Archimedes of Syracuse was a Greek mathematician, engineer and astronomer. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. Considered the greatest mathematician of antiquity and one of the greatest of all time, Archimedes anticipated modern calculus and analysis by applying concepts of infinitesimals and the method of exhaustion to derive and rigorously prove a range of geometrical theorems, including the area of a circle, the surface area and volume of a sphere, the area under a parabola. Other mathematical achievements include deriving an accurate approximation of pi, defining and investigating the spiral bearing his name, creating a system using exponentiation for expressing large numbers, he was one of the first to apply mathematics to physical phenomena, founding hydrostatics and statics, including an explanation of the principle of the lever. He is credited with designing innovative machines, such as his screw pump, compound pulleys, defensive war machines to protect his native Syracuse from invasion.

Archimedes died during the Siege of Syracuse when he was killed by a Roman soldier despite orders that he should not be harmed. Cicero describes visiting the tomb of Archimedes, surmounted by a sphere and a cylinder, which Archimedes had requested be placed on his tomb to represent his mathematical discoveries. Unlike his inventions, the mathematical writings of Archimedes were little known in antiquity. Mathematicians from Alexandria read and quoted him, but the first comprehensive compilation was not made until c. 530 AD by Isidore of Miletus in Byzantine Constantinople, while commentaries on the works of Archimedes written by Eutocius in the sixth century AD opened them to wider readership for the first time. The few copies of Archimedes' written work that survived through the Middle Ages were an influential source of ideas for scientists during the Renaissance, while the discovery in 1906 of unknown works by Archimedes in the Archimedes Palimpsest has provided new insights into how he obtained mathematical results.

Archimedes was born c. 287 BC in the seaport city of Syracuse, Sicily, at that time a self-governing colony in Magna Graecia. The date of birth is based on a statement by the Byzantine Greek historian John Tzetzes that Archimedes lived for 75 years. In The Sand Reckoner, Archimedes gives his father's name as Phidias, an astronomer about whom nothing else is known. Plutarch wrote in his Parallel Lives that Archimedes was related to King Hiero II, the ruler of Syracuse. A biography of Archimedes was written by his friend Heracleides but this work has been lost, leaving the details of his life obscure, it is unknown, for instance, whether he married or had children. During his youth, Archimedes may have studied in Alexandria, where Conon of Samos and Eratosthenes of Cyrene were contemporaries, he referred to Conon of Samos as his friend, while two of his works have introductions addressed to Eratosthenes. Archimedes died c. 212 BC during the Second Punic War, when Roman forces under General Marcus Claudius Marcellus captured the city of Syracuse after a two-year-long siege.

According to the popular account given by Plutarch, Archimedes was contemplating a mathematical diagram when the city was captured. A Roman soldier commanded him to come and meet General Marcellus but he declined, saying that he had to finish working on the problem; the soldier was enraged by this, killed Archimedes with his sword. Plutarch gives a lesser-known account of the death of Archimedes which suggests that he may have been killed while attempting to surrender to a Roman soldier. According to this story, Archimedes was carrying mathematical instruments, was killed because the soldier thought that they were valuable items. General Marcellus was angered by the death of Archimedes, as he considered him a valuable scientific asset and had ordered that he must not be harmed. Marcellus called Archimedes "a geometrical Briareus"; the last words attributed to Archimedes are "Do not disturb my circles", a reference to the circles in the mathematical drawing that he was studying when disturbed by the Roman soldier.

This quote is given in Latin as "Noli turbare circulos meos," but there is no reliable evidence that Archimedes uttered these words and they do not appear in the account given by Plutarch. Valerius Maximus, writing in Memorable Doings and Sayings in the 1st century AD, gives the phrase as "...sed protecto manibus puluere'noli' inquit,'obsecro, istum disturbare'" – "... but protecting the dust with his hands, said'I beg of you, do not disturb this.'" The phrase is given in Katharevousa Greek as "μὴ μου τοὺς κύκλους τάραττε!". The tomb of Archimedes carried a sculpture illustrating his favorite mathematical proof, consisting of a sphere and a cylinder of the same height and diameter. Archimedes had proven that the volume and surface area of the sphere are two thirds that of the cylinder including its bases. In 75 BC, 137 years after his death, the Roman orator Cicero was serving as quaestor in Sicily, he had heard stories about the tomb of Archimedes, but none of the locals were able to give him the location.

He found the tomb near the Agrigentine gate in Syracuse, in a neglected condition and overgrown with bushes. Cicero had the tomb cleaned up, was able to see the carving and read some of the verses, added as an inscription. A tomb discovered in the courtyard of the Hotel Panorama in Syracuse in the early 1960s was claimed to be that of Archimedes, but there was no

Alien Intelligence (Palladium Books)

In the various game settings of Palladium Books, Alien Intelligences are fictional, vastly powerful beings of unknown origin that are stated to be a combination of equal parts spirit, magical energy, physical flesh. They are said to exist on different planes of existence and in the Palladium hierarchy of powers, most Alien Intelligences, apart from the Vampire Intelligences, are more powerful than the mightiest Gods in Palladium. In fact, some of the most powerful Gods of the Palladium Megaverse were themselves spawned by the Alien Intelligences. Alien Intelligences are perceived by the vast majority of sentient beings everywhere in the Megaverse as creatures of pure evil intent, with good reason. While many Alien Intelligences do indeed gain a great deal of amusement from the suffering of other beings, for the vast majority of Intelligences, the simple fact of the matter is that they consider themselves as far above most sentient beings as those sentient beings consider themselves above pets and livestock, treat those beings as such.

