The Safavid dynasty was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history. The Safavid shahs ruled over one of the so-called gunpowder empires, the Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safaviyya Sufi order, which was established in the city of Ardabil in the Azerbaijan region. The Safavids have left their mark down to the present era by spreading Shia Islam in Iran, as well as parts of the Caucasus, Anatolia. The Safavid Kings themselves claimed to be Seyyeds, family descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, There seems now to be a consensus among scholars that the Safavid family hailed from Persian Kurdistan, and moved to Azerbaijan, finally settling in the 11th century CE at Ardabil. Traditional pre-1501 Safavid manuscripts trace the lineage of the Safavids to the Kurdish dignitary, a massive migration of Oghuz Turks in the 11th and 12th centuries not only Turkified Azerbaijan but Anatolia. The Azeri Turks are Shiʿites and were founders of the Safavid dynasty, by the time of the establishment of the Safavid empire, the members of the family were native Turkish-speaking and Turkicized, and some of the Shahs composed poems in their native Turkish language.
Furthermore, the dynasty was from the very start thoroughly intermarried with both Pontic Greek as well as Georgian lines, Safavid history begins with the establishment of the Safaviyya by its eponymous founder Safi-ad-din Ardabili. In 700/1301, Safi al-Din assumed the leadership of the Zahediyeh, due to the great spiritual charisma of Safi al-Din, the order was known as the Safaviyya. The Safavid order soon gained great influence in the city of Ardabil, after Safī al-Dīn, the leadership of the Safaviyya passed to Sadr al-Dīn Mūsā. The leadership of the order passed from Sadr ud-Dīn Mūsā to his son Khwādja Ali, when Shaykh Junayd, the son of Ibrāhim, assumed the leadership of the Safaviyya in 1447, the history of the Safavid movement was radically changed. Savory, Sheikh Junayd was not content with spiritual authority and he sought material power, Junayd sought refuge with the rival of Kara Koyunlu Jahan Shah, the Aq Qoyunlu Khan Uzun Hassan, and cemented his relationship by marrying Uzun Hassans sister, Khadija Begum.
Junayd was killed during an incursion into the territories of the Shirvanshah and was succeeded by his son Haydar Safavi, Haydar married Martha Alamshah Begom, Uzun Hassans daughter, who gave birth to Ismail I, founder of the Safavid dynasty. Marthas mother Theodora—better known as Despina Khatun—was a Pontic Greek princess and she had been married to Uzun Hassan in exchange for protection of the Grand Komnenos from the Ottomans. After Uzun Hassans death, his son Yaqub felt threatened by the growing Safavid religious influence, Yaqub allied himself with the Shirvanshah and killed Haydar in 1488. By this time, the bulk of the Safaviyya were nomadic Oghuz Turkic-speaking clans from Asia Minor, the Qizilbash were warriors, spiritual followers of Haydar, and a source of the Safavid military and political power. After the death of Haydar, the Safaviyya gathered around his son Ali Mirza Safavi, according to official Safavid history, before passing away, Ali had designated his young brother Ismail as the spiritual leader of the Safaviyya.
After the decline of the Timurid Empire, Persia was politically splintered, the demise of Tamerlanes political authority created a space in which several religious communities, particularly Shi’i ones, could come to the fore and gain prominence. Among these were a number of Sufi brotherhoods, the Hurufis, Nuqtawis, of these various movements, the Safavid Qizilbash was the most politically resilient, and due to its success Shah Isma’il I gained political prominence in 1501
Azerbaijani rugs are a product of Azerbaijan and Iranian Azerbaijan, an ancient center of carpet weaving. Traditionally, since ancient times the carpets were used in Azerbaijan to cover floors, decorate interior walls, chairs, Carpet making is a family tradition transferred orally and through practice, with carpet making and rug making being predominantly a womens occupation. In the past every young girl had to learn the art of weaving carpets, in the case of a newly married son, it was his mother who wove a large rug for his new household. Starting a new carpet meant a feast, but the completion of a rug meant a greater celebration for the family. In the old days finished carpets were laid out in front of the house so that passers-by with the weight of their feet could make them even tighter than they had already been knotted. Azerbaijani carpets are classified under four regional groups, i. e. Quba-Shirvan, Ganja-Kazakh, Karabakh. In November 2010 the Azerbaijani carpet was proclaimed a Masterpiece of Intangible Heritage by UNESCO, since ancient times, Azerbaijan has been known as a center of a large variety of crafts.
