White is the lightest color and is achromatic. It is the color of fresh snow and milk, is the opposite of black. White objects reflect and scatter all the visible wavelengths of light. White on television and computer screens is created by a mixture of red and green light. In ancient Egypt and ancient Rome, priestesses wore white as a symbol of purity, Romans wore a white toga as a symbol of citizenship. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance a white unicorn symbolized chastity, a white lamb sacrifice and purity, it was the royal color of the Kings of France, of the monarchist movement that opposed the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War. Greek and Roman temples were faced with white marble, beginning in the 18th century, with the advent of neoclassical architecture, white became the most common color of new churches and other government buildings in the United States, it was widely used in 20th century modern architecture as a symbol of modernity and simplicity. According to surveys in Europe and the United States, white is the color most associated with perfection, the good, cleanliness, the beginning, the new and exactitude.
White is an important color for all world religions. The Pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church, has worn white since 1566, as a symbol of purity and sacrifice. In Islam, in the Shinto religion of Japan, it is worn by pilgrims. In Western cultures and in Japan, white is the most common color for wedding dresses, symbolizing purity and virginity. In many Asian cultures, white is the color of mourning; the word white continues Old English hwīt from a Common Germanic *χwītaz reflected in OHG wîz, ON hvítr, Goth. ƕeits. The root is from Proto-Indo-European language *kwid-, surviving in Sanskrit śveta "to be white or bright" and Slavonic světŭ "light"; the Icelandic word for white, hvítur, is directly derived from the Old Norse form of the word hvítr. Common Germanic had the word *blankaz, borrowed into Late Latin as *blancus, which provided the source for Romance words for "white"; the antonym of white is black. Some non-European languages have a wide variety of terms for white; the Inuit language has seven different words for seven different nuances of white.
Sanskrit has specific words for bright white, the white of teeth, the white of sandalwood, the white of the autumn moon, the white of silver, the white of cow's milk, the white of pearls, the white of a ray of sunlight, the white of stars. Japanese has six different words, depending upon brilliance or dullness, or if the color is inert or dynamic. White was one of the first colors used in art; the Lascaux Cave in France contains drawings of bulls and other animals drawn by paleolithic artists between 18,000 and 17,000 years ago. Paleolithic artists used calcite or chalk, sometimes as a background, sometimes as a highlight, along with charcoal and red and yellow ochre in their vivid cave paintings. In ancient Egypt, white was connected with the goddess Isis; the priests and priestesses of Isis dressed only in white linen, it was used to wrap mummies. In Greece and other ancient civilizations, white was associated with mother's milk. In Greek mythology, the chief god Zeus was nourished at the breast of the nymph Amalthea.
In the Talmud, milk was one of four sacred substances, along with wine and the rose. The ancient Greeks saw the world in terms of darkness and light, so white was a fundamental color. According to Pliny the Elder in his Natural History and the other famous painters of ancient Greece used only four colors in their paintings. A plain white toga, known as a toga virilis, was worn for ceremonial occasions by all Roman citizens over the age of 14–18. Magistrates and certain priests wore a toga praetexta, with a broad purple stripe. In the time of the Emperor Augustus, no Roman man was allowed to appear in the Roman forum without a toga; the ancient Romans had two words for white. A man who wanted public office in Rome wore a white toga brightened with chalk, called a toga candida, the origin of the word candidate; the Latin word candere meant to be bright. It was the origin of the words candid. In ancient Rome, the priestesses of the goddess Vesta dressed in white linen robes, a white palla or shawl, a white veil.
