For the hummingbird, see Archilochus. Archilochus was a Greek lyric poet from the island of Paros in the Archaic period, he is celebrated for his versatile and innovative use of poetic meters, is the earliest known Greek author to compose entirely on the theme of his own emotions and experiences. Alexandrian scholars included him in their canonic list of iambic poets, along with Semonides and Hipponax, yet ancient commentators numbered him with Tyrtaeus and Callinus as the possible inventor of the elegy. Modern critics characterize him as a lyric poet. Although his work now only survives in fragments, he was revered by the ancient Greeks as one of their most brilliant authors, able to be mentioned in the same breath as Homer and Hesiod, yet he was censured by them as the archetypal poet of blame—his invectives were said to have driven his former fiancée and her father to suicide, he presented himself as a man of few illusions either in war or in love, such as in the following elegy, where discretion is seen to be the better part of valour: Archilochus was much imitated up to Roman times and three other distinguished poets claimed to have thrown away their shields—Alcaeus and Horace.
A considerable amount of information about the life of Archilochus has come down to the modern age via his surviving work, the testimony of other authors and inscriptions on monuments, yet it all needs to be viewed with caution—the biographical tradition is unreliable and the fragmentary nature of the poems doesn't support inferences about his personal history. The vivid language and intimate details of the poems look autobiographical yet it is known, on the authority of Aristotle, that Archilochus sometimes role-played; the philosopher quoted two fragments as examples of an author speaking in somebody else's voice: in one, an unnamed father commenting on a recent eclipse of the sun and, in the other, a carpenter named Charon, expressing his indifference to the wealth of Gyges, the king of Lydia. There is nothing in those two fragments to suggest that Archilochus is speaking in those roles and many of his other verses involved role-playing too, it has been suggested by one modern scholar that imaginary characters and situations might have been a feature of the poetic tradition within which Archilochus composed, known by the ancients as iambus.
The two poems quoted by Aristotle help to date the poet's life. Gyges reigned 687–652 BC and the date of the eclipse must have been either 6 April 648 BC or 27 June 660 BC; these dates are consistent with other evidence of the poet's chronology and reported history, such as the discovery at Thasos of a cenotaph, dated around the end of the seventh century and dedicated to a friend named in several fragments: Glaucus, son of Leptines. The chronology for Archilochus is complex but modern scholars settle for c.680–c.640 BC. Whether or not their lives had been virtuous, authors of genius were revered by their fellow Greeks, thus a sanctuary to Archilochus was established on his home island Paros sometime in the third century BC, where his admirers offered him sacrifices, as well as to gods such as Apollo and the Muses. Inscriptions found on orthostats from the sanctuary include historical records. In one, we are told that his father Telesicles once sent Archilochus to fetch a cow from the fields, but that the boy chanced to meet a group of women who soon vanished with the animal and left him a lyre in its place—they were the Muses and they had thus earmarked him as their protégé.
According to the same inscription, the omen was confirmed by the oracle at Delphi. Not all the inscriptions are as fanciful as that; some are records by a local historian of the time, set out in chronological order according to custom, under the names of archons. These are fragmentary. Snippets of biographical information are provided by ancient authors as diverse as Tatian, Clement of Alexandria, Aelian, Galen, Dio Chrysostom, Aelius Aristides and several anonymous authors in the Palatine Anthology. See and other poets below for the testimony of some famous poets. According to tradition, Archilochus was born to a notable family on Paros, his grandfather, helped establish the cult of Demeter on Thasos near the end of the eighth century, a mission, famously depicted in a painting at Delphi by the Thasian Polygnotus. The painting described by Pausanias, showed Tellis in Hades, sharing Charon's boat with the priestess of Demeter; the poet's father, Telesicles distinguished himself in the history of Thasos, as the founder of a Parian colony there.
