Vienna is the capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austrias primary city, with a population of about 1.8 million, and its cultural, economic and it is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin, Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is located in the part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region, along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be The City of Dreams because it was home to the worlds first psycho-analyst – Sigmund Freud. The citys roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city and it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century.
The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the worlds most liveable cities, between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne, Australia. Monocles 2015 Quality of Life Survey ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world to make a base within, the UN-Habitat has classified Vienna as being the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. Vienna regularly hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the worlds number-one destination for international congresses and it attracts over 3.7 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the name or the French Vienne. The etymology of the name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning forest stream, which produced the Old High German Uuenia.
A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Slovak names of the city, the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different, probably Slavonic origin, and originally referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, evidence has been found of continuous habitation since 500 BC, when the site of Vienna on the Danube River was settled by the Celts. In 15 BC, the Romans fortified the city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north
The Gestapo, abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei, or the Secret State Police, was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe. The force was created by Hermann Göring in 1933 by combining the various security agencies of Prussia into one organization. Then from 27 September 1939 forward, it was administered by the Reichssicherheitshauptamt and was considered an organization to the SS Sicherheitsdienst. This gave Göring command of the largest police force in Germany, soon afterward, Göring detached the political and intelligence sections from the police and filled their ranks with Nazis. On 26 April 1933, Göring merged the two units as the Geheime Staatspolizei, which was abbreviated for a stamp and became known as the Gestapo. He originally wanted to name it the Secret Police Office, and its first commander was Rudolf Diels, a protégé of Göring. Diels was appointed with the title of chief of Abteilung Ia of the Political Police of the Prussian Interior Ministry, Diels was best known as the primary interrogator of Marinus van der Lubbe after the Reichstag fire.
In late 1933, the Reich Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick wanted to integrate all the forces of the German states under his control. Göring outflanked him by removing the Prussian political and intelligence departments from the interior ministry. Göring himself took over the Gestapo in 1934 and urged Hitler to extend the agencys authority throughout Germany and this represented a radical departure from German tradition, which held that law enforcement was a Land and local matter. In this, he ran into conflict with Heinrich Himmler, who was chief of the second most powerful German state. Frick did not have the muscle to take on Göring by himself so he allied with Himmler, with Fricks support, Himmler took over the political police of state after state. Concerned that Diels was not ruthless enough to counteract the power of the Sturmabteilung, Göring handed over control of the Gestapo to Himmler on 20 April 1934. Also on that date, Hitler appointed Himmler chief of all German police outside Prussia, named chief of the Gestapo by Himmler on 22 April 1934, continued as head of the SS Security Service.
Himmler wanted to free himself entirely from Roehm, who he viewed as an obstacle, roehms position was menacing as upwards of over 4. Several Nazi chieftains, among them Goering, Joseph Goebbels, Rudolf Hess, both the SD and Gestapo released information concerning an imminent putsch by the SA. Once persuaded, Hitler acted by setting Himmlers SS into action, on 17 June 1936, Hitler decreed the unification of all police forces in the Reich and named Himmler as Chief of German Police. This action effectively merged the police into the SS and removed it from Fricks control, Himmler was nominally subordinate to Frick as police chief, but as Reichsführer-SS, he answered only to Hitler
Maria Luisa, Duchess of Lucca
Maria Luisa of Spain was a Spanish infanta, daughter of King Charles IV and his wife, Maria Luisa of Parma. In 1795, she married her first cousin Louis, Hereditary Prince of Parma and she spent the first years of her married life at the Spanish court where their first child, was born. In 1801 the Treaty of Aranjuez made her husband King of Etruria and they arrived in Florence, the capital of the new kingdom, in August 1801. During a brief visit to Spain in 1802, Maria Luisa gave birth to her second child and her husbands reign in Etruria was marred by his ill health. He died in 1803, at the age of 30, following an epileptic crisis, Maria Luisa acted as regent for their son. As part of the Treaty of Fontainebleau, Napoleon incorporated Etruria to his domains, after a futile interview with Napoleon in Milan, Maria Luisa looked for refuge in exile with her family in Spain. Napoleon invited father and son to Bayonne, with the excuse of acting as a mediator, Napoleon called the remaining members of the Spanish royal family to France and at their departure on 2 May 1808, the citizens of Madrid rose up against the French occupation.
