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Quenelle (gesture)

The quenelle is a gesture created and popularized by French political activist and comedian Dieudonné M'bala M'bala. He first used it in 2005 in his sketch entitled "1905" about French secularism, has used it since in a wide variety of contexts; the quenelle became viral, with many photos posted to the internet showing individuals posing while performing quenelles at mundane places. In late 2013, following its use by professional footballer Nicolas Anelka during a match, Jewish leaders, anti-racism groups, public officials in France have interpreted it as an inverted Nazi salute and as an expression of antisemitism. French officials have sought to ban the gesture due to its perceived subtext of antisemitism; the name quenelle comes from a dish of elongated fish balls, said to resemble a suppository. Hence, the phrase "glisser une quenelle", with a gesture evoking fisting practice, is similar to the English insults "up yours" or "up your arse". Dieudonné first used the quenelle gesture in his 2005 show named "1905", while talking about a dolphin.

Dieudonné used the gesture in various contexts, including for his 2009 European election campaign poster for the "anti-Zionist party": he stated that his intention was "to put a quenelle into Zionism's butt". The quenelle gesture is performed by pointing one arm vertically downwards palm down, while touching the shoulder with the opposite hand. Although the quenelle is done with the hand at shoulder level, it can be done with different variations. Dieudonné described it as "a kind of up yours gesture to the establishment with an in the ass dimension, but it's a quenelle, so it's a bit softer, less violent." The quenelle became viral, with many photos posted to the internet showing individuals posing while performing quenelles at mundane places such as wedding parties, in high school classes, underwater, or in front of the Parc Astérix theme park. Following an incident in which the quenelle gesture was used by French soldiers stationed outside a synagogue in the sixteenth arrondissement of Paris, LICRA president Alain Jakubowicz wrote an open letter to Defense Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian, dated September 9, 2013, in which he described the gesture as "an inverted Nazi salute representing the sodomy of the victims of the Holocaust".

He appears in the French TV show Complément d'enquête making the same claims. Dieudonné and his lawyers filed a lawsuit against the League on December 13, 2013. Critics see quenelle salutes performed in front of prominent Holocaust landmarks and Jewish institutions as proof of the prejudiced intent of the gesture. Individuals have been photographed performing the gesture at the Auschwitz extermination camp, Alain Soral performed a quenelle in front of the Holocaust Memorial in Berlin. One man, now sought by French police, performed the quenelle at three locales connected to the murder of Jews: two at sites related to the March 2012 Toulouse shootings and the other near the Paris monument commemorating the Holocaust. According to Jean-Yves Camus, a specialist in far-right politics, the quenelle is a "badge of identity among the young, although it is difficult to say whether they understand its meaning". Camus stated that Dieudonné has become the focus of a "broad movement, anti-system and prone to conspiracy theories, but which has antisemitism as its backbone".

Camus sees the quenelle as a gesture against the conspiracy theory of the existence of an international "Jewish conspiracy". For him, it is an antisemitic gesture. Dieudonné describes himself as an anti-Zionist, but not an antisemite, he stated that the quenelle is a humorous "anti-system" gesture which has no association with antisemitism, Suit against unknown, those who compare the quenelle to a Nazi salute. On January 23, 2014 Dieudonné subsequently described the gesture as being a sign of "emancipation" for people descended from slaves. French authorities said the gesture is too vague for them to take any action against Dieudonné. However, an official January 2014 circular issued by the Interior Ministry linked the quenelle gesture to antisemitism and extremism. In August 2017, the Swiss Federal Supreme Court confirmed the conviction of three Geneva men for showing the quenelle in front of a synagogue, while masked and in military uniform; the men incurred a suspended monetary penalty for violating a Swiss law prohibiting acts of public racism.

Various public figures such as the French basketball player Tony Parker, footballer Nicolas Anelka and National Front founder Jean-Marie Le Pen were pictured making the gesture. A new trend emerged, consisting of performing quenelles beside unwitting public figures identified as members of the establishment or in front of the media's cameras. TV host Yann Barthès publicly apologized for quenelles made by someone in the audience during his show and revealed the identity of the author. Shortly afterwards, a picture of Yann Barthès himself performing a quenelle surfaced on social networks. Barthès argued. Several people have been fired for having published photos of them performing quenelles and some people have been assaulted for the same reason. Two teenagers were arrested for having performed a quenelle at school. While Dieudonné said in August 2013 that "the quenelle had taken on a life of its own and had become something he could no longer claim as his exclusively", his wife Noémie Montagne registered the quenelle as a trademark with the French National Industrial Property Institute.

