The Architectural Association School of Architecture in London referred to as the AA, is the oldest independent school of architecture in the UK and one of the most prestigious and competitive in the world. Its wide-ranging programme of exhibitions, lectures and publications have given it a central position in global discussions and developments within contemporary architectural culture; the foundation of the Architectural Association was as an alternative to the practice where young men were articled to established architects. This practise offered no guarantee for educational professional standards; the AA believed it was open to vested interests, abuse and incompetence. This situation led two articled pupils, Robert Kerr and Charles Gray, to propose a systematic course of training provided by the students themselves. Following a merger with the existing Association of Architectural Draughtsmen, the first formal meeting under the name of the Architectural Association took place in May 1847 at Lyons Inn Hall, London.
Kerr became the first president, 1847–48. From 1859 the AA shared premises at 9 Conduit Street with the Royal Institute of British Architects renting rooms in Great Marlborough Street; the AA School was formally established in 1890. In 1901, it moved premises to the former Royal Architectural Museum in Westminster. In 1917, it moved again, to its current premises in Bedford Square, central London; the school has acquired property on Morwell Street behind Bedford Square. Women were first admitted as students to the AA School during the First World War in 1917. AA is one of the world's most international and prestigious schools of architecture and selecting students and staff from more than 60 countries worldwide, with a long list of visiting critics and other participants from around the world each year; the students of the AA have been addressed by many eminent figures, from John Ruskin and George Gilbert Scott in the 19th century, to more Richard Rogers, an alumnus of the school. In November 2017, the AA was reported to be planning to make 16 staff redundant, including the whole of its publications and exhibitions departments.
Shortly before, the AA had announced it was seeking a new director, to be appointed by March 2018, following the departure of Brett Steele announced in December 2016. Courses are divided into two main areas – Undergraduate programmes, leading to the AA Diploma, Postgraduate programmes, which include specialised courses in Landscape Urbanism and Urbanism, Sustainable Environmental Design and Theories, Emergent Technologies, Design Research Lab, as well as day-release course in building conservation, garden conservation, environmental access. Launched programmes include Projective Cities, Design + Make, Interprofessional studio. Since its foundation, the school has continued to draw its teaching staff from progressive international practices, they are reappointed annually, allowing a continual renewal of the exploration of architectural graphics and polemical formalism; the school UCAS application system. As an independent school, the AA does not participate in university rankings; the tuition fees at the AA are competitively priced in comparison to other institutions.
The AA enrolls a higher proportion of students from overseas compared to other architecture schools in the UK. The AA Bookshop has a wide collection of architectural literature and is used as a platform for AA's own publications. AA Publications has a long tradition of publishing architects and theorists early in their careers, as well as publishing figures who have gained notoriety in other fields of expertise, such as Salman Rushdie. AA Publications produces the journal, AA Files, the AA Book, known as the Projects Review, which annually documents the work undertaken by members of the school from Foundation to Graduate programmes. AA publications are designed and edited by the AA Print Studio established in 1971 as part of the Communications Unit directed by Dennis Crompton of Archigram; the school had its own independent radio station. Howard Robertson Alvin Boyarsky Alan Balfour Roger Zogolovitch Mohsen Mostafavi Brett Steele Samantha Hardingham Eva Franch i Gilabert John Summerson, The Architectural Association 1847–1947.
Official website Bedford Press AA Publications
Malacosoma californicum, the western tent caterpillar, is a moth of the family Lasiocampidae. It is a tent caterpillar; the Western Tent Caterpillar is found in southern Canada, the western United States, parts of northern Mexico. There are six recognized subspecies of M. californicum. Western tent caterpillars are gregarious and will spend a large portion of their time with other caterpillars in silken tents constructed during their larval stage. Western tent caterpillars are univoltine. Adults emerge in the late summer to lay eggs. Adult moths will preferentially lay their eggs on the sunny side of their host trees. Eggs will hatch the following spring. Population sizes of western tent caterpillar can reach outbreak proportions, where populations reach high numbers and large scale defoliation occurs. Severe outbreaks can cause defoliation of host trees however, damage to trees is minimal and most trees will grow their leaves back quickly; the mature Western Tent caterpillar pre-pupa is 4-5 centimeters long.
The caterpillars are black, grey, or white with an orange stripe running longitudinally across the body. There are blue-white lines on each segment with dispersed setae extruding from the body. Pupae are 2-2.5 centimeters and reddish-brown to black in colour. Pupae spin a white silken cocoon, powdered in white and yellow. Adults have wingspan between 3.5-5 centimeters. Moths are brown, tan or grey, with two lighter or darker lines crossing the body. Western tent caterpillar larvae are generalist herbivores. However, diet preference is dependent on geographical location; the tree in which a female deposits the eggs is where the larvae will choose to feed. The most common host plants that caterpillars feed on are leaves from stonefruit trees. However, larvae will feed on many other types of tree foliage. Adult moths do not live for 1 -- 4 days. Western tent caterpillars are ectothermic, therefore they do not produce their own body heat and are influenced by environmental temperatures. Larvae are thought to thermoregulate by basking in the sun and staying in close groups to elevate body temperature.