In France, Maria Luisa was reunited in exile with her parents and she was the only member of the Spanish royal family to directly oppose Napoleon. After her secret plan to escape was discovered, Maria Luisa was separated from her son, Maria Luisa, mostly known as the Queen of Etruria during her lifetime, regained her freedom in 1814 at the fall of Napoleon. In the following years she continued to live in Rome, hoping to recover her sons former domains, as a consolation she was allowed to retain the honors of a queen. Initially reluctant to accept this accord, Maria Luisa did not take the government of Lucca until December 1817, as a reigning duchess of Lucca, she disregarded the constitution imposed by the Congress of Vienna. While spending time in her palace in Rome, she died of cancer at the age of 41. Born at the Palace of San Ildefonso, Spain, Maria Luisa was the surviving daughter of King Charles IV of Spain and his wife Maria Luisa of Parma. She was given the names Maria Luisa Josefina Antonieta, after a sister, Maria Luisa Carlota, who died just four days before Maria Luisas birth, on 2 July.
In 1795, Maria Luisas first cousin, Hereditary Prince of Parma, there was an understanding between the two royal families that Louis would marry one of the daughters of Charles IV. It was anticipated that he would marry the Infanta Maria Amalia and she was fifteen years old at the time and of a timid and melancholic nature. Louis, who was shy and reserved, preferred her younger sister, Maria Luisa. All four daughters of Charles IV were short and plain, but Maria Luisa was clever and she had dark curly hair, brown eyes and a Grecian nose
Austro-Daimler was an Austrian automaker company, from 1899 until 1934. It was subsidiary of the German Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft, in 1890, Eduard Bierenz was appointed as Austrian retailer. The company sold so well that it began manufacturing the automobiles after uniting with Eduard Fischers engineering factory, the works were located at Wiener-Neustadt. By this subsidiary DMG became the first automotive multinational in history, thus on August 11,1899, the Austrian Daimler Engine Society was founded. Whilst the assembling parts stemmed from Stuttgart, in 1900 they built their first automobile which featured 2 cylinders,4 hp, soon they started producing engines for luxurious cars, buses, maritime ships, and trains. In 1902, Paul Daimler, Gottlieb Daimlers son, took charge of the Technical Department, in 1905 he built the companys first armoured car, which had 30 hp. Also, the company produced engines for trucks and buses. However, Daimler returned to Stuttgart in 1905 to take over the research and development department, senior Ferdinand Porsche took Daimlers place as technical designer.
Although Austro-Daimler cars were competing at races already, Porsche pioneered aerodynamic usage with two famous racecars, also, he designed the Mercédès-Electrique-Mixte which was manufactured from 1902 until 1907. Porsche impelled a company reformation, at a time when the company had 800 workers, the company was renamed Austro-Daimler on July 27,1906. That same year Emil Jellinek — who was Austrian too — bought several Austro-Daimler licenses to found ancillary companies abroad, in 1908, the Austro-Daimler began producing Zeppelin engines. Indeed, for Porsche this was a personal interest since he liked to take Archduke Franz Ferdinand flying over Vienna, pushing the companys development further, Porsche granted Austro-Daimlers definitive independence from DMGs ownership in 1909. In 1910, the company was renamed Austrian Daimler Engines AG whose logo was the Austrian Royal double-headed eagle, in 1912 DMG sold its remaining shares. In 1911 Austro-Daimler began producing the Prinz Heinrich model, this car and it could develop 95 bhp at 2,100 rpm, there was a less potent version with side valves and a 6, 900-cc engine capable of developing 60 hp at only 1,200 rpm.
During the First World War, the 4,500 workers of Austro-Daimler contributed in large quantities to wartime production, after the war, the company returned to the production of automobiles. Austro-Daimler still claimed Royal patronage via its connection with Prince Heinrich, in the first place, Austro-Daimler fused with several companies — Skoda and Puch. Then, it was submerged under Camillo Castiglionis squandering management, at this time, Porsche created the 1. 3-liter Sascha racing cars in the early 1920s. The smallest model the company offered was a 2, 212-cc four-cylinder, however, as the economic situation worsened, Porsche abandoned the company in 1923, ridding himself of Austro-Daimlers financial difficulties
Ferdinand Porsche was an automotive engineer and founder of the Porsche car company. He is best known for creating the first gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle, the Volkswagen Beetle, in addition, Porsche designed the 1923 Benz Tropfenwagen, which was the first racing car with a mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout. Porsche was an important contributor to the German war effort during World War II. He was involved in the production of advanced tanks such as the VK4501, Tiger I, Tiger II, Porsche was a member of the German Nazi party and allegedly the SS. He was a recipient of the German National Prize for Art and Science, the SS-Ehrenring and he was called the Great German Engineer by Nazi propaganda. In 1996 Porsche was inducted into the International Motorsports Hall of Fame, Ferdinand Porsche was born to German-speaking parents in Maffersdorf, northern Bohemia, part of the Austrian Empire at that time, and today part of the Czech Republic. Ferdinand was his parents third child and his father, Anton Porsche, was a master panel-beater.
