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The ecclesiastical title of archpriest or archpresbyter belongs to certain priests with supervisory duties over a number of parishes. The term is most used in Eastern Orthodoxy and Eastern Catholic Churches and may be somewhat analogous to a monsignor in the Latin Church, but in the Eastern Churches an archpriest wears an additional vestment and a pectoral cross, one becomes an archpriest via a liturgical ceremony; the term may be used in the Roman Catholic Church instead of vicar forane. In the 16th and 17th centuries, during the persecution of Catholics in England, an archpriest appointed from Rome had authority over all of the church's secular clergy in the country. In the present-day Church of England, a rural or area dean resembles an archpriest. In the Roman Catholic church traditionally a priest's first Mass has an archpriest assisting the newly ordained priest, functioning as the deacon otherwise does, but this is only for that event. In ancient times, the archdeacon was the head of the diaconate of a diocese, as is still the case in the Eastern Orthodox Church, while the archpriest was first the chief of the presbyterium of the diocese.

His duties included deputising for the bishop in spiritual matters. In the western church, by the Middle Ages, the title had evolved and was that of the priest of the principal parish among several local parishes; this priest had general charge of worship in this archpresbyterate, the parishioners of the smaller parishes had to attend Sunday Mass and hold baptisms at the principal parish while the subordinate parishes instead held daily mass and homilies. Exceptionally, the pope could elevate one to the rank of archipresbyterate nullius, detached from any prelature, yet under a non-prelate, as happened in 1471 with the future abbacy and bishopric of Guastalla. By the time of the Council of Trent the office of archpriest was replaced by the office of vicar forane known in English as "dean"; the first recorded use of this meaning of the title comes from St Charles Borromeo's reforms in his own diocese. Unlike vicars general and vicars episcopal, vicars forane are not prelates, which means they do not possess ordinary power.

Their role is supervisory, they perform visitations for the bishop and report to the bishop or vicar general any problems in their vicariate. From late Elizabethan England until 1623, an archpriest was appointed from Rome to oversee the Roman Catholic Church's mission in England, with authority over all secular clergy in the country; the title of archpriest has survived in Rome, in Malta and elsewhere, where it is now held by the rectors of the major basilicas. However, the title is honorary, reflecting the fact that these churches held archpriestly status in the past. There are four archpriests, for each of the four papal major basilicas in Rome, all of whom presently are bishops: Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls St. Peter's BasilicaMany churches in the world, other than basilicas, have the right to be governed by an archpriest, according to the specific historical tradition. Hence, the title is honorary. Today, the archpriest has no control over the subordinate clergy.

The use of "archpriest" in Roman Catholicism should not be confused with "protopriest", the senior Cardinal-Priest in the College of Cardinals. In the Church of England there is the Archpriest of Haccombe; the appointment a Roman Catholic one predating the Reformation, was first made in AD 1315 and has been held since. It was confirmed by an Order in Council on 1 April 1913 under King George V; the title reflects the fact that the archpriest has the right to sit beside the bishop and acknowledges no authority below that of the Archbishop of Canterbury, although today, it is more appropriate to go through the usual channels of the church's hierarchy. Haccombe is a village in Devon, near Newton Abbot where the parish is combined with that of Stoke-in-Teignhead with Combe-in-Teignhead. There is an hereditary patron for the Church of Haccombe; the modern office most resembling that of archpriest is the role of rural dean or area dean. Like the archpriest of old, these officers have supervisory duties, but not ordinary jurisdiction, are entitled to carry out visitations of subordinate parishes when so commissioned.

With this in mind, although the Archpriest of Haccombe holds a unique role in the Church of England, it must be considered analogous with certain incumbencies which bear the title "Dean" regardless of whether or not their incumbent is the actual rural or area dean. One example of this historical oddity is the office of Dean of Bocking in Essex. Archpriest protopope or protopresbyter, is a clerical rank, a title of honor given to non-monastic priests and is conferred by a bishop with the laying on of hands and prayer. An archpriest wears an epigonation, a vestment worn only by bishops. An archpriest wears a pectoral cross both as part of his street clothes and when vested; the ceremony for making an archpriest is analogous to other clerical promotions bestowed with cheirothesia: at the little entrance of the divine liturgy, the candidate is conducted to the ambo in the middle of the church where the bishop is at the time, the bishop blesses him and says a prayer addressed to Christ asking to "... endue our brother with Thy Grace, adorn him

