Arches National Park is a national park in eastern Utah, United States. The park is adjacent to the Colorado River, 4 miles north of Utah. More than 2,000 natural sandstone arches are located in the park, including the well-known Delicate Arch, as well as a variety of unique geological resources and formations; the park contains the highest density of natural arches in the world. The park consists of 76,679 acres of high desert located on the Colorado Plateau; the highest elevation in the park is 5,653 feet at Elephant Butte, the lowest elevation is 4,085 feet at the visitor center. The park receives an average of less than 10 inches of rain annually. Administered by the National Park Service, the area was named a national monument on April 12, 1929, was redesignated as a national park on November 12, 1971; the park received more than 1.6 million visitors in 2018. The national park lies above an underground evaporite layer or salt bed, the main cause of the formation of the arches, balanced rocks, sandstone fins, eroded monoliths in the area.
This salt bed is thousands of feet thick in places, was deposited in the Paradox Basin of the Colorado Plateau some 300 million years ago when a sea flowed into the region and evaporated. Over millions of years, the salt bed was covered with debris eroded from the Uncompahgre Uplift to the northeast. During the Early Jurassic, desert conditions prevailed in the region and the vast Navajo Sandstone was deposited. An additional sequence of stream-laid and windblown sediments, the Entrada Sandstone, was deposited on top of the Navajo. Over 5,000 feet of younger sediments were deposited and have been eroded away. Remnants of the cover exist in the area including exposures of the Cretaceous Mancos Shale; the arches of the area are developed within the Entrada formation. The weight of this cover caused the salt bed below it to liquefy and thrust up layers of rock into salt domes; the evaporites of the area formed more unusual linear regions of uplift. Faulting occurred and whole sections of rock subsided into the areas between the domes.
In some places, they turned on edge. The result of one such 2,500-foot displacement, the Moab Fault, is seen from the visitor center; as this subsurface movement of salt shaped the landscape, erosion removed the younger rock layers from the surface. Except for isolated remnants, the major formations visible in the park today are the salmon-colored Entrada Sandstone, in which most of the arches form, the buff-colored Navajo Sandstone; these are visible in layer-cake fashion throughout most of the park. Over time, water seeped into the surface cracks and folds of these layers. Ice formed in the fissures and putting pressure on surrounding rock, breaking off bits and pieces. Winds cleaned out the loose particles. A series of free-standing fins remained. Wind and water attacked these fins until, in some, the cementing material gave way and chunks of rock tumbled out. Many damaged fins collapsed. Others, with the right degree of hardness and balance, survived despite their missing sections; these became the famous arches.
Although the park's terrain may appear rugged and durable, it is fragile. More than 1 million visitors each year threaten the fragile high-desert ecosystem; the problem lies within the soil's crust, composed of cyanobacteria, algae and lichens that grow in the dusty parts of the park. Factors that make Arches National Park sensitive to visitor damage include being a semiarid region, the scarce, unpredictable rainfall, lack of deep freezing, lack of plant litter, which results in soils that have both a low resistance to, slow recovery from, compressional forces such as foot traffic. Methods of indicating effects on the soil are cytophobic soil crust index, measuring of water infiltration, t-tests that are used to compare the values from the undisturbed and disturbed areas. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Arches Visitor Center has a cold semi-arid climate. Humans have occupied the region since the last ice age 10,000 years ago. Fremont people and ancestral Puebloans lived in the area until about 700 years ago.
Spanish missionaries encountered Ute and Paiute tribes in the area when they first came through in 1775, but the first European-Americans to attempt settlement in the area were the Mormon Elk Mountain Mission in 1855, who soon abandoned the area. Ranchers and prospectors settled Moab in the neighboring Riverine Valley in the 1880s. Word of the beauty of the surrounding rock formations spread beyond the settlement as a possible tourist destination; the Arches area was first brought to the attention of the National Park Service by Frank A. Wadleigh, passenger traffic manager of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad. Wadleigh, accompanied by railroad photographer George L. Beam, visited the area in September 1923 at the invitation of Alexander Ringhoffer, a Hungarian-born prospector living in Salt Valley. Ringhoffer had written to the railroad in an effort to interest them in the tourist potential of a scenic area he had discovered the previous year with his two sons and a son-in-law, which he called the Devils Garden.