The names'Tellis' and'Telesicles' can have religious connotations and some modern scholars infer that the poet was born into a priestly family devoted to Demeter. Inscriptions in the Archilocheion identify Archilochus as a key figure in the Parian cult of Dionysus There is no evidence to back isolated reports that his mother was a slave, named Enipo, that he left Paros to escape poverty, or that he became a mercenary soldier—the slave background is inferred from a misreading of his verses; the life of Archilochus was
The cell group is a form of church organization, used in many Christian churches. Cell groups are intended to teach the Bible and personalize Christian fellowship, they are always used in cell churches, but occur in parachurch organizations and other interdenominational settings, where they are referred to as such as Bible study groups. In Methodism, they are a means of grace; the cell group differs from the house church in that the group is part of an overall church congregation, whereas the house church is a self-contained congregation. The term cell group is derived from biology: the cell is the basic unit of life in a body. In a metaphorical sense, just as a body is made up of many cells that give it life, the cell church is made of cell groups that give it life; these groups are known by a variety of other names, including life groups, small groups, home groups, classes or class meetings and fellowship groups. Colin Marshall uses the term growth group, suggesting that the aim is for group members to "grow in Christ", through the group, for the gospel to "grow and bear fruit."Another term employed in Missional Communities, is huddle.
This refers to a small group in which discipleship is emphasized and in which membership is by invitation only. David Hunsicker points out that while house churches are mentioned in the New Testament, the institution of a "well-organized, structured church" resulted in the decline of the small home groups; the concept was resurrected at the time of the Radical Reformation and "Ulrich Zwingli inadvertently pushed the Anabaptists in the direction of small groups when he started meeting with a small gathering of men who were interested in learning New Testament Greek. The concept of small groups was revived again in the late seventeenth century by Anthony Horneck in Great Britain and Philipp Jacob Spener in Germany. Philipp Jakob Spener published his Pia Desideria in 1675 and laid out his program for the pietistic revival of the Lutheran Church, emphasising the use of small groups, he suggested the reintroduction of "the ancient and apostolic kind of church meetings," held "in the manner in which Paul describes them in 1 Corinthians 14:26–40."
Spener goes on to suggest: This might conveniently be done by having several ministers meet together or by having several members of a congregation who have a fair knowledge of God or desire to increase their knowledge meet under the leadership of a minister, take up the Holy Scriptures, read aloud from them, fraternally discuss each verse in order to discover its simple meaning and what- may be useful to the edification of all. Anybody, not satisfied with his understanding of a matter should be permitted to express his doubts and seek further explanation. On the other hand those who have made progress should be allowed the freedom to state how they understand each passage. All, contributed, insofar as it accords with the sense of the Holy Spirit in the Scriptures, should be considered by the rest by the ordained ministers, applied to the edification of the whole meeting. Influenced by Pietistic Lutheran conventicles, John Wesley took on the concept of small groups, has been called the "Father" of the modern small-group concept.
Wesley encouraged different kinds of small group to develop, so that both leaders and members of the Methodist societies could receive support and challenge in their faith. He formed class meetings to "bring small numbers of people together to pray, read the Bible and listen to exhortations, to encourage and enjoy each other's company." The format of the class meeting is described as follows:...following an opening prayer and the singing of a hymn, the class leader shared the status of his or her own spiritual standing, thanking God for victory and progress, honestly reported any failures and struggles. Following the leader's testimony, each person in the group responded to the all-important question,'How does your soul prosper' or rephrased'How is your life with God?' and related any failures of the previous week. The honest answers to direct and specific questions were contagious—accounts eist of members who, having lapsed spiritually since the last meeting, were stricken with conviction and sought pardon and restoration during the class meeting.
In order to maintain the confidentiality and privacy of the members, visitors were permitted to visit twice before deciding to join a class. If that visitor decided not to become a member of the class, he or she was excluded from any future meeting of the class. Class meetings, in Methodist theology, are a means of grace for one's sanctification. Louisa Thomas writes, with regard to Methodist class meetings, that: Class meetings were intentionally limited to a small group; each member frankly and shared his or her victories and struggles with the others. The groups were coeducational in composition and were a curious mixture of age, social status, spiritual maturity. Within each class Wesley intended a blending of the seasoned saints with babes in Christ as a means of educating and encouraging the newest converts; the first class meetings can thus be summarized as a weekly gathering of Methodists who "spoke about their temptations, confessed their faults, shared their concerns, testified to the working of God in their lives and exhorted & prayed for each other."