They protected the penates of Rome. White symbolized their purity and chastity; the early Christian church adopted the Roman symbolism of white as the color of purity and virtue. It became the color worn by priests during Mass, the color worn by monks of the Cistercian Order, under Pope Pius V, a former monk of the Dominican Order, it became the official color worn by the pope himself. Monks of the Order of Saint Benedict dressed in the white or gray of natural undyed wool, but changed to black, the color of humility and penitence. Postclassical history art, the white lamb became the symbol of the sacrifice of Christ on behalf of mankind. John the Baptist described Christ as the lamb of God; the white lamb was the center of one of the most famous paintings of the Medieval period, the Ghent Altarpiece by Jan van Eyck. White was the symbolic color of the transfiguration; the Gospel of Saint Mark describes Jesus' clothing in this event as "shining, exceeding white as snow." Artists such as Fra Angelico used their skill
Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University is a private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the university was named for its first benefactor, the American entrepreneur and philanthropist Johns Hopkins, his $7 million bequest —of which half financed the establishment of Johns Hopkins Hospital—was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States up to that time. Daniel Coit Gilman, inaugurated as the institution's first president on February 22, 1876, led the university to revolutionize higher education in the U. S. by integrating teaching and research. Adopting the concept of a graduate school from Germany's ancient Heidelberg University, Johns Hopkins University is considered the first research university in the United States. Over the course of several decades, the university has led all U. S. universities in annual research and development expenditures. In fiscal year 2016, Johns Hopkins spent nearly $2.5 billion on research. Johns Hopkins is organized into 10 divisions on campuses in Maryland and Washington, D.
C. with international centers in Italy and Singapore. The two undergraduate divisions, the Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences and the Whiting School of Engineering, are located on the Homewood campus in Baltimore's Charles Village neighborhood; the medical school, the nursing school, the Bloomberg School of Public Health are located on the Medical Institutions campus in East Baltimore. The university consists of the Peabody Institute, the Applied Physics Laboratory, the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, the School of Education, the Carey Business School, various other facilities. Johns Hopkins was a founding member of the American Association of Universities. Johns Hopkins University is cited as among the world's top universities; the university is ranked 10th among undergraduate programs at National Universities in U. S. News & World Report latest rankings, 10th among global universities by U. S. News & World Report in its 2019 rankings, as well as 12th globally in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings.
Over the course of more than 140 years, 37 Nobel laureates and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Johns Hopkins. Founded in 1883, the Blue Jays men's lacrosse team has captured 44 national titles and joined the Big Ten Conference as an affiliate member in 2014. On his death in 1873, Johns Hopkins, a Quaker entrepreneur and childless bachelor, bequeathed $7 million to fund a hospital and university in Baltimore, Maryland. At that time this fortune, generated from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States; the first name of philanthropist Johns Hopkins is the surname of his great-grandmother, Margaret Johns, who married Gerard Hopkins. They named their son Johns Hopkins. Samuel named one of his sons for his father and that son would become the university's benefactor. Milton Eisenhower, a former university president, once spoke at a convention in Pittsburgh where the Master of Ceremonies introduced him as "President of John Hopkins."
Eisenhower retorted that he was "glad to be here in Pittburgh." The original board opted for an novel university model dedicated to the discovery of knowledge at an advanced level, extending that of contemporary Germany. Building on the Humboldtian model of higher education, the German education model of Wilhelm von Humboldt, it became dedicated to research. Johns Hopkins thereby became the model of the modern research university in the United States, its success shifted higher education in the United States from a focus on teaching revealed and/or applied knowledge to the scientific discovery of new knowledge. The trustees worked alongside four notable university presidents – Charles W. Eliot of Harvard, Andrew D. White of Cornell, Noah Porter of Yale College and James B. Angell of Michigan, they each vouched for Daniel Coit Gilman to lead the new University and he became the university's first president. Gilman, a Yale-educated scholar, had been serving as president of the University of California prior to this appointment.
