Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor
Francis II was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation after the decisive defeat at the hands of the First French Empire led by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz. In 1804, he had founded the Austrian Empire and became Francis I, the first Emperor of Austria, ruling from 1804 to 1835, so he was named the one and only Doppelkaiser in history. For the two years between 1804 and 1806, Francis used the title and style by the Grace of God elected Roman Emperor Augustus, hereditary Emperor of Austria and he was called the Emperor of both the Holy Roman Empire and Austria, he was Apostolic King of Hungary and Bohemia as Francis I. He served as the first president of the German Confederation following its establishment in 1815. Francis II continued his leading role as an opponent of Napoleonic France in the Napoleonic Wars, suffered several more defeats after Austerlitz; the proxy marriage of state of his daughter Marie Louise of Austria to Napoleon on 10 March 1810 was arguably his severest personal defeat.
After the abdication of Napoleon following the War of the Sixth Coalition, Austria participated as a leading member of the Holy Alliance at the Congress of Vienna, dominated by Francis's chancellor Klemens Wenzel, Prince von Metternich culminating in a new European map and the restoration of Francis's ancient dominions. Due to the establishment of the Concert of Europe, which resisted popular nationalist and liberal tendencies, Francis became viewed as a reactionary in his reign. Francis was a son of Emperor Leopold II and his wife Maria Luisa of Spain, daughter of Charles III of Spain. Francis was born in Florence, the capital of Tuscany, where his father reigned as Grand Duke from 1765 to 1790. Though he had a happy childhood surrounded by his many siblings, his family knew Francis was to be a future Emperor, so in 1784 the young Archduke was sent to the Imperial Court in Vienna to educate and prepare him for his future role. Emperor Joseph II himself took charge of Francis's development.
His disciplinarian regime was a stark contrast to the indulgent Florentine Court of Leopold. The Emperor wrote that Francis was "stunted in growth", "backward in bodily dexterity and deportment", "neither more nor less than a spoiled mother's child." Joseph concluded that "the manner in which he was treated for upwards of sixteen years could not but have confirmed him in the delusion that the preservation of his own person was the only thing of importance."Joseph's martinet method of improving the young Francis were "fear and unpleasantness." The young Archduke was isolated, the reasoning being that this would make him more self-sufficient as it was felt by Joseph that Francis "failed to lead himself, to do his own thinking." Nonetheless, Francis admired his uncle, if rather feared him. To complete his training, Francis was sent to join an army regiment in Hungary and he settled into the routine of military life. After the death of Joseph II in 1790, Francis's father became Emperor, he had an early taste of power while acting as Leopold's deputy in Vienna while the incoming Emperor traversed the Empire attempting to win back those alienated by his brother's policies.
The strain tolled on Leopold and by the winter of 1791, he became ill. He worsened throughout early 1792. Francis, just past his 24th birthday, was now Emperor, much sooner; as the leader of the large multi-ethnic Habsburg Empire, Francis felt threatened by Napoleon's social and political reforms, which were being exported throughout Europe with the expansion of the first French Empire. Francis had a fraught relationship with France, his aunt Marie Antoinette, the wife of Louis XVI and Queen consort of France, was guillotined by the revolutionaries in 1793, at the beginning of his reign. Francis, on the whole, was indifferent to her fate. Georges Danton attempted to negotiate with the Emperor for Marie Antoinette's release, but Francis was unwilling to make any concessions in return, he led Austria into the French Revolutionary Wars. He commanded the Allied forces during the Flanders Campaign of 1794 before handing over command to his brother Archduke Charles, he was defeated by Napoleon. By the Treaty of Campo Formio, he ceded the left bank of the Rhine to France in exchange for Venice and Dalmatia.
He again fought against France during the Second and Third Coalition, when after meeting a crushing defeat at Austerlitz, he had to agree to the Treaty of Pressburg, weakening the Austrian Empire and reorganizing Holy Roman Empire under a Napoleonic imprint that would be called the Confederation of the Rhine. At this point, he believed his position as Holy Roman Emperor to be untenable, so on 6 August 1806, he abdicated the throne, declaring the empire to be dissolved in the same declaration; this was a political move to impair the legitimacy of the Confederation of the Rhine. He had anticipated losing the Holy Roman crown, however. Two years earlier, as a reaction to Napoleon making himself an emperor, he had raised Austria to the status of an empire. Hence, after 1806, he reigned as Emperor of Austria. In 1809, Francis attacked France again, hoping to take advantage of the Peninsular War embroiling Napoleon in Spain, he was again defeated, this
Vaduz is the capital of Liechtenstein and the seat of the national parliament. The town, located along the Rhine River, has 5,450 residents. Although Vaduz is the best-known town in the principality internationally, it is not the largest. Vaduz is mentioned in historic 12th-century manuscripts as Faduzes. In 1322 a mention of the castle is made, sacked by the Swiss in 1499 during the Swabian War; the entire town was destroyed. In the 17th century the Liechtenstein family was seeking a seat in the Reichstag. However, since they did not hold any territory, directly under the Imperial throne, they were unable to meet the primary requirement to qualify; the family yearned for the added power a seat in the Imperial government would bring, therefore sought to acquire lands that would be reichsunmittelbar, or held without any feudal personage other than the Holy Roman Emperor himself having rights on the land. After some time, the family was able to arrange the purchase of the minuscule Herrschaft of Schellenberg and countship of Vaduz from the Hohenems.