Lycée Français de Chicago

The Lycee Francais de Chicago is a private French international school in Lincoln Square, Illinois. It offers a dual English curriculum; the Lycée is founded on the French National Curriculum as defined by the French Ministry of Education and complemented by an English language program in addition to foreign language courses. The private school was founded in 1995 by a group of French and American parents, with backing from French businesses and the support of the Consul General of France in Chicago; the Lycée is accredited by the French Ministry of Education and is listed on the official directory of the French Schools in Foreign Countries as part of the AEFE French worldwide network which includes over 450 schools outside France. The school is registered with the Illinois Board of Education and accredited by the Independent School Association of Central States; the Lycée Français de Chicago opened with 134 students. Today the school has over 700 American and foreign national students representing more than 30 nationalities, including French, Italian, Austrian, Norwegian, Greek, Polish, Hungarian, Turkish, Canadian, Scottish, Croatian, South African, Haitian and many more.

The Lycée is funded in part by the AEFE, l'Agence pour l'Enseignement Française à l'Étranger, but remains an private school with no connection to the French Government. The school is run by the Board of Trustees, composed of parents and alumni, but day-to-day operations are overseen by Éric Veteau, the head of the school, Sévrine Fougerol, the head of Secondary, Pascal Léon, the head of Primary. In 2015, the Lycée moved to a new campus designed by STL Architects on the corner of Damen Avenue and Wilson Avenues in Ravenswood, west of the previous campus in Uptown; the school has a structural curriculum mandated by the French Ministry of Education and an English curriculum developed using guidelines from the National Council of Teachers of English and the State of Illinois. The program conforms to the French system, it is broken down into subdivisions that correspond to those in the American school system: pre-kindergarten, junior kindergarten and kindergarten, elementary school, middle school, high school.

The program from pre-K through 5th grade is divided into cycles: cycle 1, cycle 2 and cycle 3. Middle school comprises grade 6 through 9. Instruction is structured according to subjects: French, mathematics, geography, biology, art and physical education. Beginning in grade 7 students study physics and Latin. Starting in fourth grade, students learn a third language, either Spanish, or German; as part of the language curriculum, each language class does a cultural exchange for two weeks with another French school in the country they are studying. In high school, they are given the opportunity to do a three-month study abroad trip. Middle school offers the OIB curriculum, the International Baccalaureate Option, which focuses in addition to French history and literature on American and world history and literature. Grades 10, 11 and 12 define high school in the French system and those 3 years are known as lycée. During the lycée years students choose a track with emphasis on different courses: track L, ES or S, which, as the French Department of Education reforms its curriculum, is set to change in 2021.

The lycée years, as well as the curriculum as a whole, prepare the students for the French general Baccalaureate examination and the international option of the French Baccalaureate. With the Baccalaureate degree, students of the Lycée Français de Chicago can enter selective American or European schools, colleges, or universities; the Lycee offers the International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme and Diploma Programme for English-speaking high school students. Th Agence pour l'enseignement français à l'étranger Education in France International Baccalaureate European BaccalaureateAmerican schools in France: American School of Paris - An American international school in France American School of Grenoble Lycée Français de Chicago

German–Soviet Credit Agreement (1939)

The German–Soviet Credit Agreement was an economic arrangement between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union whereby the latter received an acceptance credit of 200 million Reichsmark over 7 years with an effective interest rate of 4.5 percent. The credit line was to be used during the next two years for purchase of capital goods in Germany and was to be paid off by means of Soviet material shipment from 1946 onwards; the economic agreement was the first step toward improvement in relations between the Soviet Union and Germany. The next day after the Credit Agreement, the Soviet Union went to war against Japan, in a successful four-week military campaign in the Far East; the Nazi-Soviet Pact was signed four days after the Credit Agreement. The 1939 German–Soviet Commercial Agreement renewed declined Nazi–Soviet economic relations and was adjusted and expanded with the larger German–Soviet Commercial Agreement in February 1940 and January 1941 German–Soviet Border and Commercial Agreement. German shipments to the Soviets became tardy and failed to provide all, promised the closer the date of Barbarossa came.