With respect to the practice of confession among Methodists, it is do
Charles Algernon Whitmore was a British barrister and Conservative Party politician. He sat in the House of Commons as the Member of Parliament for Chelsea. Whitmore was the son of the county court judge Charles Shaplabd Whitmore QC and his wife Elizabeth Katherine, a sister of Sir Henry Brownrigg, Bt, he was educated at Eton and Balliol, became a Fellow of All Souls in 1874, before being called to the bar in 1876 at the Inner Temple. At the 1885 general election, Whitmore unsuccessfully contested the parliamentary borough of Chelsea in London, where he lost by 175 votes to the sitting MP, the Liberal Sir Charles Dilke, Bt. However, in early 1886 Dilke was involved in a high-profile divorce case which grew into a high-profile sex scandal, at the next general election, in July 1886, Whitmore defeated Dilke with a majority of 176 votes, he served for a time as private secretary to the Home Secretary Henry Matthews, who as a barrister had conducted the cross-examination of Dilke, destroying the latter's career.
Whitmore served as the Second Church Estates Commissioner, in 1895 he was elected by London County Council as an Alderman for the Moderate Party, serving until 1901. He was re-elected as MP for Chelsea at three further elections, but at the 1906 general election he was defeated by the Liberal candidate Emslie Horniman. Works by or about Charles Algernon Whitmore at Internet Archive Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Charles Whitmore Portraits of Charles Whitmore at the National Portrait Gallery, London
The Medical University of Łódź was founded on October 1, 2002 as a merger of the Medical Academy of Łódź and the Military Medical Academy of Łódź. It is the largest teaching hospital unit in a European research center, it comprises 6 research institutes, 49 chairs, 7 equipped university teaching hospitals with a total capacity of 2900 beds, as well as 438,000 specialist consultations every year in specialist outpatient clinics, in addition to the collaboration with 22 international universities. At the Medical University of Lodz, students are instructed from a 250 plus Basic Science and Clinical Medicine Faculty, composed of physicians and researchers. Most faculty members of the university holds a dual MD/PhD. Degree, all are board certified in their respective specialties; the Medical University is the biggest state medical university in Poland implementing the following basic tasks: educating students in medicine, dentistry and medicine-allied disciplines. The university made an important evolution of a unique system, based on the availability -during posted office hours- of all professors for individual consultations with students in their offices.
This helps promote better interaction between students and faculty as opposed to the previous Soviet style system. The Process of education has been focused on preparing specialists for work in various communities and national health care systems. Our educational offer has been adjusted to requirement laid down in the resolutions validated by our Government within the European Union co-operation. Following the entry of Poland into the European Union on May 1, 2004 the University offers a chance of an automatic recognition of the Diploma of most of the faculties within all 25 countries of the European Union. Over 8000 Polish Students are getting their education within medical and medicine-related areas at various faculties. Medical teaching in English was initiated in 2003/2004. Presently over 300 foreign students from various countries Saudi Arabia, but the People's Republic of China, Republic of China, India, Sri Lanka, Nigeria, Norway attend medical and dental courses; the quality of the medical curriculum is comparable among Polish universities, subject to regular official inspections and rankings.
In previous years, a few select students of the Faculty of Medicine have been the recipients of scientific awards like "Medical Laurels" of Polish Academy of Science or "Primus Inter Pares" - Best Student of the Polish Republic in the Lodz Region. Medical University of Lodz is one of the major medical research centers in Poland. In one academic year over a hundred research grants are awarded, as well as numerous research contracts. At present substantial number of individual research projects are being conducted. Medical University of Lodz has been carrying extensive international scientific cooperation with such foreign academic and research centers as: The Catholic University in Nijmegen, Netherlands Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina, United States University of Toronto Humboldt Universitat, Germany Friedrich-Alexander Universitat, Germany King's College London, UK Universite degli Studi di Milano, Italy The Human Craniofacial Institute in Dallas, United States The Howard Hughes Medical Center, United States The University in Bielefeld, Germany Universite Claude Bernard, France University of Kuopio, Finland Friedrich-Alexander Universitat Erlangen, GermanyThe majority of University chairs and departments directly co-operate with foreign centers through staff Exchange programs.
