Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick III, called the Peaceful or the Fat, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1452 until his death, the first emperor of the House of Habsburg. He was the emperor to be crowned by the Pope. Prior to his coronation, he was duke of the Inner Austrian lands of Styria and Carniola from 1424. He was elected and crowned King of Germany in 1440 and he was the longest-reigning German monarch when in 1493, after ruling his domains for more than 53 years, he was succeeded by his son Maximilian I. During his reign, Frederick concentrated on re-uniting the Habsburg hereditary lands of Austria, nevertheless, by his dynastic entitlement to Hungary as well as by the Burgundian inheritance, he laid the foundations for the Habsburg Empire. Mocked as Arch-Sleepyhead of the Holy Roman Empire during his lifetime, according to the 1379 Treaty of Neuberg, the Leopoldinian branch ruled over the duchies of Styria and Carniola, or what was referred to as Inner Austria. Only three of Fredericks eight siblings survived childhood, his younger brother Albert, and his sisters Margaret and Catherine.
In 1424, nine-year-old Fredericks father died, making Frederick the duke of Inner Austria, as Frederick V, with his uncle, Duke Frederick IV of Tyrol, from 1431, Frederick tried to obtain majority but for several years was denied by his relatives. Finally, in 1435, Albert V, duke of Austria, almost from the beginning, Fredericks younger brother Albert asserted his rights as a co-ruler, as the beginning of a long rivalry. Already in these years, Frederick had begun to use the symbolic A. E. I. O. U, signature as a kind of motto with various meanings. In 1436 he made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, accompanied by numerous nobles knighted by the Order of the Holy Sepulchre, upon the death of his uncle Duke Frederick IV in 1439, Frederick took over the regency of Tyrol and Further Austria for the dukes heir Sigismund. Again he had to ward off the claims raised by his brother Albert VI, likewise he acted as regent for his nephew Ladislaus the Posthumous, son of late King Albert II and his consort Elizabeth of Luxembourg, in the duchy of Austria.
Frederick was now the head of the Habsburg dynasty, though his regency in the lands of the Albertinian Line was still viewed with suspicion. In 1442, Frederick allied himself with Rudolf Stüssi, burgomaster of Zurich, against the Old Swiss Confederacy in the Old Zurich War but lost. In 1448, he entered into the Concordat of Vienna with the Holy See, as a cousin of late King Albert II, Frederick became a candidate for the imperial election. In 1452, at the age of 37, Frederick III travelled to Italy to receive his bride and his fiancée, the 18-year-old infanta Eleanor, daughter of King Edward of Portugal, landed at Livorno after a 104-day trip. Her dowry would help Frederick alleviate his debts and cement his power, the couple met at Siena on 24 February and proceeded together to Rome. As per tradition, they spent a night outside the walls of Rome before entering the city on 9 March, where Frederick and Pope Nicholas V exchanged friendly greetings
William IV, Prince of Orange
William IV, Prince of Orange-Nassau was the first hereditary Stadtholder of all the United Provinces. He was born six weeks after the death of his father, William succeeded his father as Stadtholder of Friesland and also, under the regency of his mother until 1731, as Stadtholder of Groningen. In 1722 he was elected Stadtholder of Guelders, in 1720 William was named the 549th Knight of the Order of the Garter. On 25 March 1734 he married at St. James Palace Anne, Princess Royal, eldest daughter of King George II of Great Britain, in April 1747 the French army entered Flanders, threatening the Netherlands, which was weakened by internal division. The Dutch decided that their country needed a strong executive. William and his family moved from Leeuwarden to The Hague, on 4 May 1747, the States General of the Netherlands named William General Stadtholder of all seven of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, and made the position hereditary for the first time. William IV was considered an attractive and accomplished prince in his prime, although he had little experience in state affairs, William was at first popular with the people.
