Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Connecticut is often grouped along with New York and New Jersey as the Tri-State Area and it is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, New York to the west, and Long Island Sound to the south. Its capital city is Hartford, and its most populous city is Bridgeport, the state is named for the Connecticut River, a major U. S. river that approximately bisects the state. The word Connecticut is derived from various anglicized spellings of an Algonquian word for long tidal river, Connecticut is the third smallest state by area, the 29th most populous, and the fourth most densely populated of the 50 United States. It is known as the Constitution State, the Nutmeg State, the Provisions State, and it was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States. Connecticuts center of population is in Cheshire, New Haven County, Connecticuts first European settlers were Dutch.
They established a small, short-lived settlement in present-day Hartford at the confluence of the Park, half of Connecticut was a part of the Dutch colony New Netherland, which included much of the land between the Connecticut and Delaware rivers. The first major settlements were established in the 1630s by England, the Connecticut and New Haven Colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in North America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a charter, making Connecticut a crown colony. This colony was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution, the Connecticut River, Thames River, and ports along the Long Island Sound have given Connecticut a strong maritime tradition which continues today. The state has a history of hosting the financial services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford. As of the 2010 Census, Connecticut features the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index, and median household income in the United States.
Landmarks and Cities of Connecticut Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York, on the north by Massachusetts, and on the east by Rhode Island. The state capital and third largest city is Hartford, and other cities and towns include Bridgeport, New Haven, Waterbury, Danbury, New Britain, Greenwich. Connecticut is slightly larger than the country of Montenegro, there are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut. The highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state, the highest point is just east of where Connecticut and New York meet, on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts. At the opposite extreme, many of the towns have areas that are less than 20 feet above sea level. Connecticut has a maritime history and a reputation based on that history—yet the state has no direct oceanfront
Jaime, Duke of Madrid
Jaime was the only son of Carlos, Duke of Madrid, and of his wife Princess Margherita of Bourbon-Parma. During his early childhood Jaime accompanied his father in Spain during the Third Carlist War and was subject to delirious applause on part of the Carlist troops. Following defeat the young Jaime was educated by the Jesuits first at the Collège de Vaugirard in Paris, in 1890 he entered the Austrian Theresian Military Academy at Wiener Neustadt, graduating in 1893. The same year he was orphaned by his mother, one year his father remarried with Berthe de Rohan, between 1893 and 1896 he kept travelling, visiting India and Morocco. He made few incognito trips to Spain, re-entering the country first time since his childhood, by the Madrid government he was considered a foreigner, deprived of Spanish citizenship as his father was stripped of it in the aftermath of the Third Carlist War. His trips served as basis for Carlist propaganda of the late 1890s, in 1896 Jaime received a commission in the Russian army, initially stationed in Odessa.
As member of the Imperial Russian Army in 1900 and 1901 he took part in the Boxer Expedition, in 1904 and 1905 he took part in the Russo-Japanese War fighting in the Battle of Liaoyang and the Battle of Vafangon. At that time he was assigned to Warsaw. Following his Odessa service, in late 1897 don Jaime was transferred to Warsaw and he spent there almost 6 years on the highly intermittent basis, until he departed for Austria in late 1903. Though in terms of his political career don Jaimes stay in the city was of little relevance, in the late 19th century, Warsaw was the third most populous city of the Russian Empire, with almost 700,000 inhabitants, it was larger than Madrid or Barcelona. According to the official 1897 census, 62% of the population were Poles, 27% Jews, 9% Russians and 2% Germans, all officialdom, including top administrative layers, schooling and military, was dominated by the Russians. At that time Warsaw was the centre of Vistula Land, a region that some minor legal identity but.
At the turn of the century, Warsaw was vital for Russian military planning, the city was headquarters of the westernmost of 14 Russian military districts, and home to a large military garrison. As since the Berlin Congress of 1878 relations with Germany were steadily deteriorating, itself a prominent salient flanked by German and Austro-Hungarian provinces, it posed a challenge for planners. Don Jaime arrived in Warsaw following at least half-a-year spell in the Russian army and it is not clear why the prince left the Black Sea coast and what political, diplomatic or military mechanism got him landed in Warsaw, the choice was probably determined by family logistics. His new unit was a cavalry regiment forming part of the very prestigious if not somewhat snobbish and it is not entirely clear what was Don Jaimes rank when he arrived in Warsaw, Spanish press referred to him as teniente, Polish press referred to him as chorąży. There is no official Russian document available for consultation, the most likely rank was прапорщик.