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Ignatius Anthony Catanello

Ignatius Anthony Catanello was an American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. From 1994 to 2010 he served as an auxiliary bishop of the Diocese of Brooklyn. One of two children, Catanello was born in Brooklyn, New York, July 23, 1938 to Nicholas Catanello and Mary DeFalco, he attended Most Holy Trinity High School in Williamsburg. After high school he entered the novitiate of the Order of Augustinian Recollects in Kansas City and spent a year in their seminary before deciding to pursue the life of a secular priest, he returned to New York for studies at Cathedral College, the college-level seminary of the Brooklyn Diocese. He attended St. Francis College, from where he earned a Bachelor's degree, he did his theological studies at Immaculate Conception Seminary in Huntington. Catanello was ordained to the priesthood by Bishop Bryan McEntegart on May 28, 1966, he ministered successively in the parishes of Long Island City. Throughout his early priesthood, Catanello pursued graduate degrees, earning a Master's degree in both theology and counseling from St. John's University and a doctorate in religious studies from New York University.

For 27 years he taught theology at St. John's as an adjunct professor, the university honored him with its President's Medal in 1975 and an honorary doctorate of law in 1989, he received the Distinguished Service Award of LaGuardia College, recognizing his work with the school in its early years. In the mid-1970s, he was president of both the diocesan Priests' Senate and the Priests' Councils of New York. Named episcopal vicar for the Queens South Vicariate in 1988 and a monsignor in 1989, he served in that work until 1991 when he was named principal-rector of Cathedral Preparatory Seminary in Elmhurst. On June 28, 1994, Catanello was appointed an Auxiliary Bishop of Brooklyn and Titular Bishop of Deultum by Pope John Paul II, he received his consecration on the following August 22 from Bishop Thomas Daily, with Bishops Joseph Sullivan and René Valero, serving as co-Consecrators, at Our Lady of Perpetual Help Basilica. As an auxiliary bishop, he served as Vicar for Clergy and Vicar for Consecrated Life and Apostolic Organizations.

He spent nearly a decade as chairman of the diocesan Ecumenical and Interreligious Commission and was president of the Priests Senate. It was Catanello's involvement in interfaith and ecumenical activities for a decade as chairman of the diocesan Ecumenical Commission that prepared him for an appointment as a consultant to the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops' Subcommittee on Inter-religious Dialogue, his particular emphasis was on Catholic-Islamic conversations among leaders of both faiths ministering in the Eastern United States. According to Monsignor Guy Massie, chairperson for the Ecumenical and Inter-Faith Commission for the Roman Catholic Diocese of Brooklyn, Bishop Catanello had good relationships with the local Jewish communities of Brooklyn and Queens. Catanello served as the episcopal moderator of the National Association of Holy Name Societies, based in Baltimore, Maryland. Catanello took up residence at Holy Family Parish, New York, in 1989 and was appointed as its pastor in 2007.

On September 20, 2010, Pope Benedict XVI accepted Catanello's resignation as an active bishop, submitted for reasons of health. At the same time, he retired from Holy Family Parish with the title of Pastor Emeritus. Catanello died on March 11, 2013, was buried in the Bishops' Crypt of the Immaculate Conception Center; the Most Reverend Nicholas DiMarzio, Bishop of Brooklyn, praised Bishop Catanello’s long service to the Church. “For 47 years, ‘Bishop Iggy’ as so many fondly knew him as, faithfully served the people of the Diocese of Brooklyn.... Bishop Catanello’s favorite phrase was, ‘OK pal.’ I know that he is OK now.” As a lasting tribute to the bishop, Holy Family parish is installed a new stained-glass window of St. Ignatius of Antioch, the bishop’s patron saint, in the sacristy; the City Of New York announced that it renamed 74th Avenue between 175th Street and Utopia Parkway in Fresh Meadows Bishop Ignatius A. Catanello Way; the ceremony took place June 7 at the Holy Family Church at 175-20 74th Ave. in Fresh Meadows

Frances Little

Frances Little was the pseudonym of American author Fannie Caldwell. Caldwell and her husband, businessman James D. Macaulay, made their home on Fourth Street in Louisville, Kentucky, her debut book The Lady of the Decoration was published in New York City in 1906 and would be her most successful work. The "Lady" rode the wave of American interest and support for Japan in the Russo-Japanese War, supports the Japanese cause throughout. Set between 1901 and 1905, it is written in the form of letters home to sister; the main character is a young missionary kindergarten teacher in Hiroshima, Japan who before and during the Russo-Japanese War. She travels to Vladivostock, Russia just before the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War and makes a number of critical observations. At the dawn of the 20th Century, most Americans knew little of Japan, Little's novel presented a view of Japanese life that captured the imagination of the reading public, who made it the No.1 bestselling novels in the United States for 1907.

