Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to a group of styles of architecture which emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II. The revolution in materials came first, with the use of cast iron, plate glass, the cast plate glass process was invented in 1848, allowing the manufacture of very large windows. The Crystal Palace by Joseph Paxton at the Great Exhibition of 1851 was an example of iron and plate glass construction, followed in 1864 by the first glass. These developments together led to the first steel-framed skyscraper, the ten-story Home Insurance Building in Chicago, the iron frame construction of the Eiffel Tower, the tallest structure in the world, captured the imagination of millions of visitors to the 1889 Paris Universal Exposition. French industrialist François Coignet was the first to use iron-reinforced concrete, in 1853 Coignet built the first iron reinforced concrete structure, a four story house in the suburbs of Paris.
Another important technology for the new architecture was electric light, which reduced the inherent danger of fires caused by gas in the 19th century. This break with the past was particularly urged by the architectural theorist, for each function its material, for each material its form and its ornament. This book influenced a generation of architects, including Louis Sullivan, Victor Horta, Hector Guimard, at the end of the 19th century, a few architects began to challenge the traditional Beaux Arts and Neoclassical styles that dominated architecture in Europe and the United States. The Glasgow School of Art 1896-99) designed by Charles Rennie MacIntosh, had a facade dominated by large bays of windows. The Art Nouveau style was launched in the 1890s by Victor Horta in Belgium and Hector Guimard in France, it introduced new styles of decoration, based on vegetal and floral forms. In 1903-1904 in Paris Auguste Perret and Henri Sauvage began to use reinforced concrete, previously used for industrial structures.
Between 1910 and 1913, Auguste Perret built the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, because of the concrete construction, no columns blocked the spectators view of the stage. Otto Wagner, in Vienna, was another pioneer of the new style, in his book Moderne Arkchtekture he had called for a more rationalist style of architecture, based on modern life. Wagner declared his intention to express the function of the building in its exterior, the reinforced concrete exterior was covered with plaques of marble attached with bolts of polished aluminum. The interior was purely functional and spare, an open space of steel, glass. The Viennese architect Adolf Loos began removing any ornament from his buildings and his Steiner House, in Vienna, was an example of what he called rationalist architecture, it had a simple stucco rectangual facade with square windows and no ornament. The fame of the new movement, which known as the Vienna Secession spread beyond Austria. Josef Hoffmann, a student of Wagner, constructed a landmark of early modernist architecture and this residence, built of brick covered with Norwegian marble, was composed of geometric blocks, wings and a tower
Architecture of Toronto
The architecture of Toronto is most marked by its being the financial capital of Canada, as well as the political capital of Ontario. Once an important port and manufacturing centre, today Torontos economy is dominated by the service sector, the natural geography of the city provided builders with a variety of resources to build from. The most raw material was the shale layer underlying the city, making brick an especially cheap and abundant material, Toronto was traditionally a peripheral city in the architectural world, embracing styles and ideas developed in Europe and the United States with only limited local variation. A few unique styles of architecture have emerged in Toronto, such as the bay and gable style house, Toronto is built on the former lake bed of Lake Iroquois. This large flat expanse presents few natural limits to growth, and throughout its history, Toronto has sprawled outward, in 2005, the provincial government has attempted to place an artificial limit to this growth in the form of a Greenbelt around the city.
Toronto was planned out on a system with the major streets forming wide avenues. Early in the history, major avenues were established running along each concession line that separated rural landholdings. As the city outward, these routes have been maintained. Within the suburbs built since the Second World War, the system has been abandoned in favour of networks of crescents. In keeping with the dominant design ideas of the time, these are designed to reduce and slow traffic and these avenues run straight with few diversions for long stretches, and Toronto is notable for the considerable length of its major streets. Most of the go from one side of town to the other. These wide avenues that run through the central city, have made it easier for Toronto to retain a streetcar system. The most important obstacle to construction is Torontos network of ravines, city planners filled in many of the ravines, and when this was not possible, planners mostly ignored them, though today the remaining ones are embraced for their natural beauty.