He stopped the practice of taxation by which independent contractors managed to make large sums for themselves. Nevertheless, he was a Director-General of the Dutch East India Company, William served as General Stadtholder of all the Netherlands until his death in 1751 at The Hague. The county of Orange and the city of Orangeburg, media related to William IV, Prince of Orange at Wikimedia Commons
Charles III of Spain
Charles III was the King of Spain and the Spanish Indies from 1759 to 1788. While he was the son of Philip V of Spain, he was the eldest son of Philips second wife. In 1731, the 15-year-old Charles became the Duke of Parma and Piacenza, as Charles I, following the death of his childless granduncle Antonio Farnese. In 1734, as Duke of Parma, he conquered the kingdoms of Naples and of Sicily, and was crowned king on 3 July 1735, reigning as Charles VII of Naples and Charles V of Sicily until 1759. In 1738 he married Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony, daughter of Polish king Augustus III, Charles and Maria Amalia resided in Naples for 19 years. Charles succeeded to the Spanish throne on 10 August 1759, after the death of his half-brother King Ferdinand VI of Spain who left no heirs. As King of Spain Charles III made far-reaching reforms such as promoting science and university research, facilitating trade and commerce and he tried to reduce the influence of the Church and avoided costly wars. His previous experience as King of Naples and Sicily proved valuable as King of Spain and he did not achieve complete control over the States finances, and was sometimes obliged to borrow to meet expenses.
Most of his reforms proved to be successful and his important legacy lives on to this day, historian Stanley Payne wrote that Charles III was probably the most successful European ruler of his generation. He had provided firm, intelligent leadership, personal life had won the respect of the people. In 1713, the Treaty of Utrecht concluded the War of the Spanish Succession and reduced the political and military power of Spain, which the House of Bourbon had ruled since 1700. Moreover, the House of Savoy gained the Kingdom of Sicily, and the Kingdom of Great Britain gained the island of Minorca, in 1700, Charles father, originally a French prince, became King of Spain as Philip V. For the remainder of his reign, he attempted to regain the ceded territories. Elisabeth and Philip married on 24 December 1714, she proved a domineering consort. On 20 January 1716, Elisabeth gave birth to the Infante Charles of Spain at the Real Alcázar of Madrid and he was fourth in line to the Spanish throne, after three elder half-brothers, the Infante Luis, Prince of Asturias, the Infante Felipe, and Ferdinand.
Because the Duke Francesco of Parma and his heir were childless, Elisabeth sought the duchies of Parma and she sought for him the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, because Gian Gastone de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany was childless. He was a distant cousin of hers, related via her great-grandmother Margherita de Medici, the birth of Charles encouraged the Prime Minister Alberoni to start laying out grand plans for Europe. In 1717 he ordered the Spanish invasion of Sardinia, in 1718, Alberoni ordered the invasion of Sicily, which was ruled by the House of Savoy
Palatine of Hungary
The Palatine of Hungary was the highest-ranking official in the Kingdom of Hungary from the beginning of the 11th century to 1848. Initially, Palatines were representatives of the monarchs, the vice-regent, in the early centuries of the kingdom, they were appointed by the king, and were elected by the Diet of the Kingdom of Hungary. The earliest recorded Medieval Latin form of the title was comes palatii, it was preserved in the deed of foundation of the Tihany Abbey, a new variant came into use in the second half of the 11th century, it was first recorded around 1067. The shortened palatinus form became the version in the 1230s. The original Hungarian version of the title was nádorispán, it was first recorded around 1405, the etymology of the word is uncertain. Most scholars agree that its root is the Slavic word for court, in the Czech and Serbian languages, similar expressions existed, but only as loanwords from Hungarian, in reference to the palatines of Hungary. Ludovicus Tubero and some other 16th-century scholars referred to the palatine as nándorispán, historian András Róna-Tas says that the title may be connected to the Bulgars old Hungarian exonym.
If his theory is valid, the palatine was originally the head of the Bulgars in Hungary, other scholars have not accepted Róna-Tass theory, because the nándorispán version seems to have developed from the original nádorispán version. The modern Hungarian version of the title, which is the version of the original title, was first recorded in 1784. High-ranking officials who bore the title comes palatinus or comes palatii were present in royal courts of medieval Europe. In the Carolingian Empire, the comes palatii was the deputy and one of the highest judges in the 9th century. In Croatia, the zuppanus palatii was the head of the court in 892. In 11th-century Bohemia and in Poland, the count of the palace was the deputy in military affairs. Hungarian historians agree that the court of the Holy Roman Empire set the pattern for the organization of the royal household in Hungary. Historians concur that the first king of Hungary, Stephen I, the Long Life of Saint Gerard say that King Stephen I made Csanád the master of the household of the king and Ajtony after Csanád defeated Ajtony.