On 17 September 1900 he was promoted to поручик and at that rank he served until the end of his actual Warsaw assignment, though in 1904 he was promoted to капитан
Infanta Blanca of Spain
Infanta Blanca of Spain was the eldest child of Carlos, Duke of Madrid, Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain and his wife Princess Margherita of Bourbon-Parma. Blanca was a member of the House of Bourbon and - according to the Carlists - an Infanta of Spain by birth, in 1889 she married Archduke Leopold Salvator of Austria. The family left Austria after the end of the Monarchy and finally settled in Barcelona. When the male line of Blancas family died out at the death of her uncle, Alfonso Carlos, Blancas childhood was marked by the third Carlist War in which her father tried, unsuccessfully, to gain the throne of Spain by force. For a time in 1875, Blanca lived in Elizondo, Navarre at the established by her father. After the war ended the family lived mostly in the Parisian district of Passy, in 1881 they were expelled from France due to Carloss political activities. By Blancas parents drifted apart and her father went to live in his palace in Venice, while her mother retired to her estate in Viareggio, Italy.
Blanca and her siblings divided their time between them and their properties were confiscated and they had to live in exile with meager means. The family could live in France nor in Italy, countries that had been Austrias enemies during the war. Blanca was forced to ask permission to live in Barcelona to her cousin Alphonso XIII of Spain, Alphonso XIII allowed them to come to Spain on condition that they did not support the claims to the Spanish throne of Blancas brother Jaime, Duke of Madrid. In 1922 Blanca was recognized as a Spaniard, the exiled family had to live modestly in a house in Barcelona. The fall of Alphonso XIII and the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic in April 1931 did not affect directly their circumstances, however five months later, Blancas husband died during a trip to Austria while trying to recover some of their lost properties. Blanca was left under strained economical means, living from vineyards at La Tenuata Reale at Viareggio, three of her children were still living with her, Dolores and Karl.
The convulsed political situation in Spain made them returned to Austria, the family was able to rent three rooms at their former residence in Vienna, the Palais Toskana. In March 1938 Hitler annexed Austria and Blanca with her children Dolores, in years and her youngest sons Karl Pius and Franz Josef became involved in various Carlist disputes and claims. She died, aged 81, in Viareggio, Italy, Lost Waltz A Story Of Exile by Bertita Harding Balansó, Juan. Plaza & Janés Editores SA,1997, ISBN 84-01-53023-7 McIntosh, rosvall Royal Books,2000, ISBN 91-973978-0-6 Lost Waltz A Story Of Exile by Bertita Harding
The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, and one region, the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown. It was ruled by the House of Habsburg, and constituted the last phase in the evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal, Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states. Austria-Hungary was a state and one of the worlds great powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, the Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States and the United Kingdom. After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was annexed in 1908. The annexation of Bosnia led to Islam being recognized as a state religion due to Bosnias Muslim population.
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I and it was already effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918. The realms full, official name was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, the division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship, one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. This meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia. Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and it is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, which was under the control of both Austria and Hungary.
