Charles II, Archduke of Austria
Charles II Francis of Austria was an Archduke of Austria and ruler of Inner Austria from 1564. He was a member of the House of Habsburg. A native of Vienna, he was the third son of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, Anne of Bohemia and Hungary, daughter of King Vladislaus II of Hungary and his wife Anne of Foix-Candale. In 1559 and again from 1564–1568 there were negotiations for a marriage between Charles and Elizabeth I of England. Emperor Ferdinand I expected Elizabeth to promise in the proposed marriage treaty that Charles, as her widower, would succeed her if she died childless; the negotiations dragged on. In 1563, Charles was a suitor of Mary, Queen of Scots, with her uncle Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine, advising her to marry Charles in order to obtain assistance in governing Scotland. Mary, disagreed, as did Charles's older brother Maximilian. Unlike his brother, Emperor Maximilian II, Charles was a religious Catholic and promoted the Counter-Reformation, e.g. by inviting the Jesuits to his territory.
However, in 1572, he had to make significant concessions to the Inner Austrian Estates in the Religious Pacifications of Graz, 1578 and the Libellum of Bruck. In practice, this resulted in tolerance towards Protestantism; as the Inner Austrian line had to bear the major burden of the wars against the Turks, the fortress of Karlstadt/Karlovac in Croatia was founded in 1579 and named after him. Charles is remembered as a benefactor of the arts and sciences. In particular, the composer Orlando di Lasso was one of his protégés, as was the music theorist Lodovico Zacconi. In 1573, Charles founded the Akademisches Gymnasium in the oldest secondary school in Styria. In 1580, Charles founded a stud for horses of Andalusian origin in Lipica, thereby playing a leading role in the creation of the Lipizzan breed. In 1585, Charles founded the University of Graz, named Karl-Franzens-Universität after him, he died at Graz in 1590. Charles' mausoleum in Seckau Abbey, in which other members of the Habsburg family are buried, is one of the most important edifices of the early Baroque in the South-Eastern Alps.
It was built from 1587 onwards by Alessandro de Verda and completed by Sebastiano Carlone by 1612. In Vienna on 26 August 1571 Charles married his niece Maria Anna of Bavaria, they had fifteen children: Ferdinand. Anne, married on 31 May 1592 to Sigismund III Vasa, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Sweden. Maria Christina, married on 6 August 1595 to Sigismund Bathory, Prince of Transylvania. Catherine Renata. Elisabeth. Ferdinand, Holy Roman Emperor as Ferdinand II in 1619. Charles. Gregoria Maximiliana. Eleanor, a nun. Maximilian Ernest, Teutonic Knight. Margaret, married on 18 April 1599 to Philip III, King of Spain. Leopold, Archduke of Further Austria and Count of Tirol. Constance, married on 11 December 1605 to Sigismund III Vasa, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Sweden. Maria Magdalena, married on 19 October 1608 Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. Charles, the Posthumous, Bishop of Wroclaw and Brixen, Grand Master of the Teutonic Order. Doran, Susan.
Monarchy and Matrimony: The Courtships of Elizabeth I. Routledge
Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Cosimo III de' Medici was the penultimate Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany. He reigned from 1670 to 1723, was the elder son of Grand Duke Ferdinando II. Cosimo's 53-year-long reign, the longest in Tuscan history, was marked by a series of ultra-reactionary laws which regulated prostitution and banned May celebrations, his reign witnessed Tuscany's deterioration to unknown economic lows. He was succeeded by his elder surviving son, Gian Gastone, when he died, in 1723, he married Marguerite Louise d'Orléans, a cousin of Louis XIV. The marriage was solemnized by proxy in the King's Chapel at the Louvre, on Sunday, 17 April 1661, it was a marriage fraught with tribulation. Marguerite Louise abandoned Tuscany for the Convent of Montmartre. Together, they had three children: Ferdinando in 1663, Anna Maria Luisa, Electress Palatine, in 1667, Gian Gastone, the last Medicean ruler of Tuscany, in 1671. In life, he attempted to have Anna Maria Luisa recognised as the universal heiress of Tuscany, but Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, would not allow it because Tuscany was an imperial fief, he felt he alone could alter the Tuscan laws of succession.