In preparation for the university's founding, Gilman visited University of Freiburg and other German universities. Gilman launched what many at the time considered an audacious and unprecedented academic experiment to merge teaching and research, he dismissed the idea that the two were mutually exclusive: "The best teachers are those who are free and willing to make original researches in the library and the laboratory," he stated. To implement his plan, Gilman recruited internationally known luminaries such as the mathematician James Joseph Sylvester. Gilman focused on the expansion of graduate support of faculty research; the new university fused advanced scholarship with such professional schools as medicine and engineering. Hopkins became the national trendsetter in doctoral programs and the host for numerous scholarly journals and associations; the Johns Hopkins University Press, founded in 1878, is the oldest American university press in continuous operation. With the completion of Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1889 and the medical school in 1893, the university's research-focused mode of instruction soon began attracting world-renowned faculty members who would become major figures in the emerging field of acad
Greco-Roman or Graeco-Roman wrestling is a style of wrestling, practiced worldwide. It was contested at the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 and has been included in every edition of the summer Olympics held since 1908; this style of wrestling forbids holds below the waist. This restriction results in an emphasis on throws because a wrestler cannot use trips to take an opponent to the ground, or avoid throws by hooking or grabbing the opponent's leg. According to United World Wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling is one of the six main forms of amateur competitive wrestling practised internationally today; the other five forms are Freestyle wrestling, Grappling/Submission wrestling, Beach wrestling, Pankration athlima, Alysh/Belt wrestling and Traditional/Folk wrestling. The name "Greco-Roman" was applied to this style of wrestling as a way of purporting it to be similar to the wrestling found in the ancient civilizations surrounding the Mediterranean Sea at the ancient Greek Olympics. At that time, the athletes wore skintight shorts but wrestled each other naked.
It is speculated that many styles of European folk wrestling may have spurred the origins of Greco-Roman wrestling. According to United World Wrestling, a Napoleonic soldier named Jean Exbrayat first developed the style. Exbrayat performed in fairs and called his style of wrestling "flat hand wrestling" to distinguish it from other forms of hand-to-hand combat that allowed striking. In 1848, Exbrayat established the rule. "Flat hand wrestling" or "French wrestling" developed all throughout Europe and became a popular sport. The Italian wrestler Basilio Bartoletti first coined the term "Greco-Roman" for the sport to underline the interest in "ancient values." Many others in the 18th and 20th centuries sought to add value to their contemporary athletic practices by finding some connections with ancient counterparts. The 18th century work Gymnastics for Youth by Johann Friedrich Guts Muths described a form of schoolboy wrestling called "orthopale" that did not mention any lower-body holds. Real ancient wrestling was quite different.
The British never enjoyed Greco-Roman wrestling in comparison to its less restrictive counterpart and despite the efforts of William Muldoon to promote it in the United States after the Civil War. But on the continent, the style was promoted. All the continental European capital cities hosted international Greco-Roman tournaments in the 19th century, with much prize money given to the place winners. For example, the Czar of Russia paid 500 francs for wrestlers to train and compete in his tournament, with 5,000 francs awarded as a prize to the tournament winner. Greco-Roman wrestling soon became prestigious in continental Europe and was the first style registered at the modern Olympic Games, beginning in Athens in 1896 with one heavyweight bout, grew in popularity during the 20th century, it has always been featured in the Olympic Games, except during the Paris Olympic Games in 1900 and the St. Louis Olympic Games of 1904, when freestyle first emerged as an Olympic sport; the most well-known of Greco-Roman wrestlers in the 19th century was Georg Hackenschmidt born in Dorpat, Russian Empire, nicknamed "The Russian Lion."
Hackenschmidt in 1898 at the age of 21 and with 15 months of training defeated the experienced Paul Pons in a match in Saint Petersburg, Russia. In 1900, he won professional tournaments in Moscow and St. Petersburg and a series of international tournaments after that. After defeating Tom Jenkins in both freestyle and Greco-Roman matches in England, Georg Hackenschmidt wrestled freestyle in order to compete better against English and American opponents. Winning more than 2,000 victories in Greco-Roman and freestyle, Hackenschmidt served as the physical education adviser to the House of Lords after his retirement. Professional matches in Greco-Roman wrestling were known for their great brutality. Body slams, choke-holds, head-butting was allowed, caustic substances were used to weaken the opponent. By the end of the 19th century, gouging with the nails and violently slamming the arms together around the opponent's stomach were forbidden. Greco-Roman matches were famous for their length. Professionally, it was not uncommon for there to be matches lasting three hours.
