Arctocephalus forsteri, the Australasian fur seal, South Australian fur seal, New Zealand fur seal, Antipodean fur seal, or long-nosed fur seal, is a species of fur seal found around southern Australia and New Zealand. The name New Zealand fur seal is used by English speakers in New Zealand; as of 2014, the common name long-nosed fur seal has been proposed for the population of seals inhabiting Australia. Although the Australian and New Zealand populations show some genetic differences, their morphologies are similar, thus they remain classed as a single species. After the arrival of humans in New Zealand, after the arrival of Europeans in Australia and New Zealand, hunting reduced the population near to extinction. Males have been reported as large as 160 kg. Males can be 2 metres long. Females are between 30–50 kg on average, can be as long as 1.5 metres. Pups are 3.3–3.9 kg on average, between 40 and 55 cm long. At 290 days old males are about 14.1 kg, females are about 12.6 kg. They have external ears and hind flippers that rotate forward, which visibly distinguish them from other seals.
They have a pointy nose with long pale whiskers. The fur seals are covered by two layers of fur; the coat is grey-brown on their back, lighter on their belly. Some have white tips on longer upper hairs. So called "Upland Seals" once found on Antipodes Islands and Macquarie Island have been claimed as a distinct subspecies with thicker furs by scientists although it is unclear whether these seals were genetically distinct; the species occurs in New Zealand. It is found in the coastal waters and on the offshore islands of southern Australia, from the south-west corner of Western Australia to just east of Kangaroo Island in South Australia, in southern Tasmania and the subantarctic Macquarie Island. Small populations are forming in Bass Strait and coastal waters of Victoria and southern New South Wales. Before the arrival of humans in New Zealand, the species bred around all the New Zealand mainland and its subantarctic islands. There are now established and expanding colonies around the entire South Island, on Stewart Island and all of the New Zealand subantarctic islands.
There are newly established breeding colonies on the North Island. The species can "porpoise" out of the water when travelling at sea, they can dive longer than any other fur seal. Females can dive for about 9 minutes and to a depth of about 312 metres, can dive deeper and longer in autumn and winter. Males can dive for about 15 minutes to a depth of about 380 metres. On average, the species only dives for 1–2 minutes; when they dive for food they dive deeper during the day but shallower at night, because during the day their prey migrates to deeper depths and migrates back up during the night. Lactating females alter their dive patterns in order to care for their young. Dives are shorter, from around 9 minutes down to 5 minutes. Several longer trips may be taken at first to find patches of prey; the shorter dives utilise these patches. Due to the differences in diving pattern between males and females, there is little inter-sexual competition for food sources. Males forage over continental shelf breaks in deeper water, while females utilise the continental shelf as foraging grounds.
It is believed that differences in diving abilities and depths could be the cause of some sexual dimorphism between males and females. Diving behaviour by the pups begins in the months leading up to weaning, when the pups are nursing less; the pups begin to dive from the age of 6–10 months, yet weaning is known to occur between the ages of 8 and 11 months, so the young pups do not have much time to learn to forage. The pups need to progressively develop nocturnal diving skills while they still have their mothers' milk to fall back on if dives are unsuccessful. Age, physiological development, experience are important factors for success in hunting and contribute to the development of the pups' diving ability and behaviour; this transitional period when young pups are becoming nutritionally independent while their foraging efficiency is rather low, is a time of high risk, mortality can be high. Based on scat samples, it has been found that the pups start by eating cephalopods and making their way to fish, but this may just be a result of prey availability during different times of the year.
Males vocalise through a bark or whimper, either a guttural threat, a low-intensity threat, a full threat, or a submissive call. Females growl and have a high-pitched pup attraction wail call. Pup-attraction calls allow communication from longer distances. Once together, females use olfactory recognition to confirm the pup as their own. In males, the full neck display is a non-combative posture that functions as a threat to surrounding males by which they are able to assess each other's dominance status. Females mature between 4 and 6 years old, males mature between 8 and 10 years old; these seals are polygynous. Males guard territory in late October before females arrive. Females mate only once a year, this occurs eight days postpartum for about 13 minutes on average. Females have a delayed implantation of the fertilised egg, so that implantation on the uterine wall does not occur for 3 months. Gestation occurs for 9 months Females are more aggressive near the time of birth, do not like to be approached right after birth.