At present, Medical University has over 1600 hospital beds in Teaching Hospitals that provide medical services for patients, being the essential base for research work and undergraduate and postgraduate teaching. University Teaching Hospitals and University-affiliated department constitute a basic source for specialized diagnostic and treatment services provided by professors, associate professors and specialists of various medical disciplines who take care of health needs of the Lodz region community and promote health-related programs. Students of the Medical University take part in ERASMUS – European international academic Exchange program. Within last few years there were 25 incoming students from France, Portugal and other parts of Europe and over 100 outgoing students in the frame of this exchange program. Students' Scientific Society has been involved in active popularization of research work among students, organization of scientific conferences and co-ordination of Students' Scientific Groups Faculty of Medicine Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry Faculty of Pharmacy Faculty of Physiotherapy Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery Faculty of Health Sciences Faculty of Military Medicine Official website
Car longevity is of interest to many car owners and concerns several things: maximum service life in either mileage or time, relationship of components to this lifespan, identification of factors that might afford control in extending the lifespan. Barring an accidental end to the lifespan, a car would have a life constrained by the earliest part to fail; some have argued that rust and other factors related to the body of a car are the prime limits to extended longevity. An automobile is a engineered collection of complex components, each of which has its own lifespan and longevity characteristics; the MTBF of some components is expected to be smaller than the life of the car, as the replacement of these is considered part of regular maintenance. Other components, which experience less wear, are expected to have a longer life; the motivation for pursuing longevity can vary. The economic trade-off of the remaining value versus repair cost is considered when deciding to repair or discard. Other factors, such as emotional attachment or a desire to reduce waste, may be involved.
The life of the auto, as the collection, according to a common model, a bathtub-like pattern. After an initial phase, where failure because of design and manufacturing defects as opposed to wear-out, is more there may be a long period of unlikely failure; the maximum lifespan and future value as a classic for any car are not known when the car is purchased. Research into longevity of vehicles will improve the ability to predict car life, with such things as a life table for cars. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency assumes the typical car is driven 15,000 miles per year. According to the New York Times, in the 1960s and 1970s, the typical car reached its end of life around 100,000 miles, but due to manufacturing improvements in the 2000s, such as tighter tolerances and better anti-corrosion coatings, the typical car lasts closer to 200,000 miles; some car manufacturers support a "high mileage" club. For example and Mercedes-Benz have a "High Mileage Award" program in which owners who drive 250,000, 500,000, 750,000, 1 million kilometers are awarded with a certificate and a radiator grille badge.
Many non-commercial vehicles have exceeded one million miles. For instance, in 2013, East Patchogue, New York resident Irv Gordon had accumulated 3 million miles in his 1966 Volvo P1800; the car had amassed 3.2 million miles by Gordon's death on 15 November 2018. In 2006, a 1995 Dodge Ram was reported to Chrysler as having gone 1 million miles. A 1976 Mercedes-Benz 240D in Greece of Gregorios Sachinidis has reached 2,858,307 miles before retiring to the Mercedes-Benz Museum in Germany. A 1989 Saab 900 SPG belonging to Peter Gilbert of Wisconsin had put in 1,001,385 miles before it was donated to the Wisconsin Automotive Museum. Another was the 1963 Volkswagen Beetle belonging to Albert Klein of Pasadena, California that had accumulated 1,442,044 miles on 25 January 1993. AARP Magazine featured several long-running cars in its July 2009 issue. A 2014 study on Consumer Reports by iSeeCars.com listed 10 Longest Lasting Cars over 200K miles. Sikorsky and others, have developed lists that itemize steps that a car owner can take, or identified operating and maintenance rules, to ensure maximal longevity.
1. Regular oil changes 2. Monitor the key fluids 3. Maintain the transmission 4. Change the spark plugs as needed 5. Replace the timing belt as recommended 6. Replace air filter as required 7. Know and use your maintenance manual 8. No sudden starts and stops 9. Plentiful low cost replacement parts being availableIn a public economics sense, Kasmer argues that retrofitting autos with a newer transmission would extend the lifespan while at the same time increase fuel efficiency, reduce carbon emissions, prevent the sudden influx of discarded vehicles into the waste bin as cars are junked to be replaced by a modern vehicle. However, with replacement parts for modern cars becoming more high tech and proprietary and therefore difficult to obtain, many critical components are no longer available at low cost from third party aftermarket suppliers. Due to this fact, most modern cars can no longer be maintained once repair cost of the car exceed resale value; this trend has led to the modern cars being labeled as the first "disposable" cars.