William Muldoon's bout with Clarence Whistler at the Terrace Garden Theater in New York lasted eight hours before ending in a draw. In the 1912 Olympics, a match between Anders Ahlgren of Sweden and Ivar Boehling of Finland lasted for nine hours before a draw was called and both wrestlers awarded the silver medal; the International Amateur Wrestling Federation took over the regulation of Greco-Roman wrestling in 1921. Since matches have been cut short, today all movements that put the life or limb of the wrestler in jeopardy are forbidden. In Olympic competition, countries of the former Soviet Union, Turkey, South Korea, Japan and Finland have had great success. Carl Westergren of Sweden won three Greco-Roman gold medals in 1920, 1924, 1932, was the first Greco-Roman wrestler to do so. Alexander Karelin did the same in 1988, 1992, 1996. Ivar Johansson of Sweden won gold medals in Greco-Roman in 1932 and 1936 and a gold me
Twelfth grade, senior year, or grade 12 is the final year of secondary school in most of North America. In other regions it is equivalently referred to as class 12 or Year 13. In most countries students graduate at age 18; some countries have a thirteenth grade. Twelfth grade is the last year of high school. In Australia, the twelfth grade is referred to as Year 12. In New South Wales, students are 16 or 17 years old when they enter Year 12 and 17–18 years during graduation. A majority of students in Year 12 work towards getting an ATAR or OP, which will allow them access to courses at university. In South Australia, this is achieved by completing the SACE. In New South Wales, when completing the, students are required to satisfactorily complete at least 10 units of study in ATAR courses which must include: eight units from Category A courses two units of English three Board Developed courses of two units or greater four subjectsSome Year 12s may receive a Year 12 Jersey. Schools choose the design and writing which are printed or stitched onto the jersey.
Sometimes the last two digits of the year they are graduating are printed on the back along with a personalised nickname. The front may show the school emblem and the student's name, stitched in. Many schools conduct end of year "formals", they are held from any time between graduation in September to November. Australian private schools conduct Year 12 balls in January or February of Year 12 instead of an end of year formal. In Belgium, the 12th grade is called 6de middelbaar or laatste jaar in Dutch, rétho or 6e année in French. In the General Education, this year guides and prepares students for their first year in University by recalling everything learned during the past six years of secondary school. In the Skills Education, this year prepares the students for the professional life with an Intership in the chosen domain. In Brazil, the 12th grade is called terceiro ano do ensino médio informally called terceiro colegial, meaning third grade of high school, it is attended by 17–18 years old students.
During this grade, most students apply to what is called Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio, the Brazilian equivalent of the SATs in the US, vestibular, the individual entrance examination particular to each university. As in many countries, Grade 12 students attend Graduation, which involves a formal official ceremony, a party where students and friends are invited and another party just for the students. In Bulgaria the twelfth grade is the last year of high-school. Twelfth-grade students tend to be 18–19 years old. Students are preparing to take the Matriculation exam in the end of their 2nd semester. In Canada, the twelfth grade is referred to as Grade 12. Students enter their Grade 12 year when they are 16 or 17 years old. If they are 16 years old, they will be turning 17 by December 31 of that year. In many Canadian high schools, student during their year, hold a series of fundraisers, grade-class trips, other social events. Grade 12 Canadian students attend Graduation which involves an official ceremony and a dinner dance.
Ontario had Grade 13, renamed Ontario Academic Credit, before being phased out, leaving Grade 12 as the final year. Grades 12 and 13 were similar to sixth form in England. Quebec is the lone province that does not have Grade 12. Thus, when a student is in Grade 12 in Ontario, for instance, the student in Quebec is in his first year of college. Newfoundland and Labrador did not introduce Grade 12 until 1983. In Denmark, the twelfth grade is the 3rd G, the final year of secondary school. G is equivalent to gymnasium; this is not compulsory. Students are 18-19 or older when they finish secondary school; the age of graduation is caused by the fact that Danish children first start school at 6. The reason that many students will be at the age of 20 when they graduate is because some people choose to have one-year gap between the 9th grade and gymnasium's 1st G, where students go to special art- or sport-oriented boarding schools or become exchange students all over the world; this is optional though. The twelfth grade is the third and last year of High School or secondary school The students graduate from High School the year they turn 19.