In December 2005, the Project Gutenberg published "Mr. Bamboo and the Honorable Little God, A Christmas Story" under her own married name of Fannie C. Macaulay. According to the dedication in Little Sister Snow, Little was the aunt of the author Alice Hegan Rice Fannie Caldwell was born in Shelbyville, Kentucky to Judge James Lafayette and Mary Lettia Caldwell on November 22, 1863. Fannie received an education from Science Hill Academy. Fannie and her husband lived on South Fourth Street in Kentucky. Before becoming a writer she was a kindergarten teacher in Louisville from 1899 to 1902 but after her divorce she traveled abroad and became the "supervisor of normal classes, kindergartens, at Hiroshima, from 1902 to 1907". During her time in Japan she wrote letters to Alice Hegan Rice. Alice decided to turn the letters into a book, after removing any personal details and creating the pseudonymous name of Frances Little by reversing Fannie's "family name'Little Fan'"; the title was inspired by the children that Fannie taught who called her their "Lady of the Decoration" every time that she "pinned on her little enameled watch".

Fannie returned to Kentucky and lectured on Japan and continued to write books after the success of The Lady of the Decoration. On January 6, 1941 Fannie passed away due to influenza at the Jewish Hospital in Louisville, Kentucky, she was buried in Cave Hill Cemetery in Louisville. The Lady of the Decoration Little Sister Snow The Lady and Sada San Camp Jolly House of the Misty Star Jack and I in Lotus Land Early American textiles Works by Frances Little at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Frances Little at Internet Archive Works by Frances Little at LibriVox


Jirishanca is a 6,094-metre-high mountain in the Huayhuash mountain range in west central Peru, part of the Andes. Other sources cite a height of 6,125 metres, it is the third in the Huayhuash range. Jirishanca translates as "hummingbird bill peak"; the mountain is notoriously difficult and has seen few successful ascents. The first ascent in July 1957 by the Austrian mountaineers Toni Egger and Siegfried Jungmair over the east face has been called "one of the boldest climbing feats performed in the Cordillera", their route has only been repeated once. In 1964 Gary Colliver and Glen Denny of an American expedition climbed the north ridge to the lower north summit, but a traverse over the "cockscomb of ice" connecting to the main summit has so far not been attempted. On July 6, 1969, an Italian team led by the 60-year-old Riccardo Cassin forged the first route through the West face. On July 31, 1971 the Americans Dean Caldwell and Jon Bowlin first climbed the southwest face in two days. Leaving their expedition below and Caldwell forged their own route and reached the peak on August 1, were back at base camp by August 2.

In 1973, a Japanese team led by Masayuki Shinohara succeeded in climbing the south east face for the first time, though it took them 49 days. It is one of the hardest 6000 meter mountains of the Andes; the easier route to the summit is quoted TD but more difficult routes exist, many on them on vertical ice and with overhanging section of mixed terrain such as the Cassin route

INS Romach (1981)

INS Romach is an Israeli missile boat, one of ten Sa'ar 4.5-class missile boats. She was launched in 1981 by Israel Shipyards at the Port of Haifa, she has been a part of Israeli Navy since October 1981. Sa'ar 4.5-class missile boats are a bigger version of the Sa'ar 4 class. New ships were longer, so they take an augmented armament. INS Romach was built at the Israel Shipyards in Port of Haifa, she was launched on 30 October 1981. The length of INS Romach is 61.7 metres, the breadth is 7.6 metres and the draught is 2.5 metres. Romach, as other Sa'ar 4.5-class missile boats, has a flush deck, short superstructure located in front of the midship and freeboard. The main propulsion machinery are four compression-ignition MTU 16V538 TB93 engines, the total power of them is 16,000 horsepower; the flank speed of this ship is 31 knots. The full load displacement is 488 tonnes; the primary armament is two quadruple launchers of American Harpoon anti-ship missiles, allocated directly behind the superstructure.

The missile is able to reach 130 km, the speed is Mach 0.9 and the weight of the warhead is 227 kg. There are six single launchers of Israeli Gabriel Mark II missiles allocated behind them with a 75 kg warhead and a range of about 36 km. In service, the Israeli Navy set two 8-fold anti-aircraft Barak 1 launchers with the range of a projectile of 10 km, making the armament identical to one in INS Hetz; the secondary armament consists of single, dual purpose gun OTO Melara 76 mm, allocated abaft in a gun turret. The weight of the projectile is 6 kg, the range is 16 km and the rate of fire is 85 rounds per minute; the angle of elevation is 85°. There are two single Oerlikon 20 mm cannon with a range of 2 km and rate of fire of 900 RPM and one double station for M2 Browning machine guns; the bow is armed with close-in weapon system, Phalanx CIWS. The rate of fire is 3,000 RPM, the range is 1,500 m