
St. Lucie County, Florida
St. Lucie County is a county located in the state of Florida, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 277,789, the county seat is Fort Pierce. As of the 2015 Census Estimate, St. Lucie County is at a population of 298,563. St. Lucie County is included in the Port St. Lucie, FL Metropolitan Statistical Area, the area was originally inhabited by the Ais tribe, a hunter-gatherer culture whose territory extended from south of the St. Johns river to the St. Lucie Inlet. Spanish explorers frequently encountered the tribe as the Spanish treasure routes ran parallel in order to take advantage of the strong Gulfstream current. The area was given names by the Spanish including Rio de Ays as well as Santa Lucia. The fabled 1715 Spanish treasure fleet sank off the area that is now St. Lucie County, during the early 19th century, the Spanish government issued several land grants in the area, one of which went to settler James Hutchinson. The grant contained 2,000 acres and today the barrier island Hutchinson Island still retains his name, during the mid-1800s, Seminoles and runaway slaves sought refuge in the virtually uninhabited area.
By 1837 the Second Seminole war had broken out in Florida, in December 1837, a group of soldiers under the command of Lt. Colonel Benjamin K. Pierce sailed down the Indian River and established a fort, naming it after their commander. Today the county seat of St. Lucie County is still known as Fort Pierce, in 1841, the United States government began issuing land grants under the Armed Occupation Act to Americans who were willing to settle the area. Several of these grants were within the boundaries of todays St. Lucie County, the Third Seminole War in 1851 saw the building of a second major American fort in the area, Fort Capron, located in the area that is todays St. Lucie Village. From this point on the area became more populated as settlers ventured down for health. The Flagler railroad reached the area in the 1890s, major industries at the end of the 19th century in the area included pineapple and seafood canning and cattle. Citrus would not become a crop until the early 1900s. The city of Fort Pierce was chartered in 1901, up until 1905 the area had been under Brevard County.
During the summer of 1905, St. Lucie County was created from the part of Brevard County with the county seat being at Fort Pierce. Other settlements at the time in St. Lucie Countys boundaries included Jensen, Anknona, Eldred, White City, Viking, St. Lucie, Vero, Quay and others. Much of western St Lucie County had already gone in 1917 to form Okeechobee County, the 1920s saw increased land speculation and planned developments such as Indrio and San Lucie that never came to fruition due to the bust in 1929
A basket is a container which is traditionally constructed from stiff fibers, which can be made from a range of materials, including wood splints and cane. While most baskets are made from plant materials, other such as horsehair, baleen. Baskets are generally woven by hand, some baskets are fitted with a lid, others are left open. Baskets serve utilitarian as well as aesthetic purposes, some baskets are ceremonial, that is religious, in nature. Prior to the invention of woven baskets, people used tree bark to make simple containers and these containers could be used to transport gathered food and other items, but crumble after only a few uses. Weaving strips of bark or other plant material to support the bark containers would be the next step, the last innovation appears to be baskets so tightly woven that they could hold water. Depending on soil conditions, baskets may or may not be preserved in the archaeological record, sites in the Middle East show that weaving techniques were used to make mats and possibly baskets, circa 8000 BCE.