According to modern scholars consensus, who was Stephen Is brother-in-law or nephew, most historians say that most probably the palatines were the administrators of the royal domains and revenues up until the 1120s. The palatines jurisdiction over the udvornici, or royal serving people, the late 13th-century chronicler, Simon of Kéza, stated that it was King Coloman who had made over his own udvornici for the use of the palatine of the realm, but Kézas testimony is suspect. Modern historians agree that the palatine was that high official, a new great officer, the curialis comes, appeared in the royal court in the first half of the 12th century
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, a philosophical language of Hinduism and Jainism, and a literary language and lingua franca of ancient and medieval South Asia. As a result of transmission of Hindu and Buddhist culture to Southeast Asia and parts of Central Asia, as one of the oldest Indo-European languages for which substantial written documentation exists, Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies. The body of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of poetry and drama as well as scientific, philosophical, the compositions of Sanskrit were orally transmitted for much of its early history by methods of memorization of exceptional complexity and fidelity. Thereafter and derivatives of the Brahmi script came to be used, Sanskrit is today one of the 22 languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India, which mandates the Indian government to develop the language. It continues to be used as a ceremonial language in Hindu religious rituals and Buddhist practice in the form of hymns.
The Sanskrit verbal adjective sáṃskṛta- may be translated as refined, elaborated, as a term for refined or elaborated speech, the adjective appears only in Epic and Classical Sanskrit in the Manusmṛti and the Mahabharata. The pre-Classical form of Sanskrit is known as Vedic Sanskrit, with the language of the Rigveda being the oldest and most archaic stage preserved, Classical Sanskrit is the standard register as laid out in the grammar of Pāṇini, around the fourth century BCE. Sanskrit, as defined by Pāṇini, evolved out of the earlier Vedic form, the present form of Vedic Sanskrit can be traced back to as early as the second millennium BCE. Scholars often distinguish Vedic Sanskrit and Classical or Pāṇinian Sanskrit as separate dialects, although they are quite similar, they differ in a number of essential points of phonology, vocabulary and syntax. Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, a collection of hymns and theological and religio-philosophical discussions in the Brahmanas. Modern linguists consider the metrical hymns of the Rigveda Samhita to be the earliest, for nearly 2000 years, Sanskrit was the language of a cultural order that exerted influence across South Asia, Inner Asia, Southeast Asia, and to a certain extent East Asia.
A significant form of post-Vedic Sanskrit is found in the Sanskrit of Indian epic poetry—the Ramayana, the deviations from Pāṇini in the epics are generally considered to be on account of interference from Prakrits, or innovations, and not because they are pre-Paninian. Traditional Sanskrit scholars call such deviations ārṣa, meaning of the ṛṣis, in some contexts, there are more prakritisms than in Classical Sanskrit proper. There were four principal dialects of classical Sanskrit, paścimottarī, madhyadeśī, pūrvi, the predecessors of the first three dialects are attested in Vedic Brāhmaṇas, of which the first one was regarded as the purest. In the 2001 Census of India,14,035 Indians reported Sanskrit to be their first language, in India, Sanskrit is among the 14 original languages of the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution. The state of Uttarakhand in India has ruled Sanskrit as its official language. In October 2012 social activist Hemant Goswami filed a petition in the Punjab. More than 3,000 Sanskrit works have been composed since Indias independence in 1947, much of this work has been judged of high quality, in comparison to both classical Sanskrit literature and modern literature in other Indian languages
Princess Marie Auguste of Thurn and Taxis
Princess Marie Auguste Anna of Thurn and Taxis was a Regent of Württemberg. She was a member of the Princely House of Thurn and Taxis as a daughter of Anselm Franz, 2nd Prince of Thurn and Taxis and his wife Maria Ludovika Anna Franziska, through her marriage to Karl Alexander, Duke of Württemberg, she became Duchess consort of Württemberg. Marie Auguste was born on August 11,1706 and she grew up in the Austrian Netherlands and moved to Frankfurt, where her familys wealth and economic interests were based. Her only brother was Alexander Ferdinand, 3rd Prince of Thurn and Taxis, Marie Auguste was chosen as a bride for Karl Alexander, Duke of Württemberg-Winnental because of her Roman Catholic religion. They were married on May 1,1727 in Frankfurt am Main, despite their Catholicism, the couples children were all raised in the Lutheran faith. They had four surviving children, Karl Eugen, Duke of Württemberg, married Elisabeth Fredericka Sophie of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, Eugen Louis Louis Eugene, Duke of Württemberg, married Sophie Albertine of Beichlingen, had issue.