Tiny Schellenberg and Vaduz possessed the political status required: no feudal lord other than the Emperor. Thereby, on January 23, 1719, after purchase had been duly made, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, decreed Vaduz and Schellenberg were united, raised to the dignity of Fürstentum with the name "Liechtenstein" in honour of " true servant, Anton Florian of Liechtenstein", it is on this date. As a testament to the pure political expediency of the purchases, the Princes of Liechtenstein did not set foot in their new principality for over 120 years. Vaduz features an oceanic climate with cool winters. Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as Marine West Coast Climate; the city experiences a noticeable increase in precipitation during the summer, but in general all twelve months see some precipitation. Vaduz receives, on average 900 mm of precipitation per year. Vaduz's warmest month, sees average high temperatures reach 25 °C while average low temperatures are about 14 °C.
The city's coldest month, sees average highs of 3 °C and average lows of −3 °C. The most prominent landmark of Vaduz is Vaduz Castle, the home of the reigning prince of Liechtenstein and the Liechtenstein princely family; the castle is visible from any location in Vaduz, being perched atop a steep hill in the middle of the city. The Cathedral of St. Florin, Government House and City Hall are well-known landmarks, displaying the various styles and periods of architecture that the city is known for; the National Art Gallery as well as the National Museum are located in Vaduz. The art gallery is a museum of modern and contemporary art showing displays from the private princely Liechtenstein Collection, the main public display of, in Vienna; the building is an architectural landmark built by the Swiss architects Morger and Kerez. It forms a "black box" of tinted concrete and black basalt stone; the museum collection is the national art collection of Liechtenstein. The Liechtenstein National Museum is showing a permanent exhibition on the cultural and natural history of Liechtenstein as well as special exhibitions.
There are the Postage Stamp Museum and a Ski Museum. Barbara Erni thief and confidence trickster, the last person to be executed in Liechtenstein Josef Rheinberger and composer Carl von In der Maur, government official Prince Aloys of Liechtenstein renounced his rights to the succession on 26 February 1923, in favor of his son Franz Joseph II. Josef Ospelt, first Prime Minister of Liechtenstein from 2 March 1921 to 27 April 1922 Gilbert von In der Maur, military officer, leading figure of the Austrian National Socialist Party Medea de Novara actress who appeared in Mexican films Franz Joseph II, Prince of Liechtenstein the reigning Prince of Liechtenstein from 1938 until his death, lived full-time in the principality. Hans-Adam II, Prince of Liechtenstein the monarch and head of state of Liechtenstein, lives in Vaduz Castle Wolfgang Haas, first archbishop of the Archdiocese of Vaduz Marlies Amann-Marxer, politician who serves as the current Minister of Infrastructure and Sport in the Government of the Principality of Liechtenstein Christoph Zeller a German billionaire businessman, owns Ivoclar Vivadent Alexander Kellner a Brazilian geologist and paleontologist, expert in pterosaurs Adrian Hasler and the current Prime Minister of Liechtenstein Alois, Hereditary Prince of Liechtenstein regent of Liechtenstein since 2004 Aurelia Frick a Liechtenstein politician, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Culture.
Ruslaan Mumtaz, Indian Bollywood film and television actor Raphael Gray a British computer hacker Rainer Hasler footballer who played as a defender, selected by the Liechtenstein Football Association as the country's Golden Player Ronny Büchel a former international footballer, played 72 games for the national side Philippe Erne an international footballer, 34 games for the national side Marco Ritzberger a retired footballer, played for FC Va
Descendants of Miguel I of Portugal
The Descendants of Miguel I of Portugal, of the House of Braganza, were numerous and left a lasting mark on European royalty. Miguel married Princess Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg and the strategic marriages for all of their children into various European royalties would earn Miguel the nickname of Grandfather of Europe, his descendants can be found in both reigning and non-reigning royal families all over Europe. This article deals in turn their senior heirs. Miguel, born on 26 October 1802 at Queluz Royal Palace, was the second son of King João VI and Carlota Joaquina of Spain. In 1823, Miguel led a coup in an attempt to place himself on the throne and restore the absolutist regime to Portugal; the coup, known as the Vilafrancada, took place on May 1823 in Vila Franca de Xira. The coup was unsuccessful and Miguel was forgiven and made chief of the army; this would not play out well. Following the eventual demise of the April Revolt, Miguel was exiled from Portugal. Miguel returned to Portugal, as regent to his niece Queen Maria II of Portugal and a potential royal consort.