Ravines have helped isolate some central neighbourhoods from the rest of the city, thanks to its vast hinterland, Toronto designers have had access to a wide array of raw materials for construction. Throughout the city most homes from all eras are made of brick, prominent landmarks have gone to greater expense and generally eschewed simple brick. Older banks and government buildings used stone, and modern attempts to marvel have embraced modern materials such as concrete and aluminum, even today, the overwhelming bulk of residential buildings constructed in Toronto are clad in brick. Sandstone was historically a readily available building material, with large deposits quarried from the Credit River valley, more expensive than brick, but more ornate, it was used for many early landmarks such as the Ontario Legislature, Old City Hall, and Victoria College. It is the material used in the unique Annex style house
Oakland /ˈoʊklənd/ is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, United States. The city was incorporated in 1852, Oaklands territory covers what was once a mosaic of California coastal terrace prairie, oak woodland, and north coastal scrub. Its land served as a resource when its hillside oak and redwood timber were logged to build San Francisco. In the late 1860s, Oakland was selected as the terminal of the Transcontinental Railroad. Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, many San Francisco citizens moved to Oakland, enlarging the citys population, increasing its housing stock and it continued to grow in the 20th century with its busy port, and a thriving automobile manufacturing industry. Oakland is known for its sustainability practices, including a top-ranking for usage of electricity from renewable resources, in addition, due to a steady influx of immigrants during the 20th century, along with thousands of African-American war-industry workers who relocated from the Deep South during the 1940s.
Oakland is the most ethnically diverse city in the country. The earliest known inhabitants were the Huchiun Indians, who lived there for thousands of years, the Huchiun belonged to a linguistic grouping called the Ohlone. In Oakland, they were concentrated around Lake Merritt and Temescal Creek, in 1772, the area that became Oakland was claimed, with the rest of California, by Spanish settlers for the King of Spain. In the early 19th century, the Spanish crown granted the East Bay area to Luis María Peralta for his Rancho San Antonio, the grant was confirmed by the successor Mexican republic upon its independence from Spain. Upon his death in 1842, Peralta divided his land among his four sons, Most of Oakland fell within the shares given to Antonio Maria and Vicente. The portion of the parcel that is now Oakland was called encinal—Spanish for oak grove—due to the oak forest that covered the area. In 1851, three men—Horace Carpentier, Edson Adams, and Andrew Moon—began developing what is now downtown Oakland, on May 4,1852, the Town of Oakland incorporated.
Two years later, on March 25,1854, Oakland re-incorporated as the City of Oakland, with Horace Carpentier elected the first mayor, the city and its environs quickly grew with the railroads, becoming a major rail terminal in the late 1860s and 1870s. In 1868, the Central Pacific constructed the Oakland Long Wharf at Oakland Point, a number of horsecar and cable car lines were constructed in Oakland during the latter half of the 19th century. The first electric streetcar set out from Oakland to Berkeley in 1891, at the time of incorporation, Oakland consisted of the territory that lay south of todays major intersection of San Pablo Avenue and Fourteenth Street. The city gradually annexed farmlands and settlements to the east and the north, Oaklands rise to industrial prominence, and its subsequent need for a seaport, led to the digging of a shipping and tidal channel in 1902. This resulted in the town of Alameda being made an island
Golden Gate Park
Golden Gate Park, located in San Francisco, United States, is a large urban park consisting of 1,017 acres of public grounds. It is administered by the San Francisco Recreation & Parks Department, configured as a rectangle, it is similar in shape but 20 percent larger than Central Park in New York, to which it is often compared. It is over three miles long east to west, and about half a mile north to south, in the 1860s, San Franciscans began to feel the need for a spacious public park similar to Central Park, which was taking shape in New York City. Golden Gate Park was carved out of unpromising sand and shore dunes that were known as the Outside Lands, conceived ostensibly for recreation, the underlying purpose of the park was housing development and the westward expansion of the city. The tireless field engineer William Hammond Hall prepared a survey and topographic map of the site in 1870. He was named Californias first state engineer and developed a flood control system for the Sacramento Valley.