The results of the digging in Azerbaijan validate the antiquity of the carpet weaving traditions on this land. The Gultapin excavations discovered carpet weaving tools which date back to the 4th-3rd millennium BC, for many centuries during the historical existence of Azerbaijan both settled and nomadic ways of life were of importance. The carpet making was born in rural huts and with time ranked among the most essential arts and it was highly valued by the heads of states, and the gifted weavers were glorified by the greatest poets. The carpet history is assumed to be divided into the four main periods. The carpet ware is very simple, without any motifs and patterns, the first palas and djedjims appear. II period - introduction of the kilim weaving practice by the intricate threading technique, III period - weaving of shadda, sumakh, zili. The period of simple and complex whipping techniques, IV period - introduction of the knotted pile weaving. Both from the technical and artistic standpoints this stage can be considered the acme of the carpet making, the territory of the Southern and Northern Azerbaijan saw different states and tribal cultures coming and going.
There is always an inevitable mutual influence and penetration between the cultures, whether peaceful or militant. These processes were reflected in carpet making as well, numerous carpet production centers appeared throughout Azerbaijan, each featured its own specific style and school. Shadda is a flat weave carpet, made primarily in Nakhchivan, Gubadly, the artistic composition of shadda made by complicated whipping, as well as its constituents have a complex form
Tahmasp I was an influential Shah of Iran, who enjoyed the longest reign of any member of the Safavid dynasty. He was the son and successor of Ismail I and he came to the throne aged ten in 1524 and came under the control of the Qizilbash who formed the backbone of the Safavid Empire. The Qizilbash leaders fought among themselves for the right to be regents over Tahmasp, one of his most notable successors, the greatest Safavid emperor, Abbas I would fully implement and finalize this policy and the creation of this new layer in Iranian society. Tahmasps reign was marked by threats, primarily from the Safavids arch rival, the Ottomans. In 1555, however, he regularized relations with the Ottoman Empire through the Peace of Amasya, the frontier thus established ran across the mountains dividing eastern and western Georgia, through Armenia, and via the western slopes of the Zagros down to the Persian Gulf. The Ottomans, gave permission for Persian pilgrims to go to the places of Mecca. This peace lasted for 30 years, until it was broken in the time of Shah Mohammed Khodabanda, Tahmasp was the son of Shah Ismail I and Shah-Begi Khanum of the Turcoman Mawsillu tribe.
He was only 10 years old when he succeeded his father Shah Ismail, too young to rule in his own right, Tahmasp came under the control of the Qizilbash. Some of the tribes recognised a Qizilbash leader, Div Sultan Rumlu, as regent to the shah, Div Sultan emerged victorious but his ally, Chuha Sultan Takkalu, turned against him and urged the shah to get rid of him. On 5 July 1527 as Div Sultan arrived for a meeting of the government, when it failed to kill him, the shahs supporters finished him off. Irans enemies, the Uzbeks, had taken advantage of the war to invade the north-eastern province of Khorasan. In 1528 Chuha Sultan and the shah marched with their army to control of the region. Although they defeated the Uzbeks in a battle near Jam, Tahmasp was disgusted at the cowardice Chuha Sultan had displayed during the combat, finally, in 1530/1, a quarrel broke out between members of the Takkalu and Shamlu Qizilbash factions and the Shamlus succeeded in killing Chuha Sultan. The Takkalus regained the advantage and some of them tried to kidnap the shah.
Tahmasp lost patience and ordered a massacre of the Takkalu tribe. They never regained their influence in Iran, the leader of the Shamlu faction, Husayn Khan, now assumed the regency but, in 1533, Tahmasp suspected Husayn Khan was plotting to overthrow him and had him put to death. Tahmasb was now old enough and confident enough to rule in his own right, Tahmasp responded by expressing his friendship to the Emperor. About the same time, envoys were sent to Iran by King Ferdinand, in the person of Pietro da Negro and Simon de Lillis
A carpet is a textile floor covering typically consisting of an upper layer of pile attached to a backing. The pile was made from wool, since the 20th century, synthetic fibers such as polypropylene, nylon or polyester are often used. The pile usually consists of twisted tufts which are typically heat-treated to maintain their structure, Carpets can be made in any colour by using differently dyed fibers. Carpets can have different types of patterns and motifs used to decorate the surface. In the 2000s, carpets are used in industrial and commercial establishments such as stores and hotels. Carpet is commonly made in widths of 12 feet and 15 feet in the USA,4 m and 5 m in Europe. Wall-to-wall carpet is distinguished from rugs or mats, which are loose-laid floor coverings, as wall-to-wall carpet is fixed to the floor, child labour has often been used in Asia for hand knotting rugs. The term carpet comes from Old French carpite, one derivation of the term states that the French term came from the Old Italian carpita, from the verb carpire meaning to pluck.
