Descendants of Miguel I of Portugal
The Descendants of Miguel I of Portugal, of the House of Braganza, were numerous and left a lasting mark on European royalty. Miguel married Princess Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg and the strategic marriages for all of their children into various European royalties would earn Miguel the nickname of Grandfather of Europe, his descendants can be found in both reigning and non-reigning royal families all over Europe. This article deals in turn their senior heirs. Miguel, born on 26 October 1802 at Queluz Royal Palace, was the second son of King João VI and Carlota Joaquina of Spain. In 1823, Miguel led a coup in an attempt to place himself on the throne and restore the absolutist regime to Portugal; the coup, known as the Vilafrancada, took place on May 1823 in Vila Franca de Xira. The coup was unsuccessful and Miguel was forgiven and made chief of the army; this would not play out well. Following the eventual demise of the April Revolt, Miguel was exiled from Portugal. Miguel returned to Portugal, as regent to his niece Queen Maria II of Portugal and a potential royal consort.
While regent, he seized the Portuguese throne in accordance with the so-called Fundamental Laws of the Kingdom and reigned for six years. His older brother Pedro IV of Portugal, Maria II's father, lost his, therefore her, rights from the moment that Pedro had made war on Portugal and become the sovereign of a foreign state; this led to a difficult political situation which culminated in the Portuguese Liberal Wars between the absolutist Miguelists and constituitionalist liberals. Pedro, Duke of Braganza launched a campaign from the Azores which would topple Miguel; the Miguelite War, one of the many names given to the civil war, would last throughout the six-year duration of Miguel's reign and would end with the Concession of Evoramonte, when Miguel renounced his claims to the throne, recognized Maria II as queen, was exiled from Portugal. Miguel would spend his exiled years in the Grand Duchy of Baden, where he would have seven children, with his wife Princess Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg.
He and his wife would spend a great deal of their resources seeking to establish their family, through advantageous marriages of their children. Their descendants include the reigning sovereigns of Belgium and Luxembourg. On 24 September 1851, Miguel I married Princess Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg; the couple had 7 children: Descendants of Manuel I of Portugal Descendants of John VI of Portugal Fernandes, Paulo Jorge. "The Political History of Nineteenth Century Portugal". E-Journal of Portuguese History. Providence, Rhode Island: Brown University. 1. Macaulay, Neill. Dom Pedro: The Struggle for Liberty in Brazil and Portugal, 1798–1834. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-0681-6
House of Liechtenstein
The House of Liechtenstein, from which the principality takes its name, is the family which reigns by constitutional, hereditary right over the nation of Liechtenstein. Only dynastic members of the family are eligible to inherit the throne; the dynasty's membership and responsibilities are defined by a law of the family, enforced by the reigning Prince and may be altered by vote among the family's dynasts, but which may not be altered by the Government or Parliament of Liechtenstein. The family comes from Castle Liechtenstein in Lower Austria, which the family possessed from at least 1140 to the 13th century, from 1807 onwards. Heinrich I. von Liechtenstein was lord of Nikolsburg and Petronell. Through the centuries, the dynasty acquired vast swathes of land, predominantly in Moravia, Lower Austria and Styria, though in all cases, these territories were held in fief under other more senior feudal lords under various lines of the Habsburg family, to whom several Liechtenstein princes served as close advisors.
Thus, without any territory held directly under the Imperial throne, the Liechtenstein dynasty was unable to meet a primary requirement to qualify for a seat in the Imperial Diet. A seat in the Imperial government would add power, would be afforded by lands which would be immediate, or held without any feudal personage other than the Holy Roman Emperor himself having rights on the land; the head of the family was able to arrange the purchase from the Hohenems family of the minuscule Lordship of Schellenberg in 1699, the County of Vaduz in 1712. Schellenberg and Vaduz indeed had no feudal lord other than their comital sovereign and the suzerain Emperor. On 23 January 1719, after the purchase had been made, Charles VI as Holy Roman Emperor decreed Vaduz and Schellenberg to be united and raised to the dignity of a Principality by the name of "Liechtenstein", in honour of " true servant, Anton Florian of Liechtenstein". On this date, Liechtenstein became a member state of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Princes of Liechtenstein did not set foot in their new principality for several decades, a testament to the pure political expediency of the purchases. According to the Constitution of the Princely House of Liechtenstein of 26 October 1993, all members other than the reigning prince shall bear the titles of Prince or Princess of Liechtenstein and Count or Countess of Rietberg; the Prince and Princess The Hereditary Prince and Hereditary Princess Prince Joseph Wenzel Princess Marie-Caroline Prince Georg Antonius Prince Nikolaus Sebastian Prince Maximilian and Princess Angela Prince Alfons Prince Constantin and Princess Marie Prince Moritz Princess Georgina Prince Benedikt Princess Tatjana Prince Philipp Erasmus and Princess Isabelle Prince Alexander and Princess Astrid Princess Theodora Prince Wenzeslaus Prince Rudolf and Princess Tılsım Princess Laetitia Prince Karl Ludwig Prince Nikolaus and Princess Margaretha Princess Maria-Annunciata Princess Marie-Astrid Prince Josef-Emanuel The Dowager Marchioness of Mariño Below are all male and male-line dynastic descendants of Johann I Joseph, Prince of Liechtenstein.