The park drew its name from nearby Golden Gate Strait, the plan and planting were developed by Hall and his assistant, John McLaren, who had apprenticed in Scotland, home of many of the 19th-century’s best professional gardeners. John McLaren, when asked by the Park Commission if he could make Golden Gate Park one of the beauty spots of the world, replied saying With your aid gentleman, and God be willing, that I shall do. He promised that hed go out into the country and walk along a stream until he found a farm, and that hed come back to the garden and recreate what nature had done. In 1876, the plan was almost replaced by one for a racetrack, favored by the Big Four millionaires, Leland Stanford, Mark Hopkins, Collis P. Huntington and it was Gus Mooney who claimed land adjacent to the park on Ocean Beach. Many of Mooneys friends staked claims and built shanties on the beach to sell refreshments to the patrons of the park, Hall resigned, and the remaining park commissioners followed. In 1882 Governor George C.
Perkins appointed Frank M. Pixley founder, Pixley was adamant that the Mooneys shanties be eliminated, and he found support with the San Francisco Police for park security. Pixley favored Stanfords company by granting a lease on the route that closed the park on three sides to competition. The original plan, was back on track by 1886, Hall selected McLaren as his successor in 1887. The first stage of the development centered on planting trees in order to stabilize the dunes that covered three-quarters of the park’s area. By 1875, about 60,000 trees, mostly Eucalyptus globulus, Monterey pine, by 1879, that figure more than doubled to 155,000 trees over 1,000 acres. Later, McLaren scoured the world for trees, by correspondence and he lived in McLaren Lodge in Golden Gate Park until he died in 1943, aged 96. In 1903, a pair of Dutch-style windmills were built at the western end of the park
The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
Coit Tower, known as the Lillian Coit Memorial Tower, is a 210-foot tower in the Telegraph Hill neighborhood of San Francisco, California. The tower was proposed in 1931 as a use of Coits gift. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on January 29,2008, although an apocryphal story claims that the tower was designed to resemble a fire hose nozzle due to Coits affinity with the San Francisco firefighters of the day, the resemblance is coincidental. Coit Tower was paid for with money left by Lillie Hitchcock Coit, before December 1866, there was no city fire department, and fires in the city, which broke out regularly in the wooden buildings, were extinguished by several volunteer fire companies. Lillie Coit was one of the eccentric characters in the history of North Beach and Telegraph Hill, smoking cigars. She was a gambler and often dressed like a man in order to gamble in the males-only establishments that dotted North Beach. Lillies fortune funded the monument four years following her death in 1929 and she had a special relationship with the citys firefighters.
At the age of fifteen she witnessed the Knickerbocker Engine Co, after that Lillie became the Engine Co. mascot and could barely be constrained by her parents from jumping into action at the sound of every fire bell. After this she was riding with the Knickerbocker Engine Co. 5, especially so in street parades and celebrations in which the Engine Co. participated, through her youth and adulthood Lillie was recognized as an honorary firefighter. Two memorials were built in her name, one was Coit Tower, and the other was a sculpture depicting three firemen, one of them carrying a woman in his arms. Lillie is today the saint of San Francisco firefighters. The San Francisco County Board of Supervisors proposed that Coits bequest be used for a road at Lake Merced, Art Commission President Herbert Fleishhacker suggested a memorial on Telegraph Hill, which was approved by the estate executors. An additional $7,000 in city funds were appropriated, the winner was architect Arthur Brown, Jr, whose design was completed and dedicated on October 8,1933.