Wadleigh was impressed by what Ringhoffer showed him, suggested to Park Service director Stephen T. Mather that the area be made a national monument; the following year, additional support for the monument idea came from Laurence Gould, a University of Michigan graduate student studying the geology of the nearby La Sal Mountains, shown the scenic area by local physician Dr
Following is a list of United States Supreme Court Justices who served in Congress. Since the United States Supreme Court was established in 1789, 114 persons have served on the Court. Of these, several served in the U. S. Congress, either before or after their tenure as a justice. Six were incumbent members of the United States Senate at the time of their appointment, while one—James Moore Wayne—was an incumbent member of the House of Representatives; the others had served in the Senate or the House or both. Additionally, one justice—David Davis—resigned from the Supreme Court to serve in the Senate. There have been 14 U. S. Supreme Court justices with prior service in the Senate, one with subsequent Senate service. There have been 17 U. S. Supreme Court justices with prior service in the House. List of people who have served in all three branches of the United States federal government
The Pilkington Library is the academic library at Loughborough University, situated in the West Park of the university campus at Loughborough, Leicestershire, in the East Midlands of England. It is named after Lord Pilkington. Built to an unusual design on an unusual site in the West Park area of the campus, the library building is adjacent to Village Park; as it is adjacent to the University's more recent Elvyn Richards halls, its Combined Heat and Power plant can be used to cool the library building with otherwise wasted heat. The Pilkington Library opened in 1980 as the main library to the Loughborough University of Technology. At a date this building was closed when the library stock was re-located to the Pilkington Library; the building unusually has the floor with the smallest area at the base of the structure, followed by another larger, these first two floors being known as Level 1 and Level 2 and holding book stock, Level 3 is larger again and contains the entrance, accessed via a link bridge, a café, limited book and periodical stock, a number of administrative offices and Open3 an informal study area.
Level 4 contains the Department of Information Science. The three Library floors amount to 7,777 square metres. For a library designed and built at a time of major change to the criteria used by the University Grants Committee the new library was not affected by the Atkinson Report which set out the UGC's new expectations in terms of size and flexibility; the Librarian, Professor Tony Evans, wrote in an article in the International Association of Technological University Libraries Proceedings that Atkinson's restrictions on collection size were not a problem in an institution with a small book stock and the only difficulties encountered with the UGC arose from the proposal to house the Library School on top of the library building, which were overcome. As a result of a story published in Label Magazine as an April fool there is an ongoing urban myth that the Library building is sinking due to the weight of the books contained within it not having been taken into account at the design stage, although no such errors or movement have occurred.
The library has over 600,000 books and 90,000 journals housed on Levels 1 and 2 of the building, which are organised such that the elements of the collection relevant to the University's science and technology students, 500-699 in the Dewey Decimal Classification system, are housed together on Level 1 and the remaining stock arts, social science and computing are on Level 2. The David Lewis collection is named after Dr David Lewis, Cataloguing Manager in the Library from 1966 to 2004, formed and managed the collection from items acquired by the University and its predecessors since around 1930. Made up of around 3000 books and journals the collection holds items considered in need of secure storage as a result of their age, scarcity, physical condition or other factors. Level 1 of the Library house the University Archives which hold written and other material relating to the university and its predecessor colleges including official minutes, administrative papers, student enrollment records and other publications.
There is a fine series of engineering drawings and photographs dating from the First World War when Loughborough Technical Institute was an Instructional Factory for the Ministry of Munitions. Among material donated by former staff and students, principal collections include those of Norman Swindin, chemical engineer and Honorary Reader in Chemical Engineering. University Library website Pilkington Library on Facebook