The numbers represent the positions in the line of succession. List of Princes of Liechtenstein List of Princesses of Liechtenstein Line of succession to the Throne of Liechtenstein Liechtenstein Museum for the important princely art collection The Princely House of Liechtenstein
Princess Catherine Radziwiłł was a notable Polish aristocrat. Born in Russia into the Polish House of Rzewuski, her maternal family was the illustrious Dashkov-Vorontsov, a Russian family. Educated, in 1873 she married the Polish Prince Wilhelm Radziwiłł, she was a prominent figure at the Imperial courts in Germany and Russia, but became involved in a series of scandals. She combined her love for the luxury of the courts, social life and intrigue with her literary talent and she is notable as the author of two dozen books on European royalty and the Russian court in particular most notably: Behind the Veil at the Russian Court and her autobiography It Really Happened. Princess Catherine Radziwill was born in St. Petersburg as Countess Ekaterina Adamovna Rzewuska, a member of the House of Rzewuski, a Polish family of warriors, statesmen and eccentrics, she was the only child of the Russian General Adam Adamowicz Rzewuski, who took part in the Crimean war, his second wife Anna Dmitrievna Dashkova, a daughter of the writer Dmitry Vasilyevich Dashkov, Tsar Nicholas I's minister of justice.
Catherine's mother, who belonged to some of Russia's most notable families: Dashkov, Stroganov and Vasilchikov, died while giving birth to her. Catherine's father married for a third time and provided her with three half-brothers, including Stanislaw Rzewuski, who became a novelist and literary critic; the Rzewuski was a family of notable writers, including Catherine's great-great-grandfather Wacław Rzewuski, her uncle Henryk and her aunts Ewelina, wife of Honoré de Balzac, Karolina, who kept a literary salon in Paris. Catherine was educated under the supervision of her stern father in his large estates in central Ukraine. Although the Rzewuski family originated in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Catherine had no attachment to Poland and considered herself Russian. On 26 October 1873, at age 15, she married Prince Wilhelm Radziwiłł, a Polish officer in the Prussian army; the couple moved to Berlin to live with his family. She had four sons and three daughters. Two of her sons died in early childhood.
Little is known about Catherine's marriage except what she wrote in her memories: Her husband treated her kindly, but she felt bored and frustrated. The couple became prominent at the court in Berlin. In 1884, Nouvelle Revue published a series articles written as letters to a young diplomat by the elderly Count Paul Vasili; the articles were full of damaging gossip about the imperial court. The publication of the articles, collected in the book Berlin Society, created a great scandal at court. Count Paul Vasili was a fictional character and a subsequent investigation indicated Auguste Gérard, the empress' French reader, as the author. Only in 1918 in her book Confessions of the Czarina, Catherine admitted that she was the author of Berlin Society; the confusion was aggravated as other anonymous writers began to use the pen-name Count Paul Vasili. After the publication of Berlin Society, Catherine began to be seen with suspicion in Berlin and she traveled extensively with her husband; when her father died in Russia in April 1888, Catherine decided to stay in St. Petersburg where her youngest son, was born the same year.
At the Russian court, Princess Radziwill had a prominent position. She became a admirer of Konstantin Pobedonostsev, her political leanings liberal while in Berlin, turned to staunchly conservative in Russia. She began an affair with General Peter Alexander Cherevin, court commandant, head of the Third section of the Okhrana, one of Tsar Alexander III's few trusted friends. During the late 1880s and early 1890s, Princess Radziwill reached the pinnacle of her life and of her influence at court, her situation suffered a sharp down turn with the deaths of Tsar Alexander III in 1894 and of her lover Cherevin in early 1896. Estranged from her husband and children, she earned some money writing articles for American magazines and newspapers chronicling British society, but she accumulated debts. In the summer 1899, Catherine Radziwill left for South Africa setting her eyes on South African-based British magnate and politician Cecil Rhodes, they became friends, but Rhodes, who some writers and academics have suggested was homosexual, pulled away from her.