He showed an aptitude for mechanical work at a very early age. He attended classes at the Imperial Technical School in Reichenberg at night while helping his father in his shop by day. Thanks to a referral, Porsche landed a job with the Béla Egger Electrical company in Vienna when he turned 18, in Vienna he would sneak into the local university whenever he could after work. Other than attending classes there, Porsche never received any higher engineering education, during his five years with Béla Egger, Porsche first developed the electric hub motor. After the breakup of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the end of World War I, in 1934 Adolf Hitler or Joseph Goebbels made Porsche a naturalized German citizen. In 1898, Porsche joined the Vienna-based factory Jakob Lohner & Company, which produced coaches for Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria as well as for the monarchs of the UK, and Romania. Jakob Lohner had begun construction of automobiles in 1896 under Ludwig Lohner in the suburb of Floridsdorf.
Their first design was the Egger-Lohner vehicle, first unveiled in Vienna, Austria, on 26 June 1898, Porsche had engraved the code P1 onto all the key components. The Egger-Lohner was a car driven by two electric motors within the front wheel hubs, powered by batteries. This drive train construction was expanded to four-wheel drive, by mounting two more electric motors to the rear wheels, and a four-motor example was ordered by Englishman E. W. Hart in 1900. In December that year, the car was displayed at the Paris World Exhibition under the name Toujours-Contente, even though this one-off vehicle had been commissioned for the purposes of racing and record-breaking, its 1,800 kg of lead–acid batteries was a severe shortcoming
Maria Luisa of Parma
Maria Luisa of Parma was Queen consort of Spain from 1788 to 1808 as the wife of King Charles IV of Spain. She was the youngest daughter of Philip, Duke of Parma and his wife, Princess Louise-Élisabeth of France, born in Parma, she was christened Luisa Maria Teresa Anna, but is known to history by the short Spanish form of this name, María Luisa. Her parents had been the Duke and Duchess of Parma since 1749 and she, her brother Ferdinand, and her sister Isabella were educated in Parma by Étienne Bonnot de Condillac, a well-known French philosopher. María Luisas mother tried to engage her to Louis, Duke of Burgundy, the young duke died in 1761. In 1762 Maria Luisa instead became engaged to Charles, Prince of Asturias, King Charles IV of Spain, as there was no queen in Spain at that time, María Luisa became the first lady in precedence at the court from the beginning of her residence there. Her husband was the son and heir of the widowed Charles III of Spain, previously Duke of Parma and King of Naples, due to pressure from Napoleon I, Marías husband abdicated the throne of Spain and spent the rest of his life in exile.
When Napoleons army invaded the country, several pamphlets blamed her for the abdication, María Luisa spent some years in France and in Rome. Both María Luisa and her husband died in Italy in early 1819, in 1792, the Order of Queen Maria Luisa for women was founded on her suggestion. Maria Luisa married her first cousin Charles IV, in 1765, a miscarriage of a daughter in the 6th month of pregnancy. A miscarriage in the 1st month of pregnancy, a miscarriage of a son in the 4th and a half month of pregnancy. A miscarriage in the 1st month of pregnancy, a miscarriage in the 1st month of pregnancy. A miscarriage in the 1st month of pregnancy, a miscarriage of a son in the 5th and a half month of pregnancy. A miscarriage of a son in the 4th and a month of pregnancy. EPTON, The Spanish mousetrap and the Court of Spain, HILT, The troubled trinity and the Spanish monarchs
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies
Ferdinand I, was the King of the Two Sicilies from 1816, after his restoration following victory in the Napoleonic Wars. Before that he had been, since 1759, Ferdinand IV of the Kingdom of Naples and he was deposed twice from the throne of Naples, once by the revolutionary Parthenopean Republic for six months in 1799 and again by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1805. Ferdinand was the son of King Charles III of Spain and Sicily by his wife. On 10 August 1759, Charles succeeded his brother, Ferdinand VI. Ferdinand was the founder of the cadet House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Ferdinand was styled both Ferdinand III of Sicily and Ferdinand IV of Naples. On 21 January 1799, the Kingdom of Naples was abolished and replaced by the Parthenopaean Republic which lasted until 13 June 1799, Ferdinand was restored to the throne for a while. On 26 December 1805, Napoleon I of France declared Ferdinand deposed again, Ferdinand was restored for the second time following the Austrian victory at the Battle of Tolentino over rival monarch King Joachim I.