The twelfth grade is shorter than the previous ones because the twelfth graders lessons end in February and they go on to take their final exams shortly afterwards. Compulsory education ends after the ninth grade, so the upper grades are optional; the equivalent grade in this country is Terminale, it is the third and last year of lycée, equivalent to High-School, upon completion of which students sit for a test, the Baccalauréat. French-language schools that teach the French government curriculum use the same system of grades as their counterparts in France; this is not compulsory, as education is only
Freestyle wrestling is a style of amateur wrestling, practiced throughout the world. Along with Greco-Roman, it is one of the two styles of wrestling contested in the Olympic games. American high school and college wrestling is conducted under different rules and is termed scholastic and collegiate wrestling. Freestyle wrestling, like collegiate wrestling, has its greatest origins in catch-as-catch-can wrestling and, in both styles, the ultimate goal is to throw and pin the opponent to the mat, which results in an immediate win. Freestyle and collegiate wrestling, unlike Greco-Roman, allow the use of the wrestler's or his opponent's legs in offense and defense. Freestyle wrestling brings together traditional wrestling and sambo techniques. According to wrestling's world governing body, United World Wrestling, freestyle wrestling is one of the four main forms of amateur competitive wrestling that are practiced internationally today; the other main forms of wrestling are grappling. The Executive Board of the International Olympic Committee recommended dropping wrestling as a sport from the 2020 Olympic Games, but the decision was reversed by the IOC.
Modern freestyle wrestling, according to UWW, is said to have originated in Great Britain and the United States by the name of "catch-as-catch-can" wrestling. "Catch-as-catch-can" wrestling had a particular following in Great Britain and the variant developed in Lancashire had a particular effect on freestyle wrestling. "Catch-as-catch-can" wrestling gained great popularity in fairs and festivals during the 19th century. In catch-as-catch-can wrestling, both contestants started out standing and a wrestler sought to hold his opponent's shoulder to the ground. If no fall was scored, both wrestlers continued grappling on the ground, all holds and techniques were allowable. A Scottish variant of Lancashire wrestling became popular which began with both wrestlers standing chest to chest, grasping each other with locked arms around the body and, if no fall was made, with the match continuing on the ground. In addition, there was the Irish collar-and-elbow style, where wrestlers started out on their feet with both wrestlers grasping each other by the collar with one hand and by the elbow with the other.
If neither wrestler achieved a fall, the contestants would continue both standing and on the ground until a fall was made. Irish immigrants brought this style of wrestling to the United States, where it soon became widespread because of the success of the wrestling champion of the Army of the Potomac, George William Flagg from Vermont. Catch-as-catch can was the style performed by at least a half dozen U. S. presidents, including George Washington, Zachary Taylor, Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, Ulysses S. Grant, Theodore Roosevelt; because of the widespread interest in and esteem of professional Greco-Roman wrestling and its popularity in many international meets in nineteenth century Europe, freestyle wrestling had a tough time gaining ground on the continent. The 1896 Olympic Games had only one wrestling a heavyweight Greco-Roman match. Freestyle wrestling first emerged as an Olympic sport in the Saint Louis Olympics of 1904. All 40 wrestlers who participated in the 1904 Olympics were American.
The 1904 Olympics sanctioned the rules used for catch-as-catch can, but imposed some restrictions on dangerous holds. Wrestling by seven weight classes—47.6 kg, 52.2 kg, 56.7 kg, 61.2 kg, 65.3 kg, 71.7 kg, greater than 71.7 kg —was an important innovation in the Summer Olympics. Since 1921, the International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles, which has its headquarters near Lausanne, has set the "Rules of the Game", with regulations for scoring and procedures that govern tournaments such as the World Games and the competition at the Summer Olympics; these were adopted by the Amateur Athletic Union for its freestyle matches. Freestyle wrestling gained great popularity in the United States after the Civil War. By the 1880s, tournaments drew hundreds of wrestlers; the rise of cities, increased industrialization, the closing of the frontier provided the affable environment for amateur wrestling, along with boxing, to increase in esteem and popularity. Amateur wrestling teams soon emerged, such as the wrestling team of the New York Athletic Club, which had its first tournament in 1878.