He paid her debts and sent her back to London. A scandal in London involving debts accumulated by her son Nicholas sent her back to South Africa in the summer 1900. However, that didn't keep her from again becomnig a news item:Princess Radziwill, charged with having forged bills for large amounts on Mr. Rhodes was sentenced to two years' imprisonment after three days of trial at Capetown. In her own evidence she stated that she had received the bills signed in blank by Mr. Rhodes from Mrs. Scholtz but there appear to be no doubt that she forged the bills and attempted to prevent action being taken by threats of publishing correspondence which she alleged was of a compromising nature from Mr Rhodes and Lord Milner, her methods were, as the Attorney-General described them, the ordinary armoury of the blackmailer: and she had made use of her social position for purposes of intrigue and fraud. She was a fine specimen of the lady adventurer of detective fiction and we may expect her reappearance in roman à clef dealing with South Africa.
Radziwiłł spent her time in prison writing. She was fortunate to end up spending only
Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg
Princess Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg was the wife of King Miguel I of Portugal but only following his deposition. As a widow, she secured advantageous marriages for their six daughters. Princess Adelaide Sofia Amelia of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg was born in Kleinheubach, near Miltenberg, Bavaria on 3 April 1831, Easter Sunday, she was a daughter of Constantine, Hereditary Prince of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg, Princess Agnes of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. Adelaide was four and half years old when her mother died and seven when she lost her father. Adelaide and her brother, were brought up by their paternal grandparents, Charles Thomas, Prince of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg and his wife Princess Sophie of Windisch-Graetz, her maternal grandparents were Karl Ludwig, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg and Countess Amalie Henriette of Solms-Baruth. Princess Adelaide belonged to the Löwenstein-Wertheim family, an morganatic branch of the House of Wittelsbach, elevated to princely status and mediatised in 1819.
On 24 September 1851, Adelaide married the former King Miguel I of Portugal. The bride was 20 years old while the groom was 49. Miguel had at first served as Regent in Portugal for his niece and betrothed Queen Maria II of Portugal but had seized the throne for himself on 23 June 1828, he was an avid admirer of Klemens Wenzel von Metternich. He overturned the Constitutional Charter written by his brother, Pedro I of Brazil, tried to rule as an absolute monarch; this resulted in the so-called Liberal Wars a prolonged civil war between progressive constitutionalists and authoritarian absolutists. The war had ended in 1834 with the deposition of Miguel, who renounced all claims to the throne of Portugal in exchange for an annual pension, he was forced into a lifelong exile. He remained the senior male member of the Portuguese line of the House of Braganza, but he was never restored to the throne and it is disputed whether his descendants' dynastic rights were restored. On 15 January 1837, his support of Infante Carlos, Count of Molina, the first Carlist pretender to the Spanish throne, resulted in the removal of his own rights to said throne.
Her husband, died on 14 November 1866 before any of their children had reached adulthood. Adelaide, a ambitious woman, would spend the next several decades attempting to secure prominent marriages for her children; as a result of her successful attempts, her grandchildren would include Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza, Elisabeth Amalia, Princess of Liechtenstein, Queen of the Belgians, Marie Gabrielle, Crown Princess of Bavaria, Marie-Adélaïde, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg, Crown Princess of Bavaria, Duke of Parma, Empress of Austria, Felix of Bourbon-Parma and Infanta Maria Adelaide of Portugal. Many of her descendants have inherited her longevity. In 1895, two years after the marriage of her last daughter, Adelaide, a devout Catholic, retired to the abbey of Sainte-Cécile de Solesmes in north-western France, she professed as a nun there on 12 June 1897. The community moved to Cowes and to Ryde on the Isle of Wight, where Adelhaid died on 16 December 1909 at the age of 78.