While regent, he seized the Portuguese throne in accordance with the so-called Fundamental Laws of the Kingdom and reigned for six years. His older brother Pedro IV of Portugal, Maria II's father, lost his, therefore her, rights from the moment that Pedro had made war on Portugal and become the sovereign of a foreign state; this led to a difficult political situation which culminated in the Portuguese Liberal Wars between the absolutist Miguelists and constituitionalist liberals. Pedro, Duke of Braganza launched a campaign from the Azores which would topple Miguel; the Miguelite War, one of the many names given to the civil war, would last throughout the six-year duration of Miguel's reign and would end with the Concession of Evoramonte, when Miguel renounced his claims to the throne, recognized Maria II as queen, was exiled from Portugal. Miguel would spend his exiled years in the Grand Duchy of Baden, where he would have seven children, with his wife Princess Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg.
He and his wife would spend a great deal of their resources seeking to establish their family, through advantageous marriages of their children. Their descendants include the reigning sovereigns of Belgium and Luxembourg. On 24 September 1851, Miguel I married Princess Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg; the couple had 7 children: Descendants of Manuel I of Portugal Descendants of John VI of Portugal Fernandes, Paulo Jorge. "The Political History of Nineteenth Century Portugal". E-Journal of Portuguese History. Providence, Rhode Island: Brown University. 1. Macaulay, Neill. Dom Pedro: The Struggle for Liberty in Brazil and Portugal, 1798–1834. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-0681-6
Prague Castle is a castle complex in Prague, Czech Republic, dating from the 9th century. It is the official office of the President of the Czech Republic; the castle was a seat of power for kings of Bohemia, Holy Roman emperors, presidents of Czechoslovakia. The Bohemian Crown Jewels are kept within a hidden room inside it. According to the Guinness Book of Records, Prague Castle is the largest ancient castle in the world, occupying an area of 70,000 square metres, at about 570 metres in length and an average of about 130 metres wide; the castle is among the most visited tourist attractions in Prague attracting over 1.8 million visitors annually. The history of the castle began in 870 when its first walled building, the Church of the Virgin Mary, was built; the Basilica of Saint George and the Basilica of St. Vitus were founded under the reign of Vratislaus I, Duke of Bohemia and his son St. Wenceslas in the first half of the 10th century; the first convent in Bohemia was founded in the castle, next to the church of St. George.
A Romanesque palace was erected here during the 12th century. King Ottokar II of Bohemia improved fortifications and rebuilt the royal palace for the purposes of representation and housing. In the 14th century, under the reign of Charles IV the royal palace was rebuilt in Gothic style and the castle fortifications were strengthened. In place of rotunda and basilica of St. Vitus began building of a vast Gothic church, that were completed six centuries later. During the Hussite Wars and the following decades, the castle was not inhabited. In 1485, King Ladislaus II Jagello began to rebuild the castle; the massive Vladislav Hall was added to the Royal Palace. New defence towers were built on the north side of the castle. A large fire in 1541 destroyed large parts of the castle. Under the Habsburgs, some new buildings in Renaissance style were added. Ferdinand I built the Belvedere as a summer palace for his wife Anne. Rudolph II used Prague Castle as his main residence, he founded the northern wing of the palace, with the Spanish Hall, where his precious art collections were exhibited.
The Second Defenestration of Prague in 1618 began the Bohemian Revolt. During the subsequent wars, the Castle was dilapidated. Many works from the collection of Rudolph II were looted by Swedes in 1648, in the Battle of Prague, the final act of the Thirty Years' War; the last major rebuilding of the castle was carried out by Empress Maria Theresa in the second half of the 18th century. Following his abdication in 1848, the succession of his nephew, Franz Joseph, to the throne, the former emperor, Ferdinand I, made Prague Castle his home. In 1918, the castle became the seat of the president of the new Czechoslovak Republic, T. G. Masaryk; the New Royal Palace and the gardens were renovated by Slovenian architect Jože Plečnik. In this period the St Vitus Cathedral was finished. Renovations continued in 1936 under Plečnik's successor Pavel Janák. On March 15, 1939, shortly after the Nazi Germany forced Czech President Emil Hacha to hand his nation over to the Germans, Adolf Hitler spent a night in the Prague Castle, "proudly surveying his new possession."