Frederick II Eugene, Duke of Württemberg, married Friederike Dorothea of Brandenburg-Schwedt, had issue, Alexander Eugen Auguste Elisabeth, married Karl Anselm, 4th Prince of Thurn and Taxis, had issue. Their ten-year marriage was turbulent, and they were felt to be each others match in every way. He often used a trusted servant to spy on his wife to ensure that she would not interfere in government or criticize the Dukes ministers, after a particularly serious dispute in 1736, her husband even had her promise in writing to stay out of government affairs. Marie Augustes husband died suddenly on March 12,1737 on the eve of his departure on an inspection tour. This meant that their nine-year-old son Karl Eugen succeeded as Duke of Württemberg, after experiencing initial trouble from the regency council in trying to hold power for her son, she was finally successful on November 5,1737. She was granted an allowance and was recognized as co-regent with control over her sons education. From 1739 to the year, she had an affair with a captain in the army.
Rumors of a possible pregnancy became so widespread that the council began an investigation. Her exile removed her from power, especially when crucial policy decisions and preparations for her sons education were being made. For instance, she was unable to prevent an alliance with Prussia that would leave Württemberg exposed at the outbreak of the War of the Austrian Succession. By 1744, Marie Auguste had again achieved a position of considerable influence and she arranged military careers for her two eldest sons, allowing them to receive commissions in the Prussian army. As a Catholic, she prepared her youngest son Frederick Eugen for a life in the Imperial Church, Marie Augustes influence would decline as her son grew increasingly more independent by 1749
Maria Luisa of Spain
Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain was Holy Roman Empress, German Queen, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Grand Duchess of Tuscany as the spouse of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor. Maria Luisa was born a Princess of Naples and Sicily and her father, the future Charles III of Spain, had become King of Naples and Sicily in 1735 after its occupation by the Spanish in the War of Polish Succession. After her father became King of Spain at the death of her half-uncle, Ferdinand VI of Spain, in 1759 and she still had the use of the style of Royal Highness. Maria Luisa was born in Portici, in Campania, the site of the palace of her parents, King Charles, King of Naples and Sicily. She was the daughter, and second surviving child, of her parents. Her father became King of Spain as Charles III in 1759 and her first cousins included Louis XVI, Maria I of Portugal and Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia. Before her marriage, she was made to renounce her rights to the throne of Spain upon the wish of her father, after her wedding by proxy, she traveled to Austria by way of Barcelona and Bolzano.
The next year, on 5 August, she married him in person at Innsbruck, the couple arrived to Florence 13 September 1765. They were settled in the Palazzo Pitti, by her strict Catholic upbringing, Maria Luisa was raised to endure any hardship of pregnancy and marriage without complaint, a role she fulfilled during her marriage. The relationship between Maria Luisa and Leopold has been described as happy, and Maria Luisa as a supporting and she was never crowned as Grand Duchess, though she was present at the coronation of Leopold in July 1768. She accompanied her consort and her sister-in-law, Maria Carolina of Austria, at the marriage to her brother, the King of Naples. In 1770, she accompanied Leopold on his visit to Vienna, Maria Luisa and her spouse gave their children a very free upbringing, away from any formal court life, and occasionally took them on trips to the country side and the coast. She remained mostly unknown in the aristocracy, and restricted her private social life to a very small circle of friends.