All Cosimo's efforts to salvage the plan foundered, in 1737, upon his younger son's death, Tuscany passed to the House of Lorraine. Cosimo de' Medici was born on 14 August 1642, the eldest surviving son of Vittoria della Rovere of Urbino, Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, their previous two children had died shortly after birth. Grand Duke Ferdinando wished to give his son the finest scientific education available, but the pious Grand Duchess Vittoria opposed; the latter got her way. Volunnio Bandinelli, a Sienese theologian, was appointed Cosimo's tutor, his character was analogous to the Grand Duchess's. As a youth, Cosimo revelled in sports, his uncle Gian Carlo once wrote to another family member with "news that should surprise you.... The young prince has killed a goose in mid-air." Cosimo, at the age of 11, killed five pigs with five shots. The Luchese Ambassador praised the young Cosimo to the skies, his successor, noticed a somewhat different person, whom he described as "melancholy."By 1659, Cosimo had ceased smiling in public.
He visited places of religious worship and surrounded himself with friars and priests, concerning Grand Duke Ferdinando. Cosimo's only sibling, Francesco Maria de' Medici, the fruit of his parents' brief reconciliation, was born the next year. Marguerite Louise d'Orléans, a granddaughter of Henry IV of France, was married to Cosimo by proxy on 17 April 1661 at the Palais du Louvre, she arrived in Tuscany on 12 June, disembarking at Livorno, made her formal entry to Florence on 20 June to much pageantry. As a wedding gift, Grand Duke Ferdinando presented her with a pearl the "size of a small pigeon's egg."The marriage was unhappy from the start. A few nights following the formal entry, Marguerite Louise demanded the Tuscan crown jewels for her own personal use; the jewels that she did manage to extract from Cosimo were smuggled out of Tuscany by her attendants but for the efforts of Ferdinando's agents. Marguerite Louise's extravagances perturbed Ferdinando because the Tuscan exchequer was nearly bankrupt.
Accordingly, the interest rate was lowered by 0.75%. The economy, was so decrepit that barter trade became prevalent in rural market places. In August 1663 Marguerite Louise delivered a boy: Ferdinando. Two more children followed: Anna Maria Luisa in 1667 and Gian Gastone in 1671. Ferdinando beseeched Louis XIV to do something about his daughter-in-law's behaviour. Marguerite Louise wanted to return to France, Saint-Mesme sympathised with this, as did much of the French court, so he left without finding a solution to the heir's domestic disharmony, incensing both Ferdinando and Louis XIV, she humiliated Cosimo at every chance she got: she insisted on employing French cooks, as she feared the Medici would poison her. In September 1664 Marguerite Louise abandoned her apartments in the grand ducal palace. Cosimo moved her into Villa Lapeggi. Here, she was watched by forty soldiers, six courtiers, appointed by Cosimo, had to follow her everywhere; the next year she reconciled with the grand ducal family, gave birth to Anna Maria Luisa, future Electress Palatine, in August 1667.
The delicate rapprochement that existed between Marguerite Louise and the rest of the family collapsed after Anna Maria Luisa's birth, when Marguerite Louise caught smallpox and decided to blame Cosimo for all her problems. Grand Duke Ferdinando encouraged Cosimo to go on a European tour to distract him from Marguerite Louise's renewed hostility. On 28 October 1667 he arrived in Tyrol, where he was entertained by his aunt, Anna de' Medici, Archduchess of Further Austria, he took a barge down the Rhine to Amsterdam, where he was well received by the art community, meeting painter Rembrandt van Rijn. From Amsterdam, he travelled to Hamburg, he reached Florence in May 1668. The excursion did Cosimo good, his health was better than as was his self-esteem. His wife's unrelenting enmity towards him, undid the aforesaid progressions. Grand Duke Ferdinando, once again, feared for his health, so he sent him on a second tour in September 1668; when he went to Spain, the King, Carlos II, received him in a private interview.