Reliability engineering Economics of automobile ownership Scrappage program
Clydesdale Bank plc is a commercial bank in Scotland. Formed in Glasgow in 1838, it is the smallest of the three Scottish banks. Independent until it was purchased by Midland Bank in 1920, it formed part of the National Australia Bank Group between 1987 and 2016. Clydesdale Bank was divested from National Australia Bank in early 2016 and its holding company CYBG plc, trades on the London and Sydney stock exchanges. In June 2018, it was announced that Clydesdale Bank's holding company CYBG would acquire Virgin Money for £1.7 billion in an all-stock deal, that the Clydesdale and Yorkshire Bank brands would be phased out in favour of retaining Virgin's brand. CYBG plc's banking businesses, Clydesdale Bank, Yorkshire Bank, Virgin Money and B operate as trading divisions of Clydesdale Bank plc under its banking licence; as with two other Scottish banks, the Bank of Scotland and the Royal Bank of Scotland, Clydesdale Bank retains the right to issue its own banknotes. In March 1838, an advertisement appeared for a new joint stock banking company in Glasgow, the Clydesdale Banking Company.
It was to be "chiefly a local bank – having few branches – but correspondents everywhere" though it was conceded that a branch in Edinburgh would be necessary. The Bank duly opened for business in both cities in May 1838. Checkland described the Bank as the creation of "a group of Glasgow businessmen of middling order, liberal radicals…who were active in the government and charities of the city."The driving figure behind the formation of the Bank was James Lumsden, a stationer by business, a councillor, police commissioner and Lord Provost of Glasgow. Another member of the founding committee, Henry Brock, became the Bank's first manager. Brock came of a merchant family, was an accountant and one of the founders of the Glasgow Savings Bank. Despite the declaration in the advertisement, in the year after formation the Bank opened three Glasgow branches as well as its first country branches in Campbeltown and Falkirk; these were supplemented by the acquisition of the Greenock Union Bank. Following the purchase of the Greenock Union, there was little change in the structure of the Bank and there were still only 13 branches in 1857.
In that year, Clydesdale became the first Scottish bank to produce a printed balance sheet, it showed assets of £2.7 million and net profits of £70,000. The public disclosure of its strength stood it in good stead, for only months the Western Bank of Scotland closed its doors, followed the next day by the first closure of the City of Glasgow Bank. Clydesdale gained not only customers but 13 branches from the Western. A few months came the acquisition of the Edinburgh and Glasgow Bank, weakened by the same economic disturbances; the Edinburgh & Leith Bank, as it was had been formed in 1838 "for the benefit of the'industrious middle classes'" and it had bought the Dumfries-based Southern Bank of Scotland in 1842 and the Glasgow Joint Stock Bank in 1844, the latter leading to the change of name to Edinburgh & Glasgow Bank. Poor lending in the 1845–47 period to Australia, dogged the Bank for the next ten years and it was taken over by the Clydesdale for a nil consideration. Five years in 1863, Clydesdale acquired the more successful Eastern Bank of Scotland, like Clydesdale founded in 1838.
Based in Dundee it was to have one in Dundee, the other Edinburgh. Before opening for business it acquired the Dundee Commercial Bank to serve as its Dundee office. Difficulties with the two boards working together led to the Edinburgh bank being wound up and the Eastern became an Dundee bank. Much of the growth in the Bank's network had come from acquisitions and the management remained cautious regarding direct branch expansion. However, in 1865, a committee was formed to look at prospects and 16 branches were opened in two years. In 1874 the Clydesdale went south of the border and opened three branches in Cumberland but this was seen as following existing trade rather than making a specific attempt to enter the English market. Indeed, Clydesdale was one of the last Scottish banks to acquire a London office. In 1878, the City of Glasgow Bank failed for the second time, leading again to an increase in Clydesdale's deposits and the acquisition of nine of the Glasgow branches; the scale of the collapse led to further debate on desirability of limited liability and, following legislation in 1879, Clydesdale Bank registered as a limited liability company in 1882.
Reid described the period 1890–1914 as "the tranquil years", but that did not preclude steady expansion of the branch network – from 92 to 153. That was to mark the end of Clydesdale's independent existence. In 1917 the Bank was approached by London City and Midland and, although resisted, Clydesdale Bank was sold in 1920. However, it continued to operate independently and was always referred to as an affiliate, not a subsidiary; the Glasgow banks suffered more than others in the depressed economy of the inter-war period and from being the largest lender in Scotland in 1920, it fell to fifth place by 1939. Despite this, the Bank continued to open branches in areas enjoying export growth, the network increased from 158 in 1919 to 205 in 1939. Midland had acquired the North of Scotland Bank in 1923 but the Aberdeen management had fiercely resisted any attempt to merge with Clydesdale. However, the changed competitive market after the Second World War meant that the two banks