Twined baskets date back to 7000 BCE in Oasisamerica, baskets made with interwoven techniques were common at 3000 BCE. Baskets were originally designed as multi-purpose baskets to carry and store, the plant life available in a region affects the choice of material, which in turn influences the weaving technique. The practice of basket making has evolved into an art, artistic freedom allows basket makers a wide choice of colors, sizes and details. The carrying of a basket on the head, particularly by women, has long been practised. Representations of this in Ancient Greek art are called Canephorae, the phrase to hell in a handbasket means to rapidly deteriorate. The origin of use is unclear. Basket is sometimes used as an adjective towards a person who is out of wedlock. This occurs more commonly in British English, basket refers to a bulge in a mans crotch. Materials have been used by basket makers, Wicker Straw Plastic Metal Bamboo Palm Zepeda, ocean Power, Poems from the Desert. Baskets, The Womens Committee of the Philadelphia Museum of Art
A glacial period is an interval of time within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances. Interglacials, on the hand, are periods of warmer climate between glacial periods. The last glacial period ended about 15,000 years ago, the Holocene epoch is the current interglacial. A time when there are no glaciers on Earth is considered a greenhouse climate state, within the Quaternary glaciation, there have been a number of glacials and interglacials. The last glacial period was the most recent glacial period within the current ice age, occurring in the Pleistocene epoch, the glacial advance reached its maximum extent about 18,000 BP. In Europe, the ice sheet reached northern Germany, since orbital variations are predictable, computer models that relate orbital variations to climate can predict future climate possibilities. Work by Berger and Loutre suggests that the current warm climate may last another 50,000 years
The term Woodland Period was introduced in the 1930s as a generic term for prehistoric sites falling between the Archaic hunter-gatherers and the agriculturalist Mississippian cultures. The Eastern Woodlands cultural region covers what is now eastern Canada south of the Subarctic region and this period is variously considered a developmental stage, a time period, a suite of technological adaptations or traits, and a family tree of cultures related to earlier Archaic cultures. Many Woodland peoples used spears and atlatls until the end of the period, the most cited technological distinction of this period was the widespread use of pottery, and the diversification of pottery forms and manufacturing practices. Intensive agriculture characterizes the Mississippian period from ca, 1000-1400 CE and may have continued up to European contact, around 500 years ago. Eastern Woodlands lived in wigwams and longhouses, clay for pottery was typically tempered with grit or limestone. Pots were usually made in a conoidal or conical jars with rounded shoulders, slightly constricted necks, pots were coiled and paddled entirely by hand without the use of fast rotation such as a pottery wheel.
Some were slipped or brushed with red ochre, pottery and permanent settlements have often been thought of the three defining characteristics of the Woodland period. Nevertheless, these sites were typical Archaic settlements, differing only in the use of basic ceramic technology. Most of these are evident in the Southeastern United States by 1000 BCE, in some areas, like South Carolina and coastal Georgia, Deptford culture pottery manufacture ceased after ca.700 CE. In coastal regions, many settlements were near the coast, often near salt marshes, people tended to settle along rivers and lakes in both coastal and interior regions for maximum access to food resources. Most groups relied heavily on white-tailed deer, but a variety of small and large mammals were hunted also, including beaver, raccoon. Shellfish formed an important part of the diet, attested to by numerous shell middens along the coast, seasonal foraging characterized the strategies of many interior populations, with groups moving strategically among dense resource areas.
Recently evidence has accumulated of a reliance of woodland peoples on cultivation in this period, at least in some localities. This is especially true for the middle period and perhaps beyond. C. Margaret Scarry states in the Woodland periods, people diversified their use of plant foods, increased their consumption of starchy foods. They did so, however, by cultivating starchy seeds rather than by gathering more acorns and Yarnell refer to an indigenous crop complex as early as 3800 B. P. in parts of the region. The beginning of the Middle Woodland saw a shift of settlement to the Interior, as the Woodland period progressed and inter-regional trade of exotic materials greatly increased to the point where a trade network covered most of the Eastern United States. Throughout the Southeast and north of the Ohio River, burial mounds of important people were very elaborate and contained a variety of mortuary gifts, the most archaeologically certifiable sites of burial during this time were in Illinois and Ohio
Deer are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae. The two main groups are the Cervinae, including the muntjac, the deer and the chital, and the Capreolinae, including the elk, the Western roe deer. Female reindeer, and male deer of all species, grow, in this they differ from permanently horned antelope, which are in the same order, Artiodactyla. The musk deer of Asia and water chevrotain of tropical African and Asian forests are not usually regarded as true deer and form their own families and Tragulidae, respectively. Deer appear in art from Palaeolithic cave paintings onwards, and they have played a role in mythology and their economic importance includes the use of their meat as venison, their skins as soft, strong buckskin, and their antlers as handles for knives. Deer hunting has been a sport since at least the Middle Ages. Deer live in a variety of biomes, ranging from tundra to the tropical rainforest, while often associated with forests, many deer are ecotone species that live in transitional areas between forests and thickets and prairie and savanna.