By January, he had arrived in Portugal, from there endeavoured to England, where he met Charles II and Samuel Pepys, who described him as "a jolly and good comely man." Cosimo was amiably welcomed by the Universities of Ox
Sir Harold Mario Mitchell Acton, CBE was a British writer and aesthete. He wrote fiction and autobiography. During his stay in China, he studied Chinese language, traditional drama, poetry, some of which he translated, he was born near Italy, to a prominent Anglo-Italian family. At Eton College, he was a founding member of the Eton Arts Society before going up to Oxford to read Modern Greats at Christ Church, he co-founded the avant garde magazine The Oxford Broom and mixed with many intellectual and literary figures of the age, including Evelyn Waugh, who based the character of Anthony Blanche in Brideshead Revisited on him. Between the wars, Acton lived in Paris and Florence, proving most successful as a historian, his magnum opus being a 3-volume study of the Medicis and the Bourbons. After serving as an RAF liaison officer in the Mediterranean, he returned to Florence, restoring his childhood home, Villa La Pietra, to its earlier glory. Acton was died in Florence, leaving La Pietra to New York University.
Acton was born to a prominent Anglo-Italian-American family of baronets raised to the peerage as Barons Acton of Aldenham at Villa La Pietra, his parents' house one mile outside the walls of Florence, Italy. He claimed that his great-great-grandfather was Commodore Sir John Acton, 6th Baronet, who married his niece, Mary Anne Acton, and, prime minister of Naples under Ferdinand IV and grandfather of the Roman Catholic historian Lord Acton; this relationship has been disproven. Both of these brothers served in Italy, are from the Shropshire family of Actons, his father was the successful art collector and dealer Arthur Acton, the illegitimate son of Eugene Arthur Roger Acton, counsellor to the Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce. His mother, Hortense Lenore Mitchell, was the heiress of John J. Mitchell, a president of the Illinois Trust and Savings Bank and an appointed member of the Federal Advisory Council, a trustee of the Art Institute of Chicago. Arthur Acton met Hortense in Chicago while helping to design the Italianate features of the bank's new building in 1896, the Mitchell fortune allowed Arthur Acton to buy the remarkable Villa La Pietra on the hills of Florence, where Harold Acton lived for much of his life.
The only modern furniture in the villa was in the nurseries, and, disposed of when the children got older. His early schooling was at Miss Penrose's private school in Florence. In 1913, his parents sent him to Wixenford Preparatory School near Reading in southern England, where Kenneth Clark was a fellow-pupil. By 1916 submarine attacks on shipping had made the journey to England unsafe and so Harold and his brother were sent in September to Chateau de Lancy, an international school near Geneva. In the autumn of 1917, he went to a'crammers' at Ashlawn in Kent to be prepared for Eton, which he entered on 1 May 1918. Among his contemporaries at Eton were Eric Blair, Cyril Connolly, Robert Byron, Alec Douglas-Home, Ian Fleming, Brian Howard, Oliver Messel, Anthony Powell, Steven Runciman, Henry Yorke. In his final years at school, Acton became a founding member of the Eton Arts Society, eleven of his poems appeared in The Eton Candle, edited by his friend Brian Howard. In October 1923, Acton went up to Oxford to read Modern Greats at Christ Church.
It was from the balcony of his rooms in Meadow Buildings that he declaimed passages from The Waste Land through a megaphone. While at Oxford, he co-founded the avant garde magazine The Oxford Broom, published his first book of poems, Aquarium. Acton was regarded as a leading figure of his day and would receive more attention in memoirs of the period than men who were much more successful in life, he thanked me profusely, raised the bowler with a dazzling smile, propelled himself Deanward, an Oriental diplomat off to leave a jewelled carte de visite.'Jesus,' said Evvers,'what's that?"He's the Oxford aesthete,' I informed him,'a Victorian, his rooms in Meadow are in lemon yellow and he stands on his balcony and reads his poems through a megaphone to people passing, he belongs to the Hypocrites' Club with Brian Howard and Robert Byron and Evelyn Waugh and all that set, they call themselves the Post-War Generation and wear Hearts on their lapels as opposed to the pre-war Rupert Brooke lot who called themselves Souls.
