click links in text for more info


Arcturus, designation α Boötis, is the brightest star in the constellation of Boötes, the fourth-brightest in the night sky, the brightest in the northern celestial hemisphere. Together with Spica and Denebola, Arcturus is part of the Spring Triangle asterism and, by extension of the Great Diamond along with the star Cor Caroli. Close at 36.7 light-years from the Sun, Arcturus is a red giant of spectral type K0III—an aging star around 7.1 billion years old that has used up its core hydrogen and moved off the main sequence. It is 1.08±0.06 times as massive as the Sun, but has expanded to 25.4±0.2 times its diameter and is around 170 times as luminous. Α Boötis is the star's Bayer designation. The traditional name Arcturus derives from Ancient Greek Ἀρκτοῦρος and means "Guardian of the Bear" from ἄρκτος, "bear" and οὖρος, "watcher, guardian", it has been known by this name since at least the time of Hesiod. One astronomical tradition associates Arcturus with the mythology around Arcas, about to shoot and kill his own mother Callisto, transformed into a bear.

Zeus averted their imminent tragic fate by transforming the boy into the constellation Boötes, called Arctophylax "bear guardian" by the Greeks, his mother into Ursa Major. The account is given in Hyginus's Astronomy. Aratus in his Phaenomena said that the star Arcturus lay below the belt of Arctophylax, although according to Ptolemy in the Almagest it lay between his thighs. An alternative lore associates the name with the legend around Icarius, who gave the gift of wine to other men, but was murdered by them, because they had had no experience with intoxication and mistook the wine for poison, it is stated this Icarius, became Arcturus, while his dog, became Canicula, although "Arcturus" here may be used in the sense of the constellation rather than the star. In 2016, the International Astronomical Union organized a Working Group on Star Names to catalog and standardize proper names for stars; the WGSN's first bulletin of July 2016 included a table of the first two batches of names approved by the WGSN.

It is now so entered in the IAU Catalog of Star Names. With an apparent visual magnitude of −0.05, Arcturus is the brightest star in the northern celestial hemisphere and the fourth-brightest star in the night sky, after Sirius, Canopus and α Centauri. However, α Centauri AB is a binary star; this makes Arcturus the third-brightest individual star, just ahead of α Centauri A, whose apparent magnitude is −0.01. The French mathematician and astronomer Jean-Baptiste Morin observed Arcturus in the daytime with a telescope in 1635, a first for any star other than the Sun and supernovae. Arcturus has been seen at or just before sunset with the naked eye. Arcturus is visible from both of Earth's hemispheres as it is located 19° north of the celestial equator; the star culminates at midnight on 27 April, at 9 p.m. on June 10 being visible during the late northern spring or the southern autumn. From the northern hemisphere, an easy way to find Arcturus is to follow the arc of the handle of the Big Dipper.

By continuing in this path, one can find Spica, "Arc to Arcturus spike to Spica". Ptolemy described Arcturus as subrufa: it has a B-V color index of +1.23 midway between Pollux and Aldebaran.η Boötis, or Muphrid, is only 3.3 light-years distant from Arcturus, would have a visual magnitude −2.5, about as bright as Mercury from Earth, whereas an observer on the former system would find Arcturus as bright as Venus as seen from Earth. In 1984, the 90 cm reflecting Yapp telescope at Herstmonceux was tested with an echelle spectrograph from Queen's University Belfast and a CCD camera. Observations of the stars Arcturus and Deneb were conducted in the summer of 1984. Based upon an annual parallax shift of 88.83 milliarcseconds as measured by the Hipparcos satellite, Arcturus is 36.7 light-years from the Sun. The parallax margin of error is 0.54 milliarcseconds, translating to a distance margin of error of ±0.23 light-years. Because of its proximity, Arcturus has a high proper motion, two arcseconds a year, greater than any first magnitude star other than α Centauri.

Arcturus is moving relative to the Sun, is now at its closest point to the Sun. Closest approach will happen in about 4,000 years, when the star will be a few hundredths of a light-year closer to Earth than it is today. Arcturus is thought to be an old-disk star, appears to be moving with a group of 52 other such stars, known as the Arcturus stream. With an absolute magnitude of −0.30, Arcturus is, together with Vega and Sirius, one of the most luminous stars in the Sun's neighborhood. It is about 110 times brighter than the Sun in visible light wavelengths, but this underestimates its strength as much of the light it gives off is in the infrared. With a near-infrared J band magnitude of −2.2, only Betelgeuse and R Doradus are brighter. The lower output in visible light is due to a lower efficacy as the star has a lower surface temperature than the Sun. Arcturus is an evolved red giant star with a stellar classification of K0 III; as the brightest K-type giant in the sky, it was the subject of an atlas of its visible spect