The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the carpet was first used in English in the late 13th century, with the meaning coarse cloth. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the term comes, the meaning of the term carpet shifted in the 15th century to refer to floor coverings. The term carpet is used interchangeably with the term rug. Some sources define a carpet as stretching from wall to wall, another definition treats rugs as of lower quality or of smaller size, with carpets quite often having finished ends. A third common definition is that a carpet is fixed in place while a rug is simply laid out on the floor. Historically, the carpet was applied to table and wall coverings. The term rug was first used in English in the 1550s, the term is of. Scandinavian origin, compare Norwegian dialectal rugga coarse coverlet, from Old Norse rogg shaggy tuft, from Proto-Germanic *rawwa-, perhaps related to rag and rough. The meaning of rug. evolved to coverlet, mat for the floor, the carpet is produced on a loom quite similar to woven fabric.
The pile can be plush or Berber, plush carpet is a cut pile and Berber carpet is a loop pile. There are new styles of carpet combining the two styles called cut and loop carpeting, normally many colored yarns are used and this process is capable of producing intricate patterns from predetermined designs
Clarence Hungerford Mackay /ˈmæki/ was an American financier. He was chairman of the board of the Postal Telegraph and Cable Corporation and president of the Mackay Radio and he was born on April 17,1874 to John William Mackay. His father was a miner and telegraph mogul who had been born in Dublin and emigrated to America with his parents. It made all of them unimaginably wealthy, John married Louise Antoinette Hungerford Bryant and adopted her daughter by an earlier marriage. They lived between Paris and New York, where brought up this daughter and their two sons and Clarence. This was the largest home White ever designed, Katherine Duer Mackay was a beautiful debutante from an old, high society, New York family. Clarence met her on a crossing between New York and England in about 1897. They fell in love and were married on May 17,1898, Harbor Hill, the site of their future estate with the striking view of Hempstead Harbor, was Katherines and Claries wedding present from the senior Mackays. Katherine oversaw much of the design and building of their mansion at Harbor Hill, Katherine was a suffragette and a champion of womens rights and became the first woman member of the Roslyn school board in 1905.
Katherine left Clarence and her three children to run away with the doctor who had cured Clarences throat cancer, Dr. Joseph Blake, Blake cured her eye cancer, and he in turn ran away with her nurse. The marriage officially ended in divorce in Paris in 1914, Katherine returned to New York in 1930, the same year she died from cancer. In 1926, his daughter Ellin married Irving Berlin against her fathers wishes, Anna Case of Clinton, New Jersey would become Mackays second wife. She was a soprano who sang with the Metropolitan Opera. Her life changed dramatically following an engagement to sing at a musicale given in the home of Clarence H. Mackay. Taken with her beauty, he sent a carload of flowers to her at her next Carnegie Hall recital, because of religious convictions – he was a traditional Irish-American Catholic – Clarence Mackay would not remarry as long as his first wife, lived. After Katherines death in 1930, Clarence and Anna were married at St Marys Roman Catholic Church in Roslyn and his wedding gift to Anna was a platinum-set emerald and diamond necklace.
The 167.97 carats emerald was mined in Colombia and the necklace designed by Cartier, Clarence sold his major source of income, the Postal Telegraph Company, to the new International Telephone and Telegraph Company for an enormous amount of stock. The 1929 stock market crash wiped him out, he survived the Great Depression by selling his art and antiques
10 Downing Street
Situated in Downing Street in the City of Westminster, Number 10 is over 300 years old and contains approximately 100 rooms. A private residence occupies the floor and there is a kitchen in the basement. At the rear is a courtyard and a terrace overlooking a garden of 0.5 acres. Adjacent to St Jamess Park, Number 10 is near Buckingham Palace, the London residence of the British monarch, and the Palace of Westminster, originally three houses, Number 10 was offered to Sir Robert Walpole by King George II in 1732. Walpole accepted on the condition that the gift was to the office of First Lord of the Treasury rather than to him personally, Walpole commissioned William Kent to join the three houses and it is this larger house that is known as Number 10 Downing Street. The arrangement was not an immediate success, despite its size and convenient location near to Parliament, few early Prime Ministers lived there. Costly to maintain and run-down, Number 10 was close to being demolished several times but the property survived and became linked with many statesmen, in 1985 Margaret Thatcher said Number 10 had become one of the most precious jewels in the national heritage.