The Soviets fulfilled their obligations to the letter right up until the invasion, wanting to avoid provoking Germany. All these agreements were terminated when Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, in violation of the treaties between the two countries. Soviet trade with Germany in the pre-invasion period ended up providing the Germans with many of the resources they needed for their invasion of the Soviet Union. Germany lacks natural resources, including several key raw materials needed for economic and military operations. Since the late 19th century, it had relied upon Russian imports of such materials. Before World War I, Germany imported 1.5 billion Reichsmarks of raw materials and other goods per year from Russia. Such imports fell after World War I. In the early 1930s, Soviet imports decreased as the more isolationist Stalinist regime asserted power and dwindling adherence to the disarmament requirements of the Treaty of Versailles decreased Germany's reliance on Soviet imports.

The rise to power of the Nazi Party increased tensions between Germany and the Soviet Union, with Nazi racial ideology casting the Soviet Union as populated by "untermenschen" ethnic Slavs ruled by their "Jewish Bolshevik" masters. With rising tensions, in the mid-1930s, the Soviet Union made repeated efforts to reestablish closer contacts with Germany. Which were rebuffed by Hitler. Relations further declined in 1936, when Germany supported the Fascist Spanish Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War, while the Soviets supported the socialist-led Spanish Republic opposition; the same year and Japan entered the Anti-Comintern Pact. Stalinist purges disrupted Soviet diplomacy. By the late 1930s, because an autarkic economic approach or an alliance with Britain were impossible, Germany needed to arrange closer relations with the Soviet Union, if not just for economic reasons alone. Germany lacked key supplies, such as oil and food, metal ores and rubber, for which it relied upon Soviet supply or transit, had to look to Russia and Romania.

Moreover, Germany's food requirements would grow further if it conquered nations that were net food importers. Soviet imports of Ukrainian grains or Soviet transshipments of Manchurian soybeans could make up the shortfall. Meanwhile, the Soviet Union required, in the short term, military equipment and weapon designs to strengthen the weakened Red Army and Red Navy; the Soviet transportation network was woefully underdeveloped, with roads approaching non-existence and rail lines stretched to their limits. After the Anschluss in mid-1938, economic reconciliation was hampered by political tension and Hitler's increasing hesitance to deal with the Soviet Union. However, German needs for military supplies and Soviet needs for military machinery increased after the Munich Agreement. In October 1938, Germany started pushing for expansion of economic ties between the two countries and presented a plan to the Soviets on December 1, 1938. Stalin, was not willing to sell his strong economic bargaining position for the small price that Hitler was willing to offer.

The Soviets were willing to engage in talks discussing a new German offer in February and March 1939 in Moscow. Germany put the talks on hold in mid-March. A few days thereafter, Germany occupied Czechoslovakia and the Klaipėda Region, making a German war with Poland far more likely. Germany and the Soviet Union discussed entering into an economic deal throughout early 1939. During spring and summer 1939, the Soviets negotiated a political and military pact with France and Britain, while at the same time talking with German officials about a potential political Soviet–German agreement. On April 7, Soviet diplomat Georgii Astakhov stated to the German Foreign Ministry that there was no point in continuing the German–Soviet ideological struggle and that the two countries could come to an agreement. Ten days Soviet ambassador Alexei Merekalov met with German State Secretary Ernst Weizsacker and presented him a note requesting speedy removal of any obstacles for fulfillment of military contracts signed between Czechoslovakia and the USSR before the former was occupied by Germany.

According to German accounts, at the end of the discussion the ambassador stated "there exists for Russia no reason why she should not live with us on a normal footing. And from normal the relations might become better and better." Other sources claim that it could be an exaggeration or inaccurate recounting o

Montserrat College of Art

Montserrat College of Art is a private residential college specializing in the visual arts and located in Beverly, Massachusetts. The school was established in 1970 as Montserrat School of Visual Arts and offered a diploma program; the school was founded by the North Shore Community Arts Foundation, a civic group that managed the North Shore Music Theatre. Gloucester artist and former head of the Fine Arts Department at New England School of Art and Design Joseph Jeswald was chosen to serve as the school's first president and North Shore Music Theatre founder Stephen Slane was named managing director; the school was accredited as a college and authorized to award the bachelor of fine arts degree in the mid-1980s, at which time it changed to its current name. In 1992 the school moved to its present location off Cabot Street on Essex Street in the Hardie Building, a renovated 19th century school building that serves as the center of the campus. In 2016, the college campus consists of twelve academic and residential owned or leased buildings in and around historic, downtown Beverly, MA, a few blocks from the Atlantic Ocean.