Professional wrestling developed, by the 1870s, professional championship matches offered allowances of up to $1,000. Nineteenth century wrestling matches were long, Greco-Roman bouts could last as many as eight to nine hours, then, it was only decided by a draw. In the 20th century, time limits were set for matches. For more than forty years into the twentieth century and its American counterpart, collegiate wrestling, not have a scoring system that decided matches in the absence of a fall; the introduction of a point system by Oklahoma State University wrestling coach Art Griffith that gained acceptance in 1941 influenced the international styles as well. By the 1960s international wrestling matches in Greco-Roman and freestyle were scored by a panel of three judges in secret, who made the final decision by raising colored paddles at the match's end. Dr. Albert de Ferrari from San Francisco who became vice president of FILA, lobbied for a visible scoring system and a rule for "controlled fall", which would recognize a fall only when the offensive wrestler had done something to cause it.
These were soon adopted inter
Jim Jagielski is an American software engineer, who specializes in web and open source technologies. Jagielski graduated from the Johns Hopkins University in 1983 with a BES in Electrical/Computer Engineering, he was hired by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center after graduation. In 1994, Jagielski founded jaguNET Access Services, a Web Host and ISP, he has served as CTO for Zend Technologies, CTO for Covalent Technologies, Chief Architect for SpringSource/VMware and under the Office of CTO at Red Hat, Inc. as a Consulting Software Engineer, Sr. Director at Capital One in the Tech Fellows program, he is the Open Source Chef at ConsenSys. He's been a speaker at various conferences and seminars such as ApacheCon, Forrester's IT Gigaworld, O'Reilly Open Source Convention, he has written on numerous topics, was the editor of the Apache section on Slashdot. He is best known as cofounder and director of The Apache Software Foundation and as a core developer on several ASF projects, including the Apache HTTP Server, Apache Portable Runtime, Apache Tomcat.
His first recognition on the Internet was as editor of the A/UX FAQ and system administrator for Jagubox, the primary repository for third-party software for Apple's A/UX operating system. In addition to his involvement with the ASF, Jagielski has been involved with other open-source projects. Jagielski is one of the founding members of The Apache Software Foundation, after having been a member of the original eight-member Apache Group. Jagielski served as Director on the ASF's board from its incorporation in 1999, until 2018, making him the longest serving Director in the Foundation's history. After having served eight years as Executive Vice President and Secretary, three years as Chairman, Jagielski served for several years as President of the ASF. Jagielski is the original Chair of the Apache Incubator project, he was one of the original co-mentors for the Geronimo project, he mentors several Incubator podlings. Jagielski is an active developer on many open source projects, ASF and otherwise.
After doing some development on the NCSA HTTPd web server, he started with Apache in early-to-mid 1995, making him the longest active contributor within the ASF. In 2005, Jagielski was asked to serve on the Advisory Board of the Open Source Software Institute. Open Source Software Institute is a non-profit organization of corporate and academic representatives, its mission is to promote the development and implementation of open-source software solutions within U. S. federal and municipal government agencies and academic entities. In 2010, Jagielski was appointed to the Board of Directors of the CodePlex Foundation, renamed to Outercurve Foundation; as well as Director, Jagielski serves as President for Outercurve. In 2011, Jagielski was appointed to the Board of Directors of the Open Source Initiative, he resigned in September 2013. Based on his long involvement in the FOSS community, Jagielski was one of the recipients of the O'Reilly Open Source Awards at OSCON 2012. In 2012, Jagielski was appointed as a new Council member of the MARSEC-XL Foundation.
In 2015, Jagielski was awarded the European Commission/Open Innovation Strategy and Policy Group's Luminary Award in Creating Open Engagement Platforms for his global efforts in promoting Open Source as an Innovation process. Jagielski has contributed among other projects. Official website
Sambo (martial art)
Sambo is a Soviet martial art and combat sport. It originated in the Russian SFSR in Soviet Union; the word "SAMBO" is a portmanteau for samozashchita bez oruzhiya, which translates as "self-defence without weapons". Sambo is modern, since its development began in the early 1920s by the Soviet Red Army to improve their hand-to-hand combat abilities, it was intended to be a merger of the most effective techniques of other martial arts. The pioneers of sambo were Vasili Oshchepkov. Oshchepkov spent several years training in judo under its founder Kano Jigoro. Oshchepkov died in prison as a result of the Great Purge after being accused of being a Japanese spy. Spiridonov and Oshchepkov independently developed two different styles, which cross-pollinated and became what is known as sambo. Compared to Oshchepkov's system, called "Free wrestling" in Russia, Spiridonov's style was softer and less brutal, it was less strength-dependent, which in large part was due to injuries Spiridonov sustained during World War I.