They're supposed to eat new-born babies cooked in wine.'" Williams described Acton's review of The Picture of Dorian Gray in the Oxford student newspaper Cherwell: "a charming boy's book, we would suggest a cheap edition to fit comfortably into the pocket of a school blazer". At Oxford Acton dominated the Railway Club, which included: Henry Yorke, Roy Harrod, Henry Thynne, 6th Marquess of Bath, David Plunket Greene, Edward Henry Charles James Fox-Strangways, 7th Earl
Leopold V, Archduke of Austria
Leopold V, Archduke of Further Austria was the son of Archduke Charles II of Inner Austria, the younger brother of Emperor Ferdinand II, father of Ferdinand Charles, Archduke of Further Austria. He was Bishop of Passau and of Strasbourg, until he resigned to get married, Archduke of Further Austria including Tirol. Leopold was born in Graz, was invested as bishop in 1598, as a child though he had not been ordained as a priest. From 1609 onwards he fought with his mercenaries in the War of the Jülich succession against Maximilian III, Archduke of Further Austria in Tirol, 1611 for Rudolf II in Bohemia. In 1614, he financed the construction of the Church of the Jesuit College of Molsheim, inside of which his coat of arms is since prominently displayed. In 1619 upon the death of his kinsman and former rival, he became governor of Maximilian's inheritance: Further Austria and Tirol, where he attained the position of a sovereign, i.e. Archduke of Further Austria from 1626 to his death in 1632. In 1626 he married Claudia de' Medici.
He had the Jesuit Church built in Innsbruck. He fought for the Veltlin and defended Tirol against the Swedes in 1632, he died in Tirol. With his wife Claudia de' Medici, he became the founder of a sideline of the Habsburg family, which persisted until 1665 - the most recent line of Archdukes of Further Austria, his children were: Maria-Eleonora 1627–1629 Ferdinand Charles.
Graz is the capital of Styria and the second-largest city in Austria after Vienna. On 1 January 2019, it had a population of 328,276. In 2015, the population of the Graz larger urban zone who had principal residence status stood at 633,168. Graz has a long tradition as seat of universities: its six universities have 60,000 students, its historic centre is one of the best-preserved city centres in Central Europe. For centuries, Graz was more important to Slovenes, both politically and culturally, than the capital of Slovenia, it remains influential to this day. In 1999, Graz was added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites, the site was extended in 2010 with Eggenberg Palace. Graz was the sole Cultural Capital of Europe of 2003 and became a City of Culinary Delights in 2008; the name of the city, Graz spelled Gratz, most stems from the Slavic gradec, "small castle". Some archaeological finds point to the erection of a small castle by Alpine Slavic people, which over time became a defended fortification.
In literary Slovene, gradec still means "small castle", forming a hypocoristic derivative of Proto-West-South Slavic *gradьcъ, whichs descends via liquid metathesis from Common Slavic *gardьcъ and via the Slavic third palatalisation from Proto-Slavic *gardiku denoting "small town, settlement". The name thus follows the common South Slavic pattern for naming settlements as grad; the German name'Graz' first appears in records in 1128. Graz is situated on the Mur river in southeast Austria, it is about 200 km southwest of Vienna. The nearest larger urban centre is Maribor in Slovenia, about 50 km away. Graz is the capital and largest city in Styria, a green and forested area; these towns and villages border Graz: to the north: Gratkorn, Weinitzen to the east: Kainbach bei Graz, Hart bei Graz, Raaba to the south: Gössendorf, Feldkirchen bei Graz, Seiersberg to the west: Attendorf, Judendorf-Straßengel Graz is divided into 17 districts: The oldest settlement on the ground of the modern city of Graz dates back to the Copper Age.
However, no historical continuity exists of a settlement before the Middle Ages. During the 12th century, dukes under Babenberg rule made the town into an important commercial center. Graz came under the rule of the Habsburgs and, in 1281, gained special privileges from King Rudolph I. In the 14th century, Graz became the city of residence of the Inner Austrian line of the Habsburgs; the royalty lived in the Schlossberg castle and from there ruled Styria, most of today's Slovenia, parts of Italy. In the 16th century, the city's design and planning were controlled by Italian Renaissance architects and artists. One of the most famous buildings built in this style is the Landhaus, designed by Domenico dell'Allio, used by the local rulers as a governmental headquarters. Karl-Franzens-Universität called the University of Graz, is the city's oldest university, founded in 1585 by Archduke Karl II. For most of its existence, it was controlled by the Catholic church, was closed in 1782 by Joseph II in an attempt to gain state control over educational institutions.