In early 2015 Montserrat College of Art explored a possible merger with Salem State University, a much larger public institution in a neighboring city. After some months of research and negotiations the proposal was found to be not feasible and the plan was dropped in summer 2015; the campus includes the central Hardie Building located on 23 Essex Street. A residence hall, the Helena J. Sturnick Student Residence Village, was constructed and opened for the start of the fall 2009 semester; the school emphasizes the positives of its small size, which allows more academic attention to the progress of each individual student. Montserrat has an active student body of 370 students as of Fall 2018. Montserrat offers Bachelor of Fine Arts degrees, along with optional Creative Writing, Art History, Art Education minors, it offers non-credit classes for adults and teens, for-credit summer programs for high school students. A S. T. E. A. M. Program, an educational approach to learning that uses Science, Engineering, the Arts and Mathematics as access points for guiding student inquiry and critical thinking, is offered in the summer to students in grades three through eight.

The college has articulation agreements with several community colleges. The college has study abroad programs in Italy; each study abroad program lasts around one month overseas, features different kinds of classes for students, ex. in Niigata students study printmaking and in Viterbo students study En plein air illustration. Montserrat is home to four, public galleries which are open to the public; the galleries exhibit works by international, national and local artists and each exhibition provides opportunities for the public to meet and hear the artists discuss their work. The college has been hosting the 6th Essex District Congressional High School Art competition since 1995; the competition is open to all public and home-schooled students in grades 10-12 and the work of each year's winner is sent to Washington DC to be displayed at the capitol for the following year. Every spring the college holds a fundraising art art auction, the college's major event benefiting student scholarship; the college galleries exhibit the work of prominent international and regional contemporary artists and offer free lectures and events intended to take art education beyond the college's classrooms.

Among the college's alumni are sculptor Carlos Dorrien and painter Carol Schlosberg Official website

A Challenge for Robin Hood

A Challenge for Robin Hood is a 1967 British adventure film directed by C. M. Pennington-Richards and starring Barrie Ingham, Peter Blythe and John Arnatt. Barrie Ingham as Robin de Courtenay, alias Robin Hood Peter Blythe as Sir Roger de Courtenay John Arnatt as the Sheriff of Nottingham Gay Hamilton as Lady Marian Fitzwarren John Gugolka as Stephen Fitzwarren, the boy James Hayter as Friar Tuck Eric Flynn as Alan-a-Dale Reg Lye as Much Leon Greene as Little John Douglas Mitchell as Will Scarlett Eric Woofe as Henry de Courtenay John Harvey as Wallace, Sir Roger's chief henchman Arthur Hewlett as Edwin, the castle steward John Graham as Justin, a loyal guard Jenny Till as The Imposter Lady Marian William Squire as Sir John de Courtenay Norman Mitchell as Dray Driver Alfie Bass as The Pie Seller Donald Pickering as Sir Jamyl de Penitone The New York Times wrote, "Challenge for Robin Hood is should make ideal viewing for lads, from little sprouts up to about 14... The screenplay by Peter Bryan fiddles a bit with the old Robin Hood legend, but it is a snug story and the dialogue has bite and humor...

C. M. Pennington-Richards, has piloted the action with crackle, the musical score is fine and the color ranges from good to beautiful...the modest budget shows." According to Fox records, the film required $950,000 in rentals to break and by 11 December 1970 had made $675,000. A Challenge for Robin Hood on IMDb

Notre Dame Rugby Football Club

The Notre Dame Rugby Football Club is the official rugby football club at the University of Notre Dame. It is the oldest collegiate rugby club in the Midwest and plays in the Division 1-A Rugby, one of the highest levels of college rugby in the U. S. Evidence of rugby matches being played at Notre Dame's Carter Field date back to the 1890s marking the sports origin at the university contemporaneous to that of the university's football team; the modern Notre Dame Rugby Football Club was founded in 1961 as one of the first collegiate rugby clubs in the Midwest. In the spring of 1962, Notre Dame narrowly defeated Wisconsin in the first club rugby match played in the Midwest. In 1963, the Notre Dame Rugby Football Club was founded as a club sport; the team was founded by Bob Mier, a student who participated in the Wisconsin game the previous spring. With supervising faculty member and acting head coach Kenneth Featherstone, the team formed and competed in the Midwest Conference. In April 1968, the Fighting Irish, chaperoned by Professor Peter Brady, traveled to Ireland for several exhibition matches.