Jiffs was a pejorative term used by British Intelligence, the 14th Army, to denote soldiers of the Indian National Army after the failed First Arakan offensive of 1943. The term is derived from the acronym JIFC, short for Japanese-Indian fifth column, it came to be employed in a propaganda offensive in June 1943 within the British Indian Army as a part of the efforts to preserve the loyalty of the Indian troops at Manipur after suffering desertion and losses at Burma during the First Arakan Offensive. After the end of the war, the term "HIFFs" was used for repatriated troops of the Indian Legion awaiting trial; the prestige of the Raj had suffered a blow with the fall of British Malaya and the massive surrender at Singapore. In February 1942, the Indian prisoners of war from the British Indian Army captured there came under the influence of Indian nationalists, notably Mohan Singh Deb, a large number volunteered to form the Indian National Army with support from Japan and had the stated aim of overthrowing The Raj from India.

Of the formation of this army however, the British intelligence was unaware of until around July 1942, then was unclear on the scale and organisation of the INA. Intelligence summaries did not believe the INA to be a substantial force or have any purpose more than propaganda and espionage purposes. However, by the end of 1942, they had become aware of trained Indian espionage agents who had infiltrated into India for the purpose of collecting intelligence, subversion of the army and the subversion of civilian loyalty; these information were derived to a large extent from some of the agents themselves who gave themselves up to the authorities after reaching India. However, the intelligence was aware at this point of misinformation being spread about the INA itself by the agents who concealed their purpose and professed to pass on intelligence from local knowledge. More troubling for the military command were the activities of the INA agents in the battlefields of India's eastern frontier in Burma.

Around this time, the Quit India movement had reached a crescendo within India, while the continuing British reversals at Burma further affected the morale of the army. Irwin's First Campaign had been contained and beaten back by inferior Japanese forces at Donbaik. Intelligence analysis of the failure, as well as Irwin's own personal analysis of the campaign attributed significant demoralisation and rising discontentment amongst Indian troops due to the subversive activity of INA agents at the frontline, as well as rising nationalist sentiments; the activities of these agents were addressed at the Sepoys and these found enough support to encourage defection without attracting the attention of the officers commanding the units. Soon, defection by British Indian troops had become a problem significant and regular enough in the Burma theatre to form a regular part of the intelligence summaries in the first half of 1943. In December 1942, a certain Lt. Col G. W Wren attached to MI2 produced a report outlining the condition of loyalty of the Indian troops in the British Indian Army.

Detailed intelligence on the INA, its organisation and the circumstances in which it was found became available at the time from sources defecting into India in the garb of INA agents. The Wren report, with inputs from these defectors, argued that to preserve the loyalty of the army, it was necessary to preserve the loyalty of the Indian officer corps; the report further argued that to counter the INA and the IIL's strategy, it was necessary for Whitehall to make specific commitments to the Indian independence movement that would address the political sentiments of the Indian recruits, predicted that not doing so risked alienating the British Indian Army from the Raj. Wren's analysis of the problems facing the British Indian Army, though controversial, was supported by recommendations derived from Noel Irwin's reports following the Eastern Armies debacle at Arakan. Irwin's analysis further supported the notion that although the desertions by the Indian soldiers at Arakan were alarming, it was a purely military problem, could be addressed to a large extent by making a declaration of a free or freer India similar to the US declaration for Philippines.

However, Churchill's, as well as Linlithgow's opposition and outright hostility to any declaration that committed towards India's independence meant the Wren report went unimplemented. By 1943 the INA is known to have been "target of utmost value". Wavell assigned a whole separate department to deal with it. Not willing to commit to a declaration of independence, thus unable to implement the Wren report, The Raj chose instead to oppose the INA and the IIL strategy by employing propaganda measures that would ensure that little about the INA and Bose came to be known in India, what did seep through was stressed to be as derisive and loathsome as could be possible; the psychological warfare section of the India Command, known as GSI, was dedicated to the JIFF propaganda under Lt Colonel Hunt working with Cawthorne. The first of the measures taken was to emphasise a news blackout on the existence of the INA from newspapers, book or any publications. Not until after a few days after the fall of Rangoon two years was this ban to be lifted.