Coit Tower was listed as a San Francisco Designated Landmark in 1984, browns competition design envisioned a restaurant in the tower, which was changed to an exhibition area in the final version. The design uses three nesting concrete cylinders, the outermost a tapering fluted 180-foot shaft that supports the viewing platform, an intermediate shaft contains a stairway, and an inner shaft houses the elevator. The observation deck is 32 feet below the top, with an arcade, a rotunda at the base houses display space and a gift shop. The Coit Tower murals were done under the auspices of the Public Works of Art Project, olmsted Jr. Jose Moya del Pino and Frede Vidar
A bay window is a window space projecting outward from the main walls of a building and forming a bay in a room. Bay window is a term for all protruding window constructions. The most common inside angles are 90,135 and 150 degrees, a bay window with a flat front and angled sides is called canted. A bay window supported by a corbel, bracket or similar is called an oriel window, most medieval bay windows and up to the baroque era are oriel windows. They frequently appear as a highly ornamented addition to the rather than an organic part of it. Particularly during the Gothic period they frequently contain small house chapels, with the oriel window containing an altar, especially in Nuremberg these are even called Chörlein with the most famous example being the one from the parsonage of St. Sebaldus Church. Oriental oriel windows such as the Arab Mashrabiya are frequently made of wood, because there is a close similarity to the use of a balcony, it is difficult to define if they are indeed oriel windows or a special type of balcony.
Bay windows became a popular feature of residential Victorian architecture in the British Isles from about the 1870s. They can be found in terraced houses and detached houses as well as in blocks of flats, based on British models, their use spread to other English speaking countries like the USA, Canada and Australia. Bretèche Bay window caboose Oriel window Bow window Gagnon, gaining bonus space and light with bay windows
In American architecture, painted ladies are Victorian and Edwardian houses and buildings painted in three or more colors that embellish or enhance their architectural details. The term was first used for San Francisco Victorian houses by writers Elizabeth Pomada, about 48,000 houses in the Victorian and Edwardian styles were built in San Francisco between 1849 and 1915, and many were painted in bright colors. As one newspaper noted in 1885. red, chocolate, orange. They are painted up into uncouth panels of yellow and brown, during World War I and World War II, many of these houses were painted battleship gray with war-surplus Navy paint. Another sixteen thousand were demolished, and many others had the Victorian decor stripped off or covered with tarpaper, stucco, in 1963, San Francisco artist Butch Kardum began combining intense blues and greens on the exterior of his Italianate-style Victorian house. His house was criticized by some, but other neighbors began to copy the bright colors on their own houses.
Kardum became a designer, and he and other artists / colorists such as Tony Canaletich, Bob Buckter. By the 1970s, the colorist movement, as it was called, had changed entire streets and this process continues to this day. One of the groups of Painted Ladies is the row of Victorian houses at 710–720 Steiner Street, across from Alamo Square park. It is sometimes known as Postcard Row, the houses were built between 1892 and 1896 by developer Matthew Kavanaugh, who lived next door in the 1892 mansion at 722 Steiner Street. Terraced house Michael Larsen and Elizabeth Pomada, Painted Ladies- San Franciscos Resplendent Victorians E. P, New York,1978 Michael Larsen and Elizabeth Pomada, Daughters of Painted Ladies, E. P. Dutton, New York,1987 Michael Larsen and Elizabeth Pomada, New York Michael Larsen and Elizabeth Pomada, Americas Painted Ladies, E. P. Dutton, New York,1992 Terry Way, Victorian Homes Of San Francisco, Schiffer, PA2009 ISBN9780764332128 John Clarke Mills, Restoration of an 1890s San Francisco Victorian, Blog,2008
Conservatory of Flowers
The Conservatory of Flowers is a greenhouse and botanical garden that houses a collection of rare and exotic plants in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, California. With construction having been completed in 1879, it is the oldest building in the park and it was one of the first municipal conservatories constructed in the United States and is the oldest remaining municipal wooden conservatory in the country. It is a California Historical Landmark and a San Francisco Designated Landmark, the Conservatory of Flowers is an elaborate Victorian greenhouse with a central dome rising nearly 60 feet high and arch-shaped wings extending from it for an overall length of 240 feet. The building sits atop a slope overlooking Conservatory Valley. The structural members are articulated through one predominant form, a four-centered or Tudor arch, the Conservatory of Flowers consists of a wood structural skeleton with glass walls set on a raised masonry foundation. The entire structure has a shallow E-shaped plan that is oriented along an east-west axis, the central 60-foot high pavilion is entered through a one-story, glassed-in vestibule with a gable roof on the south side of the pavilion.