Number 10 Downing Street was originally three properties, a mansion overlooking St Jamess Park called the House at the Back, a house behind it. The town house, from which the building gets its name, was one of several built by Sir George Downing between 1682 and 1684. Downing, a spy for Oliver Cromwell and Charles II, invested in property. In 1654, he purchased the lease on land south of St Jamess Park, Downing planned to build a row of town houses for persons of good quality to inhabit in. The street on which he built them now bears his name, straightforward as the investment seemed, it proved otherwise. The Hampden family had a lease on the land that they refused to relinquish, Downing fought their claim, but failed and had to wait thirty years before he could build. When the Hampden lease expired, Downing received permission to build on land further west to take advantage of recent property developments. The new warrant issued in 1682 reads, Sir George Downing. to build new, subject to the proviso that it be not built any nearer than 14 feet of the wall of the said Park at the West end thereof.
Between 1682 and 1684, Downing built a cul-de-sac of two-storey town houses with coach-houses, over the years, the addresses changed several times. In 1787 Number 5 became Number 10, Downing employed Sir Christopher Wren to design the houses. Although large, they were put up quickly and cheaply on soft soil with shallow foundations, the fronts were façades with lines painted on the surface imitating brick mortar
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque
Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque is one of the architectural masterpieces of Safavid Iranian architecture, standing on the eastern side of Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Iran. Construction of the started in 1603 and was finished in 1619. It was built by the chief architect Shaykh Bahai, during the reign of Shah Abbas I of the Safavid dynasty, of the four monuments that dominated the perimeter of the Naqsh-e Jahan Square, this one was the first to be built. The purpose of this mosque was for it to be a mosque of the royal court, unlike the Shah Mosque. For this reason, the mosque does not have any minarets and is of a smaller size, few Westerners at the time of the Safavids even paid any attention to this mosque, and they certainly did not have access to it. To avoid having to walk across the Square when getting to the mosque, Shah Abbas had the build a tunnel spanning across the piazza, from the Ali Qapu Palace. When reaching the entrance of the mosque, one would have to walk through a passage that winds round and round, until one finally reaches the main building.
Along this passage there were standing guards, and the purpose of this design was for the women of the harem to be shielded as much as possible from anyone entering the building. At the main entrance of the mosque there were standing guards. Today, these doors are open to visitors, and the passage traversing underneath the field is no longer in use, throughout history, this mosque has been referred to by different names. For Junabadi it was the mosque with the dome and the domed mosque. In addition, the reckonings of Muhibb Ali Beg, the imperial treasure holderer, all this suggests that not only was the building indeed named after Sheikh Lutfallah, but also, that this famous imam was among the first prayer leaders for the royal court in this very mosque. The entry gateway, like those of the Grand Bazaar and the Masjed-e Shah, was a recessed half-moon. Also, like in the Masjed-e Shah, the facade of the mosque. Creation of the calligraphy and tiles, which exceed, in beauty and quality, anything created beforehand in the Islamic world, was overseen by Master calligrapher Ali Reza Abbasi.
Reza Abbasis inscription on the entry gives the date of the start of construction. The north-south orientation of the Maydan does not agree with south-west direction of qibla and this feature, called pāshnah in Persian architecture, has caused to standing the dome not directly behind the entrance iwan. Its single-shell dome is 13 m in diameter, the exterior side is richly covered with tiles
William Morris was an English textile designer, novelist and socialist activist. Associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement, he was a contributor to the revival of traditional British textile arts. His literary contributions helped to establish the modern fantasy genre, while he played a significant role in propagating the early socialist movement in Britain. Born in Walthamstow, Essex, to a wealthy family, Morris came under the strong influence of medievalism while studying Classics at Oxford University. Webb and Morris designed a home, Red House, in Kent. In 1861, Morris founded a decorative arts firm with Burne-Jones, Rossetti and others, in 1875, Morris assumed total control of the company, which was renamed Morris & Co. Although retaining a main home in London, from 1871 Morris rented the rural retreat of Kelmscott Manor, greatly influenced by visits to Iceland, with Eiríkr Magnússon he produced a series of English-language translations of Icelandic Sagas. In 1877 he founded the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings to campaign against the damage caused by architectural restoration, in 1891 he founded the Kelmscott Press to publish limited-edition, illuminated-style print books, a cause to which he devoted his final years.