Females will continue to reproduce until their death, on average between 14 and 17 years of age. Females first arrive on the shore between November and January, just a few days before giving birth, stay
Aram Wettroth Harrow is an Associate Professor of Physics in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Center for Theoretical Physics. Harrow works in quantum information science and quantum computing. Together with Avinatan Hassidim and Seth Lloyd, he designed a quantum algorithm for linear systems of equations, which in some cases exhibits an exponential advantage over the best classical algorithms; the algorithm has wide application in quantum machine learning. He is a steering committee member of Quantum Information Processing, the largest annual conference in the field of quantum computing. Harrow is a co-administrator of a free and open access scientific collaboration network, he co-runs a blog, The Quantum Pontiff. His collaborators include Charles H. Bennett. Bremner, Michael J.. "Practical Scheme for Quantum Computation with Any Two-Qubit Entangling Gate". Physical Review Letters. 89: 247902. ArXiv:quant-ph/0207072. Bibcode:2002PhRvL..89x7902B. Doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.89.247902. PMID 12484981.
Devetak, I.. J.. "A Resource Framework for Quantum Shannon Theory". IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. 54: 4587–4618. ArXiv:quant-ph/0512015. Doi:10.1109/tit.2008.928980. ISSN 0018-9448. Barak, Boaz. "Hypercontractivity, sum-of-squares proofs, their applications". STOC'12: Proceedings of the Forty-fourth Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing. ACM: 307–326. ArXiv:1205.4484. Bibcode:2012arXiv1205.4484B. Doi:10.1145/2213977.2214006. ISBN 9781450312455. Aram Harrow publications indexed by Google Scholar
Álvaro Pierri is a classical guitarist. He is a professor at the Universität für Musik und darstellende Kunst in Vienna, he received his early musical education from his mother, Ada Estades, on the piano and his aunt, Olga Pierri, on the guitar. He studied with Abel Carlevaro, the composer Guido Santórsola and at the Uruguayan National Institute of Musicology. From the age of 11 he was winning prizes in international guitar competitions, including 1st Prize in the International Guitar Competition in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1st Prize in the International Guitar Competition in Porto Alegre and the Gold Medal at the 18th International Competition by France Musique/Radio France in Paris. Pierri′s debut in the USA took place in New York and received outstanding reviews:... ”Mr. Pierri revealed an artistic maturity not encountered”... ”compared to artists as Segovia, Williams”... ”brilliant, versatile, breathtaking”. In 1983 he made his debut in Germany with the string soloists of the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, he subsequently appeared on numerous radio and television programmes produced by the German, Danish, French, Canadian and Japanese Radios.
As a musician popular with both the public and the critics, Pierri is a regular guest at the major concert halls of Europe and South America, Asia. Contemporary composers such as Leo Brouwer, Guido Santórsola, Jacques Hétu, Astor Piazzolla, Abel Carlevaro, Carlo Domeniconi and Terry Riley have written major works for Alvaro Pierri, in each case, he has premiered them brilliantly, his manifest love of chamber music has resulted in collaborations with major musical figures including Astor Piazzolla, Frank Peter Zimmermann, Ernö Sebestien, Régis Pasquier, Hatto Beyerle, Philippe Müller, Leo Brouwer, Alcides Lanza, Terry Riley, Tracy Silverman, Maureen Forrester, Eduardo Fernandez, the Cherubini Quartet and the Turtle Island String Quartet, he has worked with conductors such as Pinchas Steinberg, Charles Dutoit, Wojciech Rajski, Mario Bernardi and Yannick Nezet-Séguin. Alvaro Pierri′s CDs have been released by Metropole-Polydor, Blue Angel-2001, Milan Records, Amplitude, Madacy, HOMA and Alpha Omega.
His discography includes chamber music, guitar concerts and electro-acoustic music. Several of his CDs have been honoured with prices and nominations, he received twice the coveted Canadian FELIX award for the best classical CD of the year. "Pioneer Classics Japan" brought out a DVD featuring Spanish and South American guitar music, "Deutsche Grammophon" re-published a DVD with Astor Piazzolla's Double Concerto, Alvaro Pierri performing in duo with Astor Piazzolla. Alvaro Pierri is an internationally acclaimed teacher. Many of his students have won major international guitar competitions, he was professor at the University of Santa Maria in Brazil and subsequently ran a guitar class at McGill University and the UQAM in Montreal. In 2002 he was appointed professor at the famous Academy of music in Vienna. Pierri gives master classes at major music festivals such as the New York Manhattan Masters, GFA Guitar Foundation of America, Québec FIG, the SIG Séminaire International de Guitare in Paris and Bordeaux, in Barcelona, at the Mozarteum Summer Academy in Salzburg, the Wiener Meisterkurse, the Villa Musica in Mainz, in Tokyo, Osaka and Hong Kong a. o.
Official Website of Álvaro Pierri Info at Classical Concert Nimbler Chithara: Interview mit Álvaro Pierri Bio Concert Photos at Liechtensteiner Gitarrentage 2005. Masterclass Photos at Liechtensteiner Gitarrentage 2005; some photos of LP covers