The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary, the administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained largely untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungarys central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government, the country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary – located in Pressburg and in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancellery in Vienna. The Hungarian government and Hungarian parliament were suspended after the Hungarian revolution of 1848, despite Austria and Hungary sharing a common currency, they were fiscally sovereign and independent entities. Since the beginnings of the union, the government of the Kingdom of Hungary could preserve its separated. After the revolution of 1848–1849, the Hungarian budget was amalgamated with the Austrian, from 1527 to 1851, the Kingdom of Hungary maintained its own customs controls, which separated her from the other parts of the Habsburg-ruled territories
Willimantic is a census-designated place, former city and borough, and special-services district. Its located in the town of Windham in Windham County, the population was at 17,737 at the 2010 census. It is home to Eastern Connecticut State University, as well as the Windham Textile, Willimantic was incorporated as a city in 1893, the city was superseded in 1983 by the Willimantic Special Services District/Willimantic CDP. It is the birthplace of former U. S Senator Christopher Dodd of Connecticut, Willimantic is an Algonquian term for land of the swift running water. Prior to 1821, the village was known as Willimantic Falls, home to twenty families. In 1822, Charles Lee erected a factory on Main Street made of stone quarried from the Willimantic River, although small shops and manufacturers had been built on the banks of the Willimantic before, this was the beginning of industrialized Willimantic. In 1825, the three Jillson brothers built a factory along the Willimantic River, and in 1827, they built a second building, by 1828, there were six cotton factories in Willimantic, all built within a seven-year span.
Its factory was the first in the world to use electric lighting, in 1833, Willimantic was a borough of Windham, in 1893, it would become a city. From the end of the Civil War to the outbreak of World War II, Willimantic was a center for the production of silk, immigrants from Europe arrived to work in the mills—Irish, Poles and French Canadians. Later, Ukrainian, Latvian and Puerto Rican immigrants moved to the town in search of mill jobs. Railroads added to the growth of Willimantic, the town was one of only a handful of stops between Boston and New York on the high-speed White Train of the 1890s, in the early 20th century, between 50 and 100 trains ran through Willimantic daily. More than 800 ornate Victorian homes multiplied in the towns Prospect Hill section, the town prospered, growing from a population of less than 5,000 in 1860 to more than 12,100 by 1910. But hard times followed, American Thread moved to North Carolina in 1985 and without it, in 1983, the city and the town consolidated and became one town again.
The unemployment rate in Windham, the town that contains Willimantic was 7. 8% as of December,2014, in 2002, The Hartford Courant ran an investigative series called Heroin Town describing rampant heroin use in Willimantic, disproportionate to the towns small size. The articles roiled local residents, a force was appointed by the state to study the issue. In addition, The Hotel Hooker, once known for drug use, the Hotel was renamed Windham house, and now has been closed. Today, several projects aiming to revitalize the town are under way, the Willimantic Whitewater Partnership plans to reclaim the towns riverfront by developing a whitewater park and research facility. Some of the towns distressed factory buildings have turned into residential space for artists by Artspace
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia
It was associated with the Hungarian Kingdom within the dual Austro-Hungarian state, being within the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen or Transleithania. The kingdom was ruled by the Habsburg Emperor-King of Austria-Hungary under his title as King of Croatia and Slavonia, the Kings appointed steward was the Ban of Croatia and Slavonia. Although it was under the suzerainty of the Crown of Saint Stephen, in 1918, the kingdom declared independence and reformed into the State of Slovenes and Serbs. The claim was, for most of the time, supported by the Hungarian government, the union between the two primarily Croatian lands of Austria-Hungary never took place, however. The laws passed in Croatia-Slavonia used the phrase Kingdom of Dalmatia and Slavonia, in Hungarian, Croatia is referred to as Horvátország and Slavonia as Szlavónia. The combined polity was known by the name of Horvát-Szlavón Királyság. The short form of the name was Horvát-Szlavónország and, less frequently Horvát-Tótország, the order of mentioning Dalmatia was a contentious issue, as it was ordered differently in the Croatian and Hungarian language versions of the 1868 Settlement.
The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was created in 1868, when the kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia were joined into one single kingdom. The Croatian parliament, elected in a manner, confirmed the subordination of Croatia-Slavonia to Hungary in 1868 with signing of Hungarian-Croatian union constitution called the Nagodba. This kingdom included parts of present-day Croatia and Serbia, in the end, fifty-five per cent of the total income of Croatia-Slavonia were assigned to the Joint Treasury. The kingdom existed until 1918 when it joined the newly formed State of Slovenes and Serbs, the new Serb-Croat-Slovene Kingdom was divided into counties between 1918 and 1922 and into oblasts between 1922 and 1929. With the formation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929, most of the territory of the former Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia became a part of the Sava Banate, the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 created the Dual Monarchy. Under the Compromise and Hungary each had separate parliaments that passed and maintained separate laws, each region had its own government, headed by its own prime minister.