On 8 March 1816 he merged the thrones of Sicily and Naples into the throne of the Two Sicilies and he continued to rule until his death on 4 January 1825. Ferdinand was born in Naples and grew up amidst many of the monuments erected there by his father which can be seen today, Ferdinand was his parents third son, his elder brother Charles was expected to inherit Naples and Sicily. When his father ascended the Spanish throne in 1759 he abdicated Naples in Ferdinands favor in accordance with the treaties forbidding the union of the two crowns, a regency council presided over by the Tuscan Bernardo Tanucci was set up. Ferdinands minority ended in 1767, and his first act was the expulsion of the Jesuits, the following year he married Archduchess Maria Carolina, daughter of Empress Maria Theresa. By the marriage contract the queen was to have a voice in the council of state after the birth of her first son, who attempted to thwart her, was dismissed in 1777. He became practically and afterward prime minister.
Although not a mere grasping adventurer, he was responsible for reducing the internal administration of the country to a system of espionage, corruption. The French entered the city in spite of the resistance of the lazzaroni. When, a few weeks the French troops were recalled to northern Italy, Ferdinand sent a hastily assembled force, under Cardinal Ruffo, to reconquer the mainland kingdom. Ruffo, with the support of British artillery, the Church, and the aristocracy, reaching Naples in May 1800. After some months King Ferdinand returned to the throne, the king returned to Naples soon afterwards, and ordered a few hundred who had collaborated with the French executed
House of Lorraine
The House of Lorraine originated as a cadet branch of the House of Metz. It inherited the Duchy of Lorraine in 1473 after the death of duke Nicholas I without a male heir, his sons Joseph II and Leopold II, and grandson Francis II were the last four Holy Roman Emperors from 1745 to the dissolution of the empire in 1806. Habsburg-Lorraine inherited the Habsburg Empire, ruling the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary until the dissolution of the monarchy in 1918, the house claims descent from Gerard I of Paris whose immediate descendants are known as the Girardides. The Matfridings of the 10th century are thought to have been a branch of the family, at the turn of the 10th century they were Counts of Metz and ruled a set of lordships in Alsace and Lorraine. Mary of Guise, mother of Mary, Queen of Scots, louis XIVs imperialist ambitions forced the dukes into a permanent alliance with his archenemies, the Holy Roman Emperors from the House of Habsburg. Following the failure of both Emperor Joseph I and Emperor Charles VI to produce a son and heir, the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 left the throne to the yet unborn daughter.
In 1736 Emperor Charles arranged her marriage to Francis of Lorraine who agreed to exchange his hereditary lands for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, at Charless death in 1740 the Habsburg lands passed to Maria Theresa and Francis, who was elected Holy Roman Emperor as Francis I. The Habsburg-Lorraine nuptials and dynastic union precipitated, and survived, the War of the Austrian Succession, another member of the house, Archduke Maximilian of Austria, was Emperor of Mexico. In 1900, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria contracted a marriage with Countess Sophie Chotek. Their descendants, known as the House of Hohenberg, have been excluded from succession to the Austro-Hungarian crown, but not that of Lorraine, where morganatic marriage has never been outlawed. Nevertheless, Otto von Habsburg, the eldest grandson of Franz Ferdinands younger brother, was regarded as the head of the house until his death in 2011. It was at Nancy, the capital of the House of Vaudemont. House of Metz Adalbert, Duke of Upper Lorraine r, 1047/8 Gérard, Duke of Lorraine, r.
1390–1431 Charles II died without heir, the duchy passing to Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine. The duchy passed to their son John II, whose son Nicholas I died without male heir, the title now went to Nicholas aunt Yolande. René inherited the title of Duke of Lorraine upon his marriage in 1473, René II, Duke of Lorraine, r. 1608–1624 Nicole Claude Francis II, Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine r, 1624–1675 Nicholas Francis Charles V, r. 1690–1729 Francis Stephen, Duke of Lorraine, r, 1745–1765 House of Habsburg-Lorraine Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, r
Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Leopold II was Grand Duke of Tuscany. He married twice, first to Maria Anna of Saxony, and after her death in 1832, by the latter, he begat his eventual successor, Ferdinand. Leopold was recognized contemporarily as a monarch, authorizing the Tuscan Constitution of 1848. The Grand Duke was deposed briefly by a government in 1849, only to be restored the same year with the assistance of Austrian troops. Leopold attempted a policy of neutrality with regard to the Second Italian War of Independence, the Grand Ducal family left for Bologna, in Papal territory. Tuscany was occupied by soldiers of Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia for the duration of the conflict, Ferdinand was not, any more acceptable to the revolutionaries in control of Florence, and his accession was not proclaimed. Instead, the government proclaimed the deposition of the House of Habsburg. Born in Florence, Leopold II was the son of Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Princess Luisa Maria Amelia Teresa of the Two Sicilies and his maternal grandparents were Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies and Marie Caroline of Austria.