They went 2-3 against Irish teams, including losses to the Dublin League Champions and runner-up, Delvin. Notre Dame was defeated by University College Cork but gained victories over the Limerick Rovers and Thurles; the Fighting Irish traveled to Ireland again in March 1974. On this trip, Notre Dame went 2-2, losing to Tralee and again to University College Cork while defeating another Limerick team, the Bohemians, University College Dublin. After suffering a losing record their first season, the A-side went on to have 3 winning seasons obtaining a 53-12 record; the B-side dominated its opposition obtaining a 40-1 record that included a 33-game winning streak, ended by current SuperLeague side, the Chicago Lions. During the 1965-1966 year, the Fighting Irish won the Commonwealth Cup, Nassau Invitational, Midwest Tournament, Irish Challenge Cup, the All-College Tournament; these wins resulted in the Fighting Irish being named Collegiate Rugby National Champions by Sports Illustrated. After this season, Notre Dame offered the rugby team the chance to become a varsity sport, but this was turned down via players' vote.

Notre Dame was named a "national rugby power" by the Washington Post. In the fall season of 1972, the Fighting Irish defeated longtime rival, the Chicago Lions 15-12, upsetting the 1972 Midwest Champs; the game has been considered one of the most brutal matches in recent years. One player was knocked unconscious in the first minute of play with two others being removed at half-time, one with a broken jaw and the other with a broken leg. An English official said afterwards, "I've seen teams play in Holland, on the continent, but I've never seen a team hit like Notre Dame did that day." The next week, Notre Dame won a hard-fought victory over rival and defending National Champions Palmer College of Chiropractic 16-15. The Irish finished the fall season at 11-2. During the spring season of 1973, Notre Dame beat rival Ohio State and reclaimed the Silver Cup, a trophy passed to the victor of that game; the Fighting Irish finished the spring at 12-1, winning the Midwest Championship over the Chicago Lions, but losing the National Championship to repeat champions, Palmer.

The 1975 B-Team went undefeated included a 3-0 victory over the Lions in their final game on Mark Keown's 30 yard penalty kick from the right sideline. The team was suspended by the University for violations of the code of conduct and not reinstated until the early 1980s. From 1985 to 1992 the Irish returned to regional prowess, under the coaching of Art Maerlender winning or placing in the IPRU tournament in 1985, 86, 87, 88 & 89; the 1987-88 team had a combined fall & spring record of 16-2. The team joined the Chicago Area Rugby Football Union in 1990 and made it to the Midwest final round in each year from 1990 through 1994; the late Col. John Stephens was the long-serving faculty advisor who died in 1996. Incidents the next year invoked the "double-secret probation," that resulted in the club's banishment from campus; the University placed the rugby club on probation twice in the 1980s as a result of bad behavior. The combined weight of these events and inexcusable misconduct during the 1995 spring season led to the club's disbandment on August 3, 1995.

Tom McGinty, Dave Bishop, John Friskel started a club team in the fall of 2000 dubbed the South Bend Old Boys RFC, after playing for the South Bend blues the previous year and longing for a University-affiliated team. This club was successful over the next three years at scheduling matches with high-profile teams like Michigan, Michigan State, Tennessee and competing as a self-supporting club carpooling to away games; the OIRFC was a rugby club, unaffiliated with the University of Notre Dame but was composed of Notre Dame and Indiana University of South Bend students. The club was founded in the fall of 2004 by junior, Mike Schmitt and sophomore, Don Greiwe as an attempt to take the team in a more serious direction. In their first season the Out Side Irish only managed to schedule a few games due to low numbers and accessibility, they practiced only once per week and could scrap together fifteen live bodies to play matches, however they were able to recruit a strong freshman class and the next spring managed a record of 3-4.

At the end of the 2006 season John Gallagher, Christopher Liedl, Chris Harrington put together a formal application for club status with the University. After drafting a club constitution, with the support of president Don Greiwe and vice president Brian Fallon, the club filed for official recognition. Practicing three times a w