The common monarchy consisted of the emperor-king and the ministers of foreign affairs, defense. At Franz Josephs insistence and Croatia reached the Compromise in 1868, the agreement granted the Croats autonomy over their internal affairs. The Croatian ban would now be nominated by the Hungarian prime minister, areas of common concern to Hungarians and Croats included finance, currency matters, commercial policy, the post office, and the railroad. Croatian became the language of Croatias government, and Croatian representatives discussing common affairs before the Hungarian diet were permitted to speak Croatian. A ministry of Croatian Affairs was created within the Hungarian government, although the Nagodba provided a measure of political autonomy to Croatia-Slavonia, it was subordinated politically and economically to Hungary
Hollywood is an ethnically diverse, densely populated neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California. It is notable as the home of the U. S. film industry, including several of its studios, and its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the industry. Hollywood was a community in 1870 and was incorporated as a municipality in 1903. It was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910, in 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera, named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished, the area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains immediately to the north. According to the diary of H. J. Whitley, known as the Father of Hollywood, along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood. The man got out of the wagon and bowed, the Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, I holly-wood, meaning hauling wood. H. J. Whitley had an epiphany and decided to name his new town Hollywood, Holly would represent England and wood would represent his Scottish heritage.
Whitley had already started over 100 towns across the western United States, Whitley arranged to buy the 500-acre E. C. Hurd ranch and disclosed to him his plans for the land. They agreed on a price and Hurd agreed to sell at a date, before Whitley got off the ground with Hollywood, plans for the new town had spread to General Harrison Gray Otis, Hurds wife, eastern adjacent ranch co-owner Daeida Wilcox, and others. Daeida Wilcox may have learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon and she recommended the same name to her husband, Harvey. In August 1887, Wilcox filed with the Los Angeles County Recorders office a deed and parcel map of property he had sold named Hollywood, Wilcox wanted to be the first to record it on a deed. The early real-estate boom busted that year, yet Hollywood began its slow growth. By 1900, the region had a post office, hotel, Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles east through the vineyards, barley fields, and citrus groves.
A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent, the old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood. The Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley who was a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard, having finally acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, the hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years. Whitleys company developed and sold one of the residential areas
Croatia, officially the Republic of Croatia, is a sovereign state between Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean. Its capital city is Zagreb, which one of the countrys primary subdivisions. Croatia covers 56,594 square kilometres and has diverse, mostly continental, Croatias Adriatic Sea coast contains more than a thousand islands. The countrys population is 4.28 million, most of whom are Croats, the Croats arrived in the area of present-day Croatia during the early part of the 7th century AD. They organised the state into two duchies by the 9th century, tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom. The Kingdom of Croatia retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries, reaching its peak during the rule of Kings Petar Krešimir IV and Dmitar Zvonimir, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102. In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg to the Croatian throne. In 1918, after World War I, Croatia was included in the unrecognized State of Slovenes and Serbs which seceded from Austria-Hungary, a fascist Croatian puppet state backed by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany existed during World War II.
After the war, Croatia became a member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991 Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year, the Croatian War of Independence was fought successfully during the four years following the declaration. A unitary state, Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system, the International Monetary Fund classified Croatia as an emerging and developing economy, and the World Bank identified it as a high-income economy. Croatia is a member of the European Union, United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, the service sector dominates Croatias economy, followed by the industrial sector and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue during the summer, with Croatia ranked the 18th most popular tourist destination in the world, the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatias most important trading partner, since 2000, the Croatian government constantly invests in infrastructure, especially transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors.
Internal sources produce a significant portion of energy in Croatia, the rest is imported, the origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe. The oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, the first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852. The original is lost, and just a 1568 copy is preserved—leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim, the oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription, where Duke Branimir is styled as Dux Cruatorvm. The inscription is not believed to be dated accurately, but is likely to be from during the period of 879–892, the area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’