Among other policies adopted at the time were the decisions to only refer to the INA "Traitor Army", superseded by the use of the term Jiffs. At the same time, policies were adopted that saw the formation of "Josh Groups" to preserve morale of the Indian troops and engage greater co-operation among European officers and Indian troops. Amongst other decision, meetings

Abu Bakr Shibli

Shaykh Abu Bakr Shibli was an important Sufi of Persian descent, a disciple of Junayd Baghdadi. He followed the Maliki school of law. Abu Bakr Shibli was born in Baghdad or Samarra, although his family was from Khorasan in Persia, he was a high official of Baghdad before he embarked on the spiritual path and became a disciple of Junayd Baghdadi. His name is mentioned by the Persian poets such as Attar and Sanai, he was associated with Hallaj. According to one source, he was in a constant state of jadhb and was committed to an asylum. Others assert. Attributed to him is the saying: "O people! I go to place beyond. I go to the south and the north, to a place beyond, there is no beyond. Everything that I saw after that I could see in one hair of my little finger." Shibli was imprisoned many times by the Caliph despite enormous wealth. Shibli began searching for divinity. Meanwhile, in the Sultanate, the Caliph realised that Shibli had not committed any wrongdoing and a search party was sent out to find him.

The ministers were carrying a set of royal robes. They offered it to Shibli saying that a decree had been passed reinstating him and that he could return without fear of being prosecuted. Shibli wiped his sweating face with them. Shocked at such demeaning behaviour, the officials reported the incident to the Caliph. Shibli was charged with contempt. Shibli responded: “O great Caliph! You are annoyed because I did not accept your return to you. How angry that great God should be that after he gave me the robe of His divine love I shunted all His duties and went about aimlessly in this world forgetting Him every moment? This body is given by Him. Shouldn't He be angry?" The Caliph thought that Shibli was mad, revoked his order of restitution and threw him out of the palace. Shibli fled to the desert, he met Abul-Qasim Mohammad Al-Junayd and recognised his spiritual greatness: “O revered One! You have the jewel of heaven with you. I want to have it.” In reply Junayd smiled and said, “You have to struggle and undergo several hardships to attain that jewel.”

Junayd told him: “You were a high officer under the Caliph. Now go and trade salt in the market in the main town for a year.” Shibli plunged headlong into the business. He remained calm. At the end of a year, Shibli returned to Junayd who said: “Not much though! The improvement is only marginal. Still a long way to go till you begin to have a glimpse of your goal. So, now go and beg food in Baghdad for a year.” Shibli set off to beg food in Baghdad. “Do you realise your true worth now at least?” asked Junayd one day. A year thus passed. Junayd bade Shibli to go around the kingdom and beg pardon from all those he had wronged during his tenure in the Caliph’s court; this took him four years. Upon his return, Junayd told him to beg for another year. In the last year of begging, people gave him food and other things generously, they had come to know of Shibli's integrity. Shibli deposited; this lasted seven to eight years. One day Junayd asked Shibli, “How do you feel now?” Shibli replied, “I deem myself the meanest of God’s creatures.”

Junayd embraced his worthy disciple. Hence, Junayd Baghdadi conferred khilafat upon Abu Bakr Shibli. Shibli preached to others to repeat Allah’s name incessantly for emancipation, known as dhikr in Sufi terminology. However, the moment he realised that their repetitions were only outward and not bursts of devotion, he stopped advocating the invocation of the name as a spiritual practice. One day he heard a divine voice speak: “How long will you hold on to the Name. Go for the Named.” He began experiencing the longing for God to the core. Such was his intensity of desire for Allah, he was not successful. He was washed ashore, he came out unscathed. A divine voice told him: “He who has surrendered to God, dead to all worldly phenomena, cannot be harmed by the elements.” Shibli’s doubts were cleared but people considered him mad. Ten times he was chained to a post and confined to in a cell. On festival days, Shibli wore a mourning gown. People objected to his behaviour and asked: “Why this? What are you mourning for on the day of joy?”

Shibli are only outwardly happy. In my opinion it is an occasion of immense sorrow.” “Are we not lovers of God,” the people asked then. Shibli pointed out to a block of firewood burning there. “It should be like that firewood,” said he. “How,” the people asked. They could not understand. “See the fire is burning at one end and water is coming out from the other end. If the fire of love for God is burning in the heart, the sure sign is tears of love inundating the eyes not outer joy." The spiritual lineage of Abu Bakr Shibli which reaches him from Mohammad is as follows: Mohammad'Alī bin Abī Ṭālib al-Ḥasan al-Baṣrī Habib al Ajami Dawud Tai Maruf Karkhi Sirri Saqti Junaid Baghdadi, founder of the Junaidia order Abu Bakr ShibliOf his khalifahs, Abdul Aziz bin Hars bin Asad Yemeni Tamimi, continued his teachings and order. Shibli would squeeze himself into a small hole not big enough for a small animal and sit there crying and praying. If he grew sleepy, he rubbed salt into his eyes. If that failed, he would beat himself with a stick.