In 1790, on the death of Peter Leopolds childless brother, Joseph II, Maria Luisas husband inherited the Habsburg lands in Central Europe, and was shortly thereafter elected Holy Roman Emperor. Taking the name of Leopold II, the new Emperor moved his family to Vienna, Leopold died scarcely two years later, on 1 March 1792. Maria Luisa followed her husband to the grave in less than three months, not living long enough to see her eldest son Francis elected as the last Holy Roman Emperor, Maria Theresa of Austria married Anton of Saxony and had issue. Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany married Luisa of Naples and Sicily and had issue, Maria Anna of Austria died unmarried. Charles of Austria married Henrietta of Nassau-Weilburg and had issue, alexander Leopold of Austria died unmarried
Leopold, Duke of Lorraine
Leopold, surnamed the Good, was Duke of Lorraine and Bar from 1690 to his death. Leopold Joseph Charles Dominique Agapet Hyacinthe was the son of Charles V, Duke of Lorraine, and his wife Eleonora Maria Josefa of Austria, a half-sister of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. At the time of Leopolds birth and Bar had been occupied by Louis XIV of France, forcing his parents to move into exile to Austria, Leopold was born in the palace of Innsbruck and received his first name in honour of the Emperor. Leopold grew up in Innsbruck, while his father would be engaged in defending Vienna against the Turks, in 1690, his father died and eleven-year-old Leopold inherited the still occupied Duchies. His mother, trying to fulfil her husbands last wishes of returning her children to their patrimony, Leopold was sent to Vienna to receive a military education under the supervision of the Emperor. In Vienna, he grew up with his cousins, the Archdukes Joseph and Charles, Leopold was created a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece that year.
Like his father before him, he entered the Imperial Army and, aged eighteen, three years later, he received the command of the Army of the Rhine. On 30 October 1697, the Nine Years War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ryswick, the treaty restored the Duchies of Lorraine and Bar to the House of Lorraine, as Leopolds mother had hoped, she died four days in Vienna. On 17 August 1698, Duke Lepold made a triumphant entry into his capital Nancy and he reconstructed and repopulated his war-stricken duchy, encouraging immigration. At the end of his reign the duchy was safe and prosperous, in his foreign policy, Leopold tried to further good relations with France and to appease his powerful neighbor. On 13 October 1698 at the Palace of Fontainebleau, Leopold married Élisabeth Charlotte dOrléans, the niece of Louis XIV, Elisabeth Charlotte turned out to be a caring mother and gave birth to thirteen children, of whom five survived into adulthood. Three of them died within a week in May 1711 due to an outbreak at the Château de Lunéville.
Despite Leopolds diplomatic attempts, his capital, was occupied by troops during the War of the Spanish Succession. Fearing for his family, Leopold relocated the court to the Château de Lunéville and it was here that his first child Leopold was born in 1700. In 1703, the Duke introduced the Code Léopold regulating the government of the Duchy and he tried to install his eldest daughter, Elisabeth Charlotte, as Abbess of Remiremont but failed due to the opposition of Pope Clement XI. Leopolds marital life was troubled in 1706, when he took Anne-Marguerite de Lignéville, Princess of Beauvau-Craon as his mistress, Elisabeth Charlotte however, following her mothers advice, remained silent. In 1708, Leopold had claimed the Duchy of Montferrat as the closest relative of his cousin, Charles III Gonzaga, erstwhile Duke of Mantua, who had been deposed and died without male issue. However, the Emperor had already promised Montferrat to the Dukes of Savoy but wishing to compensate the House of Lorraine, during the visit, Leopold, as a foreign prince, received the style of Royal Highness
Coburg is a town located on the Itz river in the Upper Franconia region of Bavaria, Germany. Long part of one of the Thuringian states of the Wettin line, until the revolution of 1918, it was one of the capitals of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. Through successful dynastic policies, the princely family married into several of the royal families of Europe, most notably in the person of Prince Albert. As a result of close links with the royal houses of Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Coburg was frequently visited by the crowned heads of Europe. Coburg is known as the location of Veste Coburg, one of Germanys largest castles, in 1530, Martin Luther lived there for six months during which he worked on translating the Bible into German. Today, Coburgs population is close to 41,500, since it was little damaged in World War II, Coburg retains many historic buildings, making it a popular tourist destination. Coburg lies about 90 kilometres south of Erfurt and about 100 kilometres north of Nuremberg on the river Itz and it is an urban district and is surrounded by the Landkreis Coburg.