Increasing body temperature helps accelerate development time of caterpillars. Early instar caterpillars remain as a family in silken tents. Aggregations of caterpillars are to discourage predation, increase temperature, forage for food. During late instars caterpillars require more food resulting in a solitary behaviour. Caterpillars feed independently, do not use tents for shelter. Moths will mate in mid-summer. Male-male competition will ensue for females. Females lay a clutch of eggs sired by multiple males. A single band of eggs is laid around the circumference of the branch. A single egg band can contain hundreds of eggs. Nuclear polyhedrosis virus is a virus that affects insects butterflies and moths. NPV has shown to decrease cause death; the body of larvae that die from NPV become liquidy. Increased temperatures has shown to increase the prevalence of this virus. NPV can be transferred from parent from individuals that come into physical contact. Additionally, caterpillars can contract NPV by coming in contact with silk strands from other larvae.
NPV infections does not always kill the caterpillar and survival is much more in late instar caterpillar. NPV infected caterpillars have reduced fecundity. Outbreaks are caused. Population outbreaks of western tent caterpillar occur in cycles every 6–11 years. Severe outbreaks can cause defoliation of host trees however, most trees will grow their leaves back quickly. Outbreaks of western tent caterpillar can cause large scale defoliation of trees; the caterpillars are considered by many to be a problem sizes. However, outbreaks of larvae are considered to be more of a nuisance than a problem and does not negatively affect forest health because trees are able to regrow leaves quickly. Human suppression of western tent caterpillars is most successful when intervening before high population numbers are reached; the exact cause of population outbreaks is not understood, but a combination of many factors are believed to play a role in population fluctuations such as weather and virus. However, NPV is believed to play the largest role in the boom-and-bust of population outbreak cycles.
Outbreaks of NPV Epizootic disease play significant roles in controlling population sizes of western tent caterpillars As populations of western tent caterpillar increase the prevalence of the disease increases and causes the subsequent crash of a population. Western tent caterpillars have strong ecological interactions with their host plants; the time of caterpillar egg-hatch is timed with host plant bud-burst to ensure that early instar larvae are able to feed on leaves. However, caterpillars can hatch up to two weeks. Due to effects of climate change it is predicted that there will be a phenological asynchrony between host tree and the western tent caterpillar, characterized by advancing larval emergence; this doesn't appear to have significant effects on caterpillar larvae fitness because larvae are resistant to starvation. Malacosoma californicum ambisimile Malacosoma californicum californicum Malacosoma californicum fragile Malacosoma californicum lutescens Malacosoma californicum pluvialis Malacosoma californicum recenseo Dyar, 1928 Bugguide.net page on M. californicum iNaturalist.org page on M. californicum Youtube video of M. californicum larvae near Saint
Phool is a 1993 Bollywood film directed by Singeetam Srinivasa Rao starring Kumar Gaurav and Madhuri Dixit in lead roles along with Sunil Dutt and Rajendra Kumar in supporting roles. The film is produced by actor Rajendra Kumar, the father of Kumar Gaurav, both in real life and in the film; this film marked Rajendra Kumar's final film appearance. Dharamraaj and Balram Choudhary are two friends. Dharamraaj lives with his mom and son and Balram live with his wife Savitri and a daughter Guddi. To cement their friendship both fathers fix their children's wedding; this event is blessed by Mouni Baba from the local Shiv Mandir, whose predictions have never been proved to be wrong. Dharamraaj goes to Bombay to be a businessman and Raju is sent to a hostel and to America for further studies. Years Dharamraaj informs Balram that the marriage cannot take place. Balram returns home with this news and in shock, his wife Savitri passes away. Romance enters Guddi's life. Balram disapproves of Gopal meeting Guddi secretly.
Gopal promises. When Gopal does not return, Guddi goes to Mouni Baba and is told that Gopal has not been true to her. Gopal reveals that he is Raju. Guddi swears never to speak about Raju or his family again. Guddi's father arranges her marriage to a local troublemaker and Raju begins to drink, upset that he has been thrown out of Guddi's life. Balram has Raju arrested and locked up to prevent him from interfering with the wedding. Dharamraaj turns up at Balram's house to try and save his son and finds out Balram is set to wed his daughter. Raju abducts Guddi on her wedding day. After Guddi's fiancée catches up with Raju, a fight ensues and Raju overpowers and takes Guddi to the local temple to get married. Guddi tells him that she hates him. Raju gives her a gun and tells her if she does hate him to shoot and kill him. Raju is shot but it is not Guddi who has shot him but a local madman, in love with Guddi. Guddi confesses her love for Raju. Balram and Dharamraaj turn up at the end to save Raju from the bullet wound.
In the end, he is saved and he ends up marrying Guddi. Sunil Dutt as Balram Choudhary Rajendra Kumar as Dharamraaj Madhuri Dixit as Guddi Kumar Gaurav as Karamraj'Raju' / Gopal Shakti Kapoor as Munna Akash Khurana as Rajeshwar Dayal Maya Alagh as Savitri Rajni Bala Naina Behl Ram Mohan as Lalaji Babloo Mukherjee as Karamraj's friend Dina Pathak as Dharamraaj's mom Raju Shrestha as Daboo Kirti Singh as Kitty Tiku Talsania as Santosh The music for the film is composed by Anand Milind while lyrics are penned by Anand Bakshi. Phool on IMDb Cult of Kumar