His voice changed and his words were charged with the fire of tr

Scarborough—Agincourt (provincial electoral district)

Scarborough—Agincourt is a provincial electoral district in Ontario, Canada, represented in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario since 1987. The riding covers the northwest of the Scarborough part of Toronto, it is bounded on the west by Victoria Park Avenue, on the north by the Toronto city limits, on the east by Midland Avenue, on the south by Highway 401. It contains the neighbourhoods of Steeles, L'Amoreaux, Tam O'Shanter-Sullivan and Milliken. Total: 111,867 Growth: +1,197 Electors: Federal: 72,895 Provincial: 73,876 Gender*: Male: 52,525 Female: 58,145 Identifiable Groups**: Visible Minority: 76,195 Chinese: 41,135 South Asian: 14,680 Black: 7,450 Filipino: 3,470 West Asian: 1,830 Arab: 1,775 Other Visible Minority: 1,560 Multiple Visible Minorities: 1,385 Latin American: 825 Southeast Asian: 800 Korean: 670 Japanese: 625 Aboriginal: 185 Immigrant: 70,315 Non-Permanent Residents: 1,780 Mother Tongue**: English: 39,880 French: 775 Non-Official Languages: 66,755 Multiple Responses: 2,590 Knowledge of Official Languages**: English only: 92,290 Neither English nor French: 10,855 English and French: 6,755 French only: 105 Home Language**: English: 42,110 Non-official languages: 34,760 English and non-official language: 31,875 English and French: 625 English and non-official language: 430 French: 110 French and non-official language: 85 Education***: Less than High School: 29,385 High School: 22,950 Trade School: 5,205 College: 11,775 University: 22,530 Labour Force***: Participation: 55,510 Employed: 50,840 Unemployed: 4,670 Average Income***: Individual: $26,473 Household: $62,836 Family: $60,742Median Income: Household: $51,762 Persons per Family: 3.1 Occupied Private Dwellings: Total: 35,615 Owned: 23,670 Rented: 11,945 Average Value: $226,053 Religion**: Christian: 58,125 Catholic: 24,660 Protestant: 19,670 Christian Orthodox: 7,365 Christian n.i.e.****: 6,430 No Religious Affiliation: 31,220 Hindu: 7,300 Muslim: 6,740 Buddhist: 5,515 Eastern Religions: 380 Sikh: 360 Jewish: 330 Other Religions: 30 * Based on a total population of 110,670 ** Based on a projected population of 109,995 *** Based on a projected population of 91,840 **** Includes answers of'Christian,' not otherwise stated.

|- |colspan=7 style="border-top:1px solid darkgray. ^ Change based on redistributed results Elections Ontario Past Election Results Map of riding for 2018 election

Swimming at the 2007 World Aquatics Championships – Women's 4 × 100 metre medley relay

The Women's 4x100m Medley Relay at the 2007 World Aquatics Championships took place on 31 March 2007 at the Rod Laver Arena in Melbourne, Australia. The top-12 finishers from this race qualified for the event at the 2008 Olympics. 29 teams were entered in the event. The existing records when the event started were: World Record: 3:56.30, Australia, 21 March 2006 in Melbourne, Australia. Championship Record: 3:57.47, Montreal 2005 Swimming at the 2005 World Aquatics Championships – Women's 4 × 100 metre medley relay Swimming at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Women's 4 × 100 metre medley relay Swimming at the 2009 World Aquatics Championships – Women's 4 × 100 metre medley relay Women's 4x100m Medley Relay Preliminary results from the 2007 World Championships. Published by Women's 4x100m Medley Relay Final results from the 2007 World Championships. Published by

Hope Ranch (film)

Hope Ranch is a 2002 American made-for-television western film about a reformatory farm for delinquent youths, starring Bruce Boxleitner, Lorenzo Lamas, Barry Corbin, Gail O'Grady. Hope Ranch was the first The Discovery Channel-Animal Planet original feature film, which aired in 2002 and was released on DVD in 2004. Hope Ranch was directed by Rex Piano. J. T. Hope, a former police officer and marine, owner of a ranch called "Circle Hope Ranch" decides to start a program for troubled teens on his ranch to help rehabilitate them and help them get out of the life of crime and other bad things. Hope starts 3 boys are brought in to the new program. J. T. has 2 good friends who work with him on the ranch and Colt Webb, a former juvenile delinquent, given a second chance with the help of J. T. Hope. Bruce Boxleitner as J. T. Hope Lorenzo Lamas as Colt Webb Barry Corbin as Shorty Gail O'Grady as June Andersen Laura Johnson as Sam Brooks Brian Gross as Keith Frazier J. D. Pardo as Ernesto Mendoza Richard Lee Jackson as Booker Stokes Isabelle Howell as Molly Brad Hawkins as Ajax Nicholas Hill as Dortch / Leather Jacket Stephen Wozniak as Waxy Tina Illman as Rachel Clint Jung as Uniformed Juvie Officer Hope Ranch was released on DVD on March 9, 2004.

It is available to order at Hope Ranch on IMDb