The majority of deer species inhabit temperate mixed deciduous forest, mountain mixed coniferous forest, tropical seasonal/dry forest. Clearing open areas within forests to some extent may actually benefit deer populations by exposing the understory and allowing the types of grasses, additionally, access to adjacent croplands may benefit deer. However, adequate forest or brush cover must still be provided for populations to grow, fallow deer have been introduced to South Africa. There are species of deer that are highly specialized, and live almost exclusively in mountains, swamps. Some deer have a distribution in both North America and Eurasia. Examples include the caribou that live in Arctic tundra and taiga and moose that inhabit taiga, huemul deer of South Americas Andes fill the ecological niches of the ibex and wild goat, with the fawns behaving more like goat kids. Mountain slope habitats vary from moist coniferous/mixed forested habitats to dry forests with alpine meadows higher up. The foothills and river valleys between the mountain provide a mosaic of cropland and deciduous parklands.
The rare woodland caribou have the most restricted range living at altitudes in the subalpine meadows. Elk and mule deer both migrate between the alpine meadows and lower coniferous forests and tend to be most common in this region, elk inhabit river valley bottomlands, which they share with White-tailed deer. They live in the aspen parklands north of Calgary and Edmonton, the adjacent Great Plains grassland habitats are left to herds of elk, American bison, and pronghorn antelope
Shell rings are archaeological sites with curved shell middens completely or partially surrounding a clear space. The rings were sited next to estuaries that supported large populations of shellfish, Shell rings have been reported in several countries, including Colombia, Peru and the southeastern United States. Archaeologists continue to debate the origins and use of shell rings, across what is now the southeastern United States, starting around 4000 BCE, people exploited wetland resources, creating large shell middens. Middens developed along rivers, but there is limited evidence of Archaic peoples along coastlines prior to 3000 BCE, Archaic sites on the coast may have been inundated by rising sea levels. Starting around 3000 BCE evidence of exploitation of oysters appears. During the period 3000 BCE to 1000 BCE shell rings, large shell middens more or less surrounding open centers and these shell rings are numerous in South Carolina and Georgia, but are found scattered around the Florida peninsula.
Some sites have sand or sand-and-shell mounds associated with shell rings, Sites such as Horrs Island, in southwest Florida, supported sizable mound-building communities year-round. Four shell and/or sand mounds on Horrs Island have been dated to between 4870 and 4270 Before Present, groups living along the coast had become mostly sedentary by the Late Archaic period, living in permanent villages while making occasional foraging trips. Archaeologists have debated whether the shell rings resulted from the accumulation of middens in conjunction with circular villages. Sites in Colombia and Japan, as well as in the southeastern United States, have identified as shell rings. Residents of and visitors to the Sea Islands of South Carolina, the first written accounts of shell rings in South Carolina and Georgia appeared early in the 19th century. Archaeologists surveyed some shell rings near the end of the 19th century, scientific excavation of shell mounds in Japan began in the 1920s. About 60 shell rings had been identified in the southeastern United States by 2002, most date from the Late Archaic period, but shell rings were constructed during the Woodland and Mississippian periods.
Close to 100 circular and horseshoe-shaped shell mounds have been identified in the Kantō region of Japan, Shell rings in Japan have been dated from late in the Early Jōmon period until early in the Late Jōmon period. While there are reports of a number of shell ring sites in Colombia, archaeologists have continued to identify and investigate additional shell ring sites into the 21st century. Shell rings in the United States may form a ring, or be open, C-shaped. They may form a perfect circle, or an oval. In almost all cases, the area or plaza contains little or no shell or occupational debris