Anatoly Kharlampiev, a student of Vasili Oshchepkov, is considered a founder of sambo. In 1938, it was recognized as an official sport by the USSR All-Union Sports Committee. There are multiple competitive sport variations of sambo. Below are the main formats that are recognized by FIAS. Sport Sambo is stylistically similar to old time Catch wrestling and Judo, but with some differences in rules and uniform. More akin to Catch wrestling, in contrast with judo, sambo allows various types of leg locks, while not allowing chokeholds, it focuses on throwing, ground work and submissions, with few restrictions on gripping and holds. Combat Sambo. Utilized and developed for the military, combat sambo resembles modern mixed martial arts, including extensive forms of striking and grappling. Combat sambo allows punches, elbows, knees and groin strikes. Competitors wear jackets as in sport sambo, but hand protection and sometimes shin and head protection; the first FIAS World Combat Sambo Championships were held in 2001.
The World Combat Sambo Federation, based in Russia sanctions international combat sambo events. Combat Sambo is designed to tackle certain tasks; the effectiveness of this martial art determined by its structure, namely by three components: Combat Sambo: BOXING + SAMBO + ADAPTERS Adapters of combat sambo were developed by the academician G. S. Popov; the task of adapters is to ensure the safe transition from middle distance to close one, as well as the consistent usage of sambo and boxing techniques. The given configuration provides the fusion of two types of martial arts into a single system. Sambo's early development stemmed from the independent efforts of Vasili Oshchepkov and Viktor Spiridonov to integrate the techniques of Catch wrestling, Judo and other foreign martial arts into native Turkic wrestling styles. Oschepkov taught judo to elite Red Army forces at the Central Red Army House. Vasili Oschepkov was one of the first foreigners to learn Judo in Japan and had earned his nidan from judo's founder, Kano Jigoro.
Spiridonov's background involved indigenous martial arts from various Soviet regions as well as an interest in Japanese jujutsu. His reliance on movement over strength was in part because during World War I he received a bayonet wound which left his left arm lame. Both Oschepkov and Spiridonov independently hoped that Soviet military hand-to-hand combat techniques could be improved with an infusion of the techniques distilled from other foreign martial arts. Contrary to common lore and Spiridonov did not cooperate on the development of their hand-to-hand systems. Rather, their independent notions of hand-to-hand combat merged through cross-training between students and formulative efforts by their students and military staff. While Oschepkov and Spiridonov did have occasion to collaborate, their efforts were not united; each technique was dissected and considered for its merits, if found acceptable in unarmed combat, refined to reach sambo's ultimate goal: to stop an armed or unarmed adversary in the least time possible.
Thus, many techniques from jujutsu and other martial systems joined with the indigenous fighting styles to form the sambo repertoire. When the techniques were perfected, they were woven into sambo applications for personal self-defense, crowd control, border guards, secret police, dignitary protection, psychiatric hospital staff and commandos. In 1918, Lenin created Vsevobuch under the leadership of N. I. Podvoyskiy to train the Red Army; the task of developing and organizing Red Army military hand-to-hand combat training fell to K. Voroshilov, who in turn, created the NKVD physical training center, Dynamo Sports Society. Spiridonov was a combat veteran of World War I and one of the first wrestling and self-defense instructors hired for Dynamo, his background included Free wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling, many Turkic folk wrestling styles, Japanese jujutsu. As a combatives investigator for Dynamo, he traveled to Mongolia and China to observe their native fighting styles. In 1923, Oschepkov and Spiridinov collaborated with a team of other experts on a grant from the Soviet government to improve the Red Army's hand-to-hand combat system.
Spiridonov had envisioned integrating the m