Joseph II transformed it into a lyceum where medical personnel were trained. In 1827 it was re-instituted as a university by Emperor Franz I, thus gaining the name'Karl-Franzens Universität,' meaning'Charles-Francis University.' Over 30,000 students study at this university. The astronomer Johannes Kepler lived in Graz for a short period. There, he worked as a math teacher and was a professor of mathematics at the University of Graz, but still found time to study astronomy, he left Graz to go to Prague. Ludwig Boltzmann was Professor for Mathematical Physics from 1869 to 1890. During that time, Nikola Tesla studied electrical engineering at the Polytechnic in 1875. Nobel Laureate Otto Loewi taught at the University of Graz from 1909 until 1938. Ivo Andric, the 1961 Nobel Prize for Literature Laureate obtained his doctorate at the University of Graz. Erwin Schrödinger was chancellor of the University of Graz in 1936. Graz Steiermark in German. Mark is an old German word indicating a large area of land used as a defensive border, in which the peasantry is taught how to organize and fight in the case of an invasion.
With a strategic location at the head of the open and fertile Mur valley, Graz was assaulted, e.g. by the Hungarians under Matthias Corvinus in 1481, by the Ottoman Turks in 1529 and 1532. Apart from the Riegersburg Castle, the Schlossberg was the only fortification in the region that never fell to the Ottoman Turks. Graz is home to the region's provincial armory, the world's largest historical collection of late medieval and Renaissance weaponry, it has been preserved since 1551, displays over 30,000 items. From the earlier part of the 15th century, Graz was the residence of the younger branch of the Habsburgs, which succeeded to the imperial throne in 1619 in the person of Emperor Ferdinand II, who moved the capital to Vienna. New fortifications were built on the Schlossberg at the end of the 16th century. Napoleon's army occupied Graz in 1797. In 1809, the city withstood another assault by the French army. During this attack, the commanding officer in the fortress was ordered to defend it with about 900 men against Napoleon's army of about 3,000.
He defended the Schlossberg against eight attacks, but they were forced to give up after the Grande Armée occupied Vienna and the Emperor ordered to surrender. Following the defeat of Austri
Philip I of Castile
Philip of Habsburg, called the Handsome or the Fair, was Duke of Burgundy from 1482 to 1506 and the first member of the house of Habsburg to be King of Castile as Philip I. The son of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I by his first wife Mary, Philip was less than four years old when his mother died, upon her death, he inherited the greater part of the Duchy of Burgundy and the Burgundian Netherlands as Philip IV. In 1496, his father arranged for him to marry Joanna of Castile, second daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, rulers of Aragon and Castile respectively. Around the same time, Philip's sister Margaret was given in marriage to Joanna's brother John, as part of an agreement between their fathers. Within four years after the wedding, Joanna became heir presumptive to Aragon and Castile, following the deaths of her brother, elder sister and infant nephew during that period. In 1504, aged 27, Philip became king of Castile jure uxoris when his mother-in-law died and Joanna succeeded her, he died only two years leaving his wife distraught with grief.
Philip was the first Habsburg monarch in Spain, is the progenitor of every monarch of Spain up to today. He died before his father, therefore never inherited his father's territories or became Holy Roman Emperor. However, his son Emperor Charles V united the Habsburg, Burgundian and Aragonese inheritances. Philip holds a special place in Habsburg history because he was the pivot around which the dynasty acquired a large portion of its extensive lands. By inheriting Burgundy from his mother and by acquiring much of Spain and its possessions in the New World by marriage to Joanna, Philip was instrumental in vastly enhancing the territories of the Habsburgs, his progeny would dominate European history for the next two centuries. Philip's wife Joanna was an elder sister to Catherine of Aragon, who married successively the brothers Arthur, Prince of Wales and King Henry VIII of England, he did once visit England, the young Prince Henry was much impressed with him. Indeed, Henry is said to have regarded Philip as providing a model of leadership towards which he aspired.