He succeeded his father on 18 June 1824, during the first twenty years of his reign he devoted himself to the internal development of the state. But Austrian influence prevented him from doing more, even had he wished to do so, the granting of the Neapolitan and Piedmontese constitutions was followed by that of Tuscany, composed by Gino Capponi. His speech on their departure was uncompromisingly Italian and Liberal, soldiers, he said, the holy cause of Italian freedom is being decided to-day on the fields of Lombardy. Already the citizens of Milan have purchased their liberty with their blood, honour to the arms of Italy. The Tuscan contingent fought bravely, though unsuccessfully, at Curtatone, Capponi resigned, and Leopold agreed reluctantly to a Montanelli-Guerrazzi ministry, which in its turn had to fight against the extreme republican party. New elections in the autumn of 1848 returned a constitutional majority, the utmost confusion prevailed in Florence and other parts of Tuscany. On 18 February 1849 a republic was proclaimed and on same day Leopold sailed for Gaeta.
A third parliament was elected and Guerrazzi appointed dictator, but there was great discontent, and the defeat of Charles Albert at Novara caused consternation among the Liberals. Leopold accepted, although he said nothing about the foreign invasion, on 24 May the latter appointed G Baldasseroni prime minister, on the 25th the Austrians entered Florence and on 28 July Leopold himself returned. On their advice he formally revoked the constitution, political trials were held and many others being condemned to long terms of imprisonment, and although in 1855 the Austrian troops left Tuscany, Leopolds popularity was gone
For multiple-cylinder steam engines, see Compound steam engine and Triple-expansion steam engine A multi-cylinder engine is a reciprocating internal combustion engine with multiple cylinders. It can be either a 2-stroke or 4-stroke engine, and can be either Diesel or spark-ignition, the cylinders and the crankshaft which is driven by and co-ordinates the motion of the pistons can be configured in a wide variety of ways. Typically, the more cylinders an engine has, the higher the RPMs it can attain for a displacement and technology level, at a cost of increased friction losses. Peak torque is reduced, but the total horsepower is increased due to the higher RPMs attained. Although there are 1,3 and 5-cylinder engines, almost all other engines are built with even numbers of cylinders. Another form of internal combustion engine is the radial engine. Twin-row or multi-row radials are built, which is two or more single-row radials connected front-to-back and driving a common crankshaft. In this twin row, or multi-row configuration, the number of cylinders will be an even number.
For example, a single row radial such as the Wright Cyclone has 9 cylinders. The twin row Wright Twin Cyclone is based on this engine, configurations of two-cylinder engines include, Straight-twin engine, or parallel twin with two cylinders in parallel sharing a crankshaft. V-twin engine, or V2 engine, two cylinders in V configuration, sharing a crankshaft, flat-twin engine, a flat engine with 2 opposed cylinders on the same crankshaft angled 180° to each other. Configurations of three-cylinder engines include, Straight-three engine, called the inline-triple, inline-3, or I-3 engine, v3 engine, seen on some two-stroke racing motorcycles. W engine with three cylinders, such as the Anzani 3-cylinder fan engines, configurations of four-cylinder engines include, the most common 4-cylinder engine Inline-four engine, an engine with 4 cylinders in a straight line. V4 engine, an engine with 4 cylinders arranged in a V configuration, flat-four engine, a flat engine with 4 cylinders horizontally opposed to each other at 180° apart.
Square four engine, two banks of 2 cylinders, each driving a single crankshaft and geared to an output shaft. Configurations of five-cylinder engines include, Straight-five engine, an engine with 5 cylinders in a straight line, vR5 engine, an engine with 5 cylinders staggered slightly, allowing cylinder bore centerlines to be closer together, reducing overall engine length. Configurations of six-cylinder engines include, V6 engine, a V engine with six cylinders, vR6 engine, a compromise between a V6 and straight-6 engine, shorter than a straight-6 and narrower than a V-6. Straight-six engine, an engine with six cylinders aligned in a straight line, flat-six engine, a flat engine with two banks of 3 cylinders horizontally opposed at 180° apart