Coburg lies at the foot of the Thuringian Highland, on three sides it is surrounded by Thuringia. Until reunification in 1990 the border between Bavaria and Thuringia was the inner German border, the origin of the name Coburg is unclear, the first element may be kuh, which would give a literal meaning of cow borough. Coburg initially referred to a property centred on the hill where Veste Coburg was built and its oldest remains date to the 12th or 13th century. During the Diet of Augsburg in 1530 reformer Martin Luther spent six months at the castle while his lord, Elector of Saxony. Luther was forbidden to attend by the Elector, who feared that he would be imprisoned and burned as a heretic, while quartered at the castle Luther continued with his translation of the Bible into German. In 1547, the residence was moved from the Veste to a former monastery, rebuilt as a Renaissance palace. In 1596, Coburg was raised to the status of capital of one of the dynastys splintered Saxon-Thuringian territories, from 1699 to 1826, it was one of the two capitals of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, and from 1826-1918 it was a capital of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.
Ernest Frederick, the fourth Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, moved his capital from Saalfeld to Coburg in 1764, Coburg became capital of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. In the early 19th century, the medieval fortifications were demolished and replaced by parks. The duke started the collection of engravings that is today part of the Veste Coburg museum. Under his son, the Schlossplatz with what is today the Landestheater Coburg was created and he rebuilt the Ehrenburg in Gothic revival style
Maria Josepha of Austria
Maria Josepha of Austria was born an Archduchess of Austria, and from 1711 to 1717 was heir presumptive to the Habsburg Empire. By her marriage to Augustus III of Poland she was the Electress of Saxony, Maria Josepha was born in Vienna, an Archduchess of Austria as the eldest child of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor, and Princess Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg. A marriage between Maria Josepha and Frederick Augustus II, Elector of Saxony had been suggested by Fredericks father, August II the Strong, the fact that Maria Josepha was not allowed to marry a non-Catholic, prevented the marriage. When Augustus converted to Catholicism in 1712, the negotiations became serious, on 20 August 1719, Maria Josepha and Frederick Augustus married. The couples eldest surviving son, Frederick Christian, eventually succeeded his father as Elector of Saxony, in Saxony, the couple lived at Dresden Castle. The marriage has been described as happy, and Augustus was apparently never unfaithful, in 1733, Frederick Augustus was elected King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth as August III the Saxon.
Maria Josepha was crowned 20 January 1734, Queen Maria Josepha was described as ambitious and religious. She founded many churches and convents and gave her support to the Polish Jesuits. As queen of Poland and electress of Saxony, she divided her time between the two nations and she learned to speak Polish, and was often present during the assemblies of the Polish parliament. She shared an interest of music and hunting with her spouse and she was devoted to Catholicism and especially worshipped saint Francis Xavier, and was actively involved in the building of the Catholic Hofkirche in Dresden. Her personal confessor, the Jesuit Fr, despite her personal strict moral, she was reportedly not a prude and got along quite nicely with the illegitimate half siblings of her spouse. She was rivalled in her influence over her spouse by Heinrich von Brühl, Queen Maria Josepha was politically active and, though not formally proclaimed regent during the absence of her spouse, she informally acted as his representative.
It was known and acknowledged by the court that she participated in the affairs of state, and she managed a large diplomatic correspondence. Maria Josepha was reportedly not on terms with her eldest son Frederick Christian. During the War of the Austrian Succession in 1740, she claimed the throne on behalf of her spouse and she relinquished her claim in favor of her sister, Maria Amalias spouse, and in 1742 made an alliance with Austria. During the seven years war, Maria Josepha stayed behind in Dresden with Frederick Christian and his spouse Maria Antonia and she remained in Dresden when the city was taken by the Prussian army. She, as well as Frederick Christian and his spouse Maria Antonia, were all placed under house arrest at the palace of Dresden guarded by a Prussian commandant, on 4 April 1757, her Mistress of the Chamber, Countess Ogilvy, was arrested. Her last letter of 6 September was sent to the Austrian empress through her son, in which she mentions that this would be her last