Gods, Angels and lesser Alien Intelligences are susceptible to being treated as nothing more than pawns, in some cases, food. Most Alien Intelligences follow the standard template: a fleshy mound that may or may not take any recognizable shape, a single eye in the middle of the mass of flesh, in many cases, a series of tentacles protruding from the Main Body. "Generic" Alien Intelligences have the ability to possess the bodies of "willing" hosts, the raising, and/or turning of large numbers of dead, most of the standard abilities of Palladium Gods, the ability to send out a limited number of essence fragments to better interact with the physical world around them-although these fragments must merge with physical matter in order to be of any use. In the Palladium Megaverse, Vampire Intelligences are the most numerous of their kind, the most dangerous with the fall of the Old Ones that kept them in check, they are minor Old Ones but were deemed too "weak" in comparison to the other Old Ones and were not included in the super-spell that put the Old Ones and many of the greater Intelligences to sleep.

Due to the virulent nature of their existence and the universal hatred throughout the Megaverse of vampiric infestation, Vampire Intelligences are hated by every sentient being in the Megaverse, from the least to the most powerful, from the most stalwart Champions of Light to the most evil Devils and Demons. Rarely does any other creature willingly work with or for them. Vampire Intelligences are notable amongst Alien Intelligences in that they can produce an unlimited number of essences, that the essence fragments can, if so desired, create a corporeal servant-a last line of defense within the Vampire Intelligence's lair-without the need to possess a living victim. Vampire Intelligences are, much weaker than their brethren in terms of both mystic might and damage capacity. Most if not all Greater Elementals summoned by Warlocks and Elemental Fusionists, are fragments of Elemental Intelligences themselves. Elemental Intelligences are noteworthy amongst Intelligences, most sentient life in general, in that they have no comprehension of morality, one way or the other.

Elemental Intelligences cannot comprehend most human emotions-apart from anger-and never engage in any activity, good or evil, for pleasure. An Elemental Intelligence, asked or commanded by another being to retrieve an object from point B, will start from point A and tear through a village of women and children without the slightest regret: it cannot comprehend why it is "wrong" to kill the innocent, it has no comprehension of life or death, good or evil. To date, no Elemental Intelligence has been given stats in Palladium Canon, but their essence fragments are moderately powered by Alien Intelligence standards; this might indicate that the powers of Elemental Intelligences rival or exceed those of their brethren. A "sub-species" of Alien Intelligences whose essence fragments can only bond with the now-soulless bodies of the deceased. Despite that limitation, there is no apparent limit to the number of bodies that they can reanimate in this manner, the bodies themselves are restored to the appearance of full health and vigor, furthermore any and all of those bodies are for all intents and purposes that of the Intelligence itself.

In Rifts Earth, on the land once known as British Isles, a Zllyphan named Zazshan has re-created the legend of the Knights of the Round Table. Zllyphan are low-powered for Alien Intelligences; the most successful and well-organized of the Alien Intelligences, this sub-species of Alien Intelligences follow the "generic" template for Intelligences in every way, including massive

August Coppola

August Floyd Coppola was an American academic, film executive and advocate for the arts. He was the father of actor Nicolas Cage. August Coppola was the son of composer and flutist Carmine Coppola and Italia Pennino, a lyricist and matriarch of the Coppola family, his siblings are actress Talia Shire. August Coppola married German-American dancer Joy Vogelsang in 1960. Among his nieces and nephews are director Sofia Coppola and actor Jason Schwartzman. Coppola and Vogelsang divorced in 1976, he married Marie Thenevin on April 16, 1981. That marriage ended in 1986, his last marriage was to an actress with the Comédie-Française in Paris. Coppola received his undergraduate degree at UCLA and his graduate degree at Hofstra University, where his thesis Ernest Hemingway: The Problem of In Our Time was published in 1956. Coppola earned his doctorate at Occidental College in 1960, he taught comparative literature at Cal State Long Beach in the 1960s and'70s and served as a trustee of the California State University system before moving to San Francisco in 1984.

He served as Dean of Creative Arts at San Francisco State University. In this role, Coppola earned a reputation of being a champion of the arts on the campus and in the community, for promoting diversity within the student body of the arts school. Additionally, August Coppola worked like many other members of his family, he was an executive at his brother's American Zoetrope film studio, where he was involved in the revival of Abel Gance's 1927 silent film Napoléon. He was the founder and president of the San Francisco Film and Video Arts Commission, served on the jury of the 36th Berlin International Film Festival in 1986. Coppola served as chairman and CEO of Education First!, an organization seeking Hollywood studio support of educational programs. Coppola worked as an advocate for art appreciation among the visually impaired, he is credited as being the creator of the Tactile Dome, a feature at the San Francisco Exploratorium museum, which opened to the public on September 9, 1971. The Dome is a lightless maze.

In 1972 Coppola opened the AudioVision Workshop with colleague Professor Gregory Frazier, which utilized Frazier's original process of audio recording descriptions of film and theater action for the benefit of visually impaired audiences. Coppola was the author of the romantic novel The Intimacy, was working on a second novel, The Nymbus, while living in Savannah, Georgia. August Coppola's final home was in Los Angeles, where he died of a heart attack on October 27, 2009 at age 75; the 150-seat August Coppola Theater on the San Francisco State campus is named in his honor. Francis Ford Coppola dedicated his 1983 film Rumble Fish to him. In The Sorcerer's Apprentice, August Coppola's name is mentioned at the end of credits. Coppola family tree August Coppola on IMDb