Morris is recognised as one of the most significant cultural figures of Victorian Britain, though best known in his lifetime as a poet, founded in 1955, the William Morris Society is devoted to his legacy, while multiple biographies and studies of his work have seen publication. Many of the associated with his life are open to visitors, much of his work can be found in art galleries and museums. Morris was born at Elm House in Walthamstow, Essex, on 24 March 1834. Raised into a wealthy family, he was named after his father. His mother was Emma Morris, who came from Woodford Hall in Woodford, Essex and he took rides through the Essex countryside on his pony, and visited the various churches and cathedrals throughout the country, marveling at their architecture. His father took him on visits outside of the county, for instance to Canterbury Cathedral, the Chiswick Horticultural Gardens, and to the Isle of Wight, where he adored Blackgang Chine. In February 1848 Morris began his studies at Marlborough College in Marlborough, Wiltshire and he despised his time there, being bullied and homesick.
He did use the opportunity to many of the prehistoric sites of Wiltshire, such as Avebury and Silbury Hill. At Christmas 1851, Morris was removed from the school and returned to Water House, Assistant Master at the nearby Forest School. In June 1852 Morris entered Oxford Universitys Exeter College, although since the college was full and he disliked the college and was bored by the manner in which they taught him Classics
Joseph Duveen, 1st Baron Duveen
Joseph Duveen, 1st Baron Duveen, known as Sir Joseph Duveen, Bt, between 1927 and 1933, was a British art dealer, considered one of the most influential art dealers of all time. Joseph Duveen was British by birth, the eldest of thirteen children of Sir Joseph Joel Duveen, the Duveen Brothers firm became very successful and became involved in trading antiques. Duveen Senior died in 1908, Joseph took over the working in partnership with his late fathers brother Henry J. Duveen. He had received a thorough and stimulating education at University College School and his success is famously attributed to noticing that Europe has a great deal of art, and America has a great deal of money. He made his fortune by buying works of art from declining European aristocrats and selling them to the millionaires of the United States. Duveens clients included Henry Clay Frick, William Randolph Hearst, Henry E. Huntington, J. P. Morgan, Samuel H. Kress, Andrew Mellon, John D. Rockefeller, and a Canadian, Frank Porter Wood.
The works that Duveen shipped across the Atlantic remain the core collections of many of the United States most famous museums, Duveen played an important role in selling to self-made industrialists on the notion that buying art was buying upper-class status. Duveen quickly became wealthy, and made many philanthropic donations. He gave paintings to many British galleries and he donated considerable sums to repair and expand several galleries, amongst other things he built the Duveen Gallery of the British Museum to house the Elgin Marbles and a major extension to the Tate Gallery. Duveen married Elsie, daughter of Gustav Salomon, of New York and they had one daughter, Dorothy Rose. She married, Sir William Francis Cuthbert Garthwaite, DSC 2nd Bt. on 23 July 1931, orthopædic Surgeon to St. Georges Hospital, of Upper Wimpole Street, London. The court case took seven years to come to trial and after the first jury returned a verdict, Duveen agreed to settle. In recent years, Duveens reputation has suffered considerably, restorers working under his guidance damaged Old Master panel paintings by scraping off old varnish and giving the paintings a glossy finish.
He was responsible for the damaging restoration work done to the Elgin Marbles. A number of the paintings he sold have turned out to be fakes, Duveen greatly increased the trade in bringing great works of art from Europe to America. He eventually became the art dealer, through planning and his insight into human behavior. If a great painting came onto the market he had to have it no matter what and he always outbid the opposition and eventually acquired the finest collections. He went to lengths to purchase great works of art and his network went well beyond American millionaires, English Royalty
Fawzia Fuad of Egypt
Fawzia Fuad of Egypt was an Egyptian princess who became Queen of Iran as the first wife of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Princess Fawzia was the daughter of Fuad I, the son of Ismail the Magnificent. She descended from the Muhammad Ali Dynasty and she was known as Fawzia Chirine, having married to Colonel Ismail Chirine, Egyptian diplomat of Circassian origin, in 1949. After the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, her titles were no longer recognized by the Egyptian government. Until her death in 2013, she was the oldest member of the deposed Muhammad Ali Dynasty residing in Egypt and her nephew, who was proclaimed King Fuad II of Egypt and Sudan after the Revolution, resides in Switzerland. Princess Fawzia Fuad was of Albanian, Turkish and Circassian descent, Princess Fawzias maternal great-grandfather was Major-General Muhammad Sharif Pasha, Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs. One of her great-great-grandfathers was Suleiman Pasha, a French army officer who served under Napoléon, converted to Islam, and oversaw an overhaul of the Egyptian army.
In addition to her sisters, Faiza and Fathia, Princess Fawzia was educated in Switzerland and was fluent in English and French in addition to her native Arabic. Her beauty was compared to that of film stars Hedy Lamarr. The marriage of Princess Fawzia to Irans Crown Prince Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was planned