Flanking the rotunda to the east and west are one-story, symmetrical wings framed by wood arches, each wing is L-shaped in plan, with cupolas adorning the intersection of the two segments. The octagonal pavilion supports an arched roof that is, in turn, surmounted by a clerestory, the clerestory is supported by eight free-standing, wood-clad, cast-iron columns located within the rotunda and grouped in pairs. Projecting from the roof on the east, west. Between major arched structural framing members are wood muntins that hold the glass lights on their sides, the lights lap one over one another like shingles and follow the curve of the arches. From a structural perspective, the design utilizes the mechanical properties of the material. Wood is strongest along the length of the grain and weakest along the end grain, the use of short arch components with shallow radii minimized the amount of weaker-end grain exposed to structural forces. The assembly of the arch with several pieces of wood. It allowed the fabricator to set machines with guides and templates so that cutting the multiple-arch components was a simple task, the design required little material, since each individual arch component has only a shallow radius.
Moreover, by using relatively narrow widths of lumber, the chance of warping was minimized, there was an efficiency realized in transportation, as the small size of the arch components allowed them to be easily stored and shipped. The structural wood arches and their method of construction, along with the woodwork and unique lapped glazing. The Conservatory kit was bought by James Lick, a businessman, piano maker. It was intended for the City of San Jose, where Lick had built a mansion surrounded by exotic plants imported from South America, Lick died in 1876 before constructing the conservatory on his estate, and it was put up for sale by his trustees
Architecture of Vancouver
The region is where the West Coast Style of design was developed. Vancouvers cityscape and architecture have developed in response to its temperate and readily accessible natural setting of ocean and mountains. The downtown core is built on a peninsula surrounded on three sides by readily accessible waterfront beaches and walkways, all adding to its desirability of a place to live and visit. The region is in a seismic zone and seismic bracing is a significant part of both new construction and renovation. A noticeable feature of this connection to nature is the Seawall. It provides a link to the waters edge from downtown, Stanley Park, residential areas of the West End, False Creek, Vanier Park. Stanley Park itself is an 800-acre microcosm of coastal British Columbia rainforest, all within direct sight, the West Coast Style is an architectural style that first emerged in the Greater Vancouver area, seeking to incorporate the natural environment into the design of buildings. This regional variation of modernism emerged in the 1940s and continued to be an influence in residential design for the next three decades.
Nowhere else in Canada has that proof been given, Arthur Erickson, Fred Hollingsworth, Ned Pratt, and artist B. C. Binning were some of the pioneers of the movement on the west coast. Major stylistic influences were the International Style, open space plans of Japanese architecture, the work of Frank Lloyd Wright, the houses were often modest in scale and in budget. Sunshine, Extensive use of glazing was a feature, allowing the visual integration of the house into its surrounding landscape. Glass windows were beaded into structural wood members, the amount of glass was not necessarily increased but, was concentrated into wide areas facing the view and light. View and Aspect, the often substantial views were maximized with large windows, the natural materials of the region were indicative of the style, stone, wood-stud and post and beam construction with exposed roof decking underside of roofs at ceilings and eaves. Sidewalks along many shopping streets are covered with canopies, providing shelter from the rain.
Later designs of residential towers followed this lead with large glass walls. First Nations peoples had inhabited the region of Greater Vancouver for an estimated 3,000 years when the first European ships visited in 1791, when settlers arrived in the early 1800s, there were several communities of Squamish and Sto, lo peoples. Their buildings were primarily wooden longhouses, such as one in X̱wáýx̱way that reportedly measured approximately 60 meters long,20 meters wide, only replicas of these structures remain in museums and on Indian reserves in the region