During the Nazi occupation of Czechoslovakia in World War II, Prague Castle became the headquarters of Reinhard Heydrich, the Reich Protector of Bohemia and Moravia. According to a popular rumor, he is said to have placed the Bohemian crown on his head. Less than a year after assuming power, on May 27, 1942, Heydrich was ambushed during Operation Anthropoid, by British-trained Slovak and Czech resistance soldiers while on his way to the Castle, died of his wounds - which became infected - a week later. Klaus, his firstborn son, died the next year in a traffic accident in line with the legend. After the liberation of Czechoslovakia and the coup in 1948, the Castle housed the offices of the communist Czechoslovak government. After Czechoslovakia split in 1993 into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, the castle became the seat of the Head of State of the new Czech Republic. Similar to what Masaryk did with Plečnik, president Václav Havel commissioned Bořek Šípek to be the architect of post-communism Prague Castle's necessary improvements, in particular of the facelift of the castle's gallery of paintings.
The castle buildings represent every architectural style of the last millennium. Prague Castle includes Gothic St Vitus Cathedral, Romanesque Basilica of St. George, a monastery and several palaces and defense towers. Most of the castle areas are open to tourists; the castle houses several museums, including the National Gallery collection of Bohemian baroque and mannerism art, exhibition dedicated to Czech history, Toy Museum and the picture gallery of Prague Castle, based on the collection of Rudolph II. The Summer Shakespeare Festival takes place in the courtyard of Burgrave Palace; the neighborhood around Prague Castle is called Hradčany. Katedrála svatého Víta, Václava a Vojtěcha Bazilika svatého Jiří and Klášter svatého Jiří, it is the oldest surviving church building within Prague Castle. Chrám Všech svatých Kaple svatého Kříže Starý královský palác Letohrádek královny Anny Lobkovický palác Nový královský palác Sloupová síň Španělský sál Rud
Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria
Archduke Karl Ludwig Joseph Maria of Austria was the younger brother of Franz Joseph I of Austria, the father of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, whose assassination ignited World War I, grandfather of the last emperor, Charles I. He was born at Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna, the son of Archduke Franz Karl of Austria and his wife Princess Sophie of Bavaria, his mother ensured he was raised a devout Roman Catholic by the Vienna Prince-archbishop Joseph Othmar Rauscher, a conviction that evolved into religious mania in his years. Though not interested in politics, the 20-year-old joined the Galician government of Count Agenor Romuald Gołuchowski and in 1855 accepted his appointment as Tyrolean stadtholder in Innsbruck, where he took his residence at Ambras Castle. However, he found his authority to exert power restricted by the Austrian cabinet of his cousin Archduke Rainer Ferdinand and Baron Alexander von Bach, he laid down the office upon the issue of the 1861 February Patent for a life as patron of the arts and sciences.
As the eldest surviving brother of the Emperor, Karl Ludwig, after the death of his nephew Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria in 1889, became heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian Empire. A newspaper article appeared shortly after the death of his nephew claiming that the Archduke had renounced his succession rights in favor of his eldest son Franz Ferdinand; this rumor proved to be false. Karl Ludwig married three times, his first wife, whom he married on 4 November 1856 at Dresden, was his first cousin Margaretha of Saxony, the daughter of Johann of Saxony and Amalie Auguste of Bavaria. She died on 15 September 1858 and they had no children, his second wife, whom he married by proxy on 16 October 1862 at Rome, in person on 21 October 1862 at Venice, was Princess Maria Annunciata of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, daughter of Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies and Maria Theresa of Austria. They had four children: Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria he married Countess Sophie Chotek von Chotkow und Wognin on 1 July 1900.
They had four children. Archduke Otto Franz of Austria he married Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony on 2 October 1886, they had two sons. Archduke Ferdinand Karl of Austria he married Bertha Czuber on 15 August 1909. Archduchess Margarete Sophie of Austria she married Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg on 24 January 1893, they had seven children. Maria Annunciata died on 4 May 1871, his third wife, whom he married on 23 July 1873 at Kleinheubach, was Infanta Maria Theresa of Portugal, daughter of Miguel I of Portugal and Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg. They had two daughters: Archduchess Maria Annunziata of Austria. Abbess of the Theresia Convent in the Hradschin, Prague. Archduchess Elisabeth Amalie of Austria she married Prince Aloys of Liechtenstein on 20 April 1903, they had eight children. Karl Ludwig died of typhoid at Schönbrunn in Vienna returning from a journey to Palestine and Egypt after the consumption of contaminated Jordan waters, his widow, Maria Teresa died on 12 February 1944.
Austrian decorationsOrder of the Golden Fleece, Knight, 1852 Order of St. Stephen of Hungary, Grand Cross, 1859 Military Merit Medal on red ribbon Long Service Cross for Officers, 2nd ClassForeign decorations List of heirs to the Austrian throne Media related to Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria at Wikimedia Commons