Philip was born in Bruges, the son of the future Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, by his first wife Mary, Duchess of Burgundy. He was born in the County of Flanders during the reign of his grandfather Frederick III; the child was named in honour of his great-grandfather, Philip the Good, grandfather of his mother Mary. Philip was only four years old when his mother died in 1482, resulting in him succeeded her as ruler of the Burgundian possessions under the guardianship of his father. A period of turmoil ensued which witnessed sporadic hostilities between, the large towns of Flanders and the supporters of Maximilian. During this interregnum, Philip became caught up in events and was briefly sequestered in Bruges as part of the larger Flemish campaign to support their claims of greater autonomy, which they had wrested from Mary of Burgundy in an agreement known as the Great Privilege of 1477. By the early 1490s, the turmoil of the interregnum gave way to an uneasy stand-off, with neither French support for the cities of the Franc, nor Imperial support from Philip's grandfather, Emperor Frederick III proving decisive.
Both sides came to terms in the Treaty of Senlis in 1493, when Emperor Frederick died and Philip's father Maximilian became the new emperor. This smoothed over the internal power struggle as the two sides agreed to make the 15-year-old Philip crown prince in the following year. In 1494, Maximilian relinquished his regency under the terms of the Treaty of Senlis and Philip, aged 16, took over the rule of the Burgundian lands himself, although in practice authority was derived from a council of Burgundian notables. On 20 October 1496, he married Joanna, daughter of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile, in Lier, Belgium; the marriage was one of a set of family alliances between the Habsburgs and the Trastámara, designed to strengthen against growing French power, which had increased thanks to the policies of Louis XI and the successful assertion of regal power after war with the League of the Public Weal. The matter became more urgent after Charles VIII's invasion of Italy.
Philip's sister Margaret married John, Prince of Asturias, only son of Ferdinand and Isabella and heir apparent to the unified crowns of Castile and Aragon. The double alliance was never intended to let the Spanish kingdoms fall under Habsburg control. At the time of her marriage to Philip, Joanna was third in line to the throne, with John and their sister Isabella married and hopeful of progeny. In 1500, shortly after the birth of Joanna and Philip's second child, in Flanders, the succession to the Castilian and Aragonese crowns was thrown into turmoil; the heir apparent, had died in 1497 shortly after his marriage to Margaret of Austria. The crown thereby seemed destined to devolve upon his and Joanna's elder sister Isabella, wife of Manuel I of Portugal, she died in 1498, while giving birth to a son named Miguel da Paz, to whom succession to the united crowns of Castile and Portugal now fell. The succession to the Castilian and Aragonese crowns now fell to Joanna; because Ferdinand could produce another heir, the Cortes of Aragon refused to recognize Joanna as heir presumptive to the Kingdom of Aragon.
In the Kingdom of Castile, the succession was clear. Moreover, there was no Salic tradition which the Castilian Cortes could use to thwart the succession passing to Joa
Giancarlo de' Medici
Giancarlo de' Medici was an Italian cardinal of the House of Medici. He was the second son of Grand Duke Cosimo II of Tuscany and his wife, Maria Maddalena of Austria, the brother of Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, he was born at Florence, the second son and third child of Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Maria Maddalena of Austria. He entered the ecclesiastical state at a young age. In 1620 he was named Grand Prior of Pisa. In 1638 he was named General of the Mediterranean Sea. On 14 November 1644 Pope Innocent X created Giancarlo a cardinal-deacon as a token of his affection toward the Medici, thus forced to give up his military career and with it the title of "General of the Spanish Seas", Giancarlo could not reconcile himself to his new "religious" lifestyle. Cardinal de' Medici participated in the papal conclave, 1655 as one of leaders of the Spanish faction. Pope Alexander VII made Giancarlo responsible for welcoming Queen Christina of Sweden, a new convert to Roman Catholicism, to Rome in 1655.
Upon discovering of the closeness that had formed between the two, the Pope sent Gian Carlo back to Florence, declaring him "too handsome and too young" to be "spiritual advisor" to the Queen. Here, Giancarlo led a life of dissipation, he was patron of science and music. He founded the Accademia degli Immobili and contributed to the construction of Teatro della Pergola and the enrichment of the Galleria Palatina di Palazzo Pitti. In years, Giancarlo donated his sizeable art collection to form the Pitti Gallery, he died at Florence, of an apoplexy, at the age of 51, was interred in the Medicean necropolis, the Basilica of San Lorenzo, Florence. Four years after the death of Giancarlo, his younger brother Leopoldo was created a cardinal. Acton, Harold: The Last Medici, London, 1980, ISBN 0-333-29315-0 Young, G. F.: The Medici: Volume II, John Murray, London, 1920