In 1967 both her body and that of her husband were moved to the Braganza mausoleum in the Monastery of São Vicente de Fora in Lisbon. During her life, she lived during the reign of 6 Portuguese kings: her future husband Miguel I until 1834. Marek, Miroslav. "A listing of descendants of the Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort family". Genealogy. EU, her profile in Peerage.com A list of her descendants
Prince Aloys of Liechtenstein
Prince Aloys of Liechtenstein was the son of Prince Alfred of Liechtenstein and Princess Henriette of Liechtenstein, daughter of Alois II of Liechtenstein. The maternal nephew and first cousin of Franz I of Liechtenstein, Prince Aloys renounced his rights to the succession on 26 February 1923, in favor of his son Franz Joseph II, he was the 1,177th Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece in Austria. On 20 April 1903, in Vienna, he married Archduchess Elisabeth Amalie of Austria; the couple had eight children together. Franz Joseph II, Prince of Liechtenstein Princess Maria Theresia Henriette Aloisia Alfreda Franziska Josepha Julie Adelheid Margarete Annunziata Elisabeth Ignatia Benedikta, married in Vienna civilly on 9 February 1944 and religiously 12 February 1944 Artur Graf Strachwitz von Gross-Zauche und Camminetz, had issue: Antonius Graf Strachwitz von Gross-Zauche und Camminetz and without issue Stanislaus Graf Strachwitz von Gross-Zauche und Camminetz, married at Waidhofen an der Thaya civilly on 2 May 1980 and religiously on 3 May 1980 Eva Kattner, had three daughters: Marie Therese Gräfin Strachwitz von Gross-Zauche und Camminetz Barbara Gräfin Strachwitz von Gross-Zauche und Camminetz Antonia Gräfin Strachwitz von Gross-Zauche und Camminetz Stephanie Gräfin Strachwitz von Gross-Zauche und Camminetz, married in Overijse, Belgium, on 30 July 1974 Guido Nikolaus Schmidt-Chiari, had six children: Maria-Annunciata Schmidt-Chiari Carlotta Schmidt-Chiari Guido Schmidt-Chiari Camillo Schmidt-Chiari Valerie Schmidt-Chiari Stanislaus Schmidt-Chiari Prince Karl Alfred Maria Johannes Baptista Heinrich Aloys Georg Hartmann Ignatius Benediktus Franz Joseph Rochus, married at Schloss Persenbeug on 17 February 1949 Archduchess Agnes Christina of Austria, great-grandchild of Elisabeth, Empress of Austria, had issue:Prince Dominik Volkmar Hubert Alois Maria Joseph Thaddäus Thomas Paulus Karl Ignatius Silverius, married at Spitz an der Donau on 9 October 1980 Eva Maria Lösch, daughter of Otto Lösch and wife Hildegard Freiin von Felder, without issue Prince Andreas Duarte Emanuel Ulrich Benedikt Joseph Maria Karl Rafael Ignatius Mathias Paulus, married in Madrid on 29 September 1978 Silvia Prieto y Figueroa, daughter of Luis Prieto y Calle and wife Olimpia Figueroa y... without issue Prince Gregor Heinrich Augustinus Judas Thaddäus Joseph Maria Pius Paulus Antonius Stephan Salvator and without issue Princess Alexandra Maria Christina Aloisia Ulrike Henriette Agnes Ignatia Pia Gabriela Anastasia, married in Vienna on 20 September 1980 and divorced in 1988 Hans Lovrek, son of Heribert Lovrek and wife Pauline Lerner, without issue Princess Maria Pia Ludovika Ulrika Elisabeth Paschaline Katharina Ignazia Lucia Johanna Josefa, married in Vienna on 4 August 1995 Max Alexander Kothbauer, had an only son: Hieronymus Max Alexander Karl-Alfred Alfons Michael Kothbauer Princess Katharina Maria Christina Henriette Valerie Agnes, married firstly civilly in London on 16 November 1991 and religiously in Vienna on 30 November 1991 and divorced in 2002 Jeremy Kelton, son of Michael Kelton and wife Joanna Peel, had an only son, married secondly in London on 3 December 2005 Andrew Duncan Gammon, without issue: Maximilian Anthony Kelton Princess Birgitta Ulrike Rosa Marie Elisabeth Aloisia Hermenegilde, married civilly in Vaduz on 18 December 2000 and religiously at Schloss Persenbeug on 30 December 2000 Otto Graf Jankovich-Bésán de Pribér, Vuchin et Duna-Szekcsö, had issue: Arthur Graf Jankovich-Bésán de Pribér, Vuchin et Duna-Szekcsö Johanna Gräfin Jankovich-Bésán de Pribér, Vuchin et Duna-Szekcsö Prince Georg Hartmann Maria Josef Franz de Paula Aloys Ignatius Benediktus Martin, married in Altshausen on 23 September 1948 Marie Christine, Duchess of Württemberg, daughter of Philipp Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg and had issue:Princess Margarita Maria Helene Rosa Aloisia Philippine Elisabeth Georgine Josefa Konrada Pia Ignatia, married in Einsiedeln, 20 September 1974 Hans Peter Klien, son of Bertrand Klien and wife Paula Mittersteiner, had two children: Elena Klien (b. 1 April 1975, in
Miguel I of Portugal
Dom Miguel I, nicknamed The Absolutist, The Traditionalist and The Usurper, was the King of Portugal between 1828 and 1834, the seventh child and third son of King João VI and his queen, Carlota Joaquina of Spain. Following his exile as a result of his actions in support of absolutism in the April Revolt, Miguel returned to Portugal as regent and fiancé of his niece Queen Maria II; as regent, he claimed the Portuguese throne in his own right, since according to the so-called Fundamental Laws of the Kingdom his older brother Pedro IV and therefore the latter's daughter had lost their rights from the moment that Pedro had made war on Portugal and become the sovereign of a foreign state. This led to a difficult political situation, during which many people were killed, persecuted or sent into exile, which culminated in the Portuguese Liberal Wars between authoritarian absolutists and progressive constitutionalists. In the end Miguel lived the last 32 years of his life in exile. In order to counter the Republican opposition from the Portuguese Freemasons, the dynastic order known as Order of Saint Michael of the Wing was revived in 1848, with statutes issued by King Miguel I of Portugal.
Miguel Maria do Patrocinio de Bragança e Bourbon, the third son of King João VI and Carlota Joaquina, was born in the Queluz Royal Palace and was created by his father Duke of Beja. Some sources have suggested that Miguel I could be the illegitimate son from an adulterous affair between his mother, Queen Charlotte, one of her alleged lovers D. Pedro José Joaquim Vito de Meneses Coutinho, Marquis of Marialva. Sources close to King João VI confirmed as much by asserting that he had not had sexual relations with his wife for two and a half years prior to Miguel's birth, but despite the gossip, Miguel was always considered to be a son of the king, by the king, by his mother, by the rest of the family, by the court, by the church. The "illegitimate child" theories may have had their origins in the writings of pro-liberal propagandists or royalists who wanted to denigrate the queen and undermine the claims of Miguel and of his descendants to the Portuguese throne. What is clear is that Miguel was the queen's favourite child.
After the death of her firstborn, it was Miguel who received most of her attention, rather than Pedro, closer to his father. In 1807, at the age of 5, Miguel accompanied the Portuguese Royal Family on their transfer to Brazil in order to escape from the first Napoleonic invasion of Portugal. Miguel was a mischievous child, sometimes seen in the miniature uniform of a general. At sixteen he was seen galloping around Mata-Carvalos, knocking off the hats of passers-by with his riding crop, he spent most of his time with a rowdy band of Indian farm-hands. In general, Miguel was spoiled by the queen and her royal household, influenced by the base tendencies of others; the Duke of Palmela described him as: "A good man when among good men, when among the bad, worse than they." Miguel was an avowed conservative and admirer of Prince Metternich, who had referred to the liberal revolutions in the 1820s as unrealistic and without any historical roots: "A people who can neither read nor write, whose last word is the dagger — fine material for constitutional principles!...
The English constitution is the work of centuries.... There is no universal recipe for constitutions."Miguel was 20 years old when he first challenged the liberal institutions established after the 1820 revolution, which may have been part of a wider strategy by the queen. He was at the head of the counter-revolution of 1823, known as the Vilafrancada, which erupted on May 27, 1823 in Vila Franca de Xira. Early in the day, Miguel joined the 23rd Infantry Regiment, commanded by Brigadier Ferreira Sampaio in Vila Franca, where he declared his support for an absolutist monarchy, he called on General Pampluna to join him and his cause. The general, not a fan of the liberal constitution, obeyed his summons and within five days he controlled the insurrectionary forces; the prince, supported by the queen, went so far as to demand the abdication of the king, faithful to his earlier oath, wanted to maintain the 1822 Constitution, despite the growing support for absolutist forces in Vila Franca. Miguel and the queen were interested in overthrowing the parliamentary system and, inspired by the return of the absolutist monarchy in Spain they exploited factionalism and plotted with outside reactionaries to overthrow the liberal Cortes.
But General Pampluna was loyal to the king, made it clear that he would do nothing to defy the monarch, advised the prince to obey his father's summons. The king himself marched on Vila Franca where he received the submission of his son, but he took advantage of the situation to abolish the 1822 Constitution and dismiss the Cortes. Many liberals went into exile. Although Miguel returned to Lisbon in triumph, the king was able to maintain complete control of power and did not succumb to the ultra-reactionary forces that supported his abdication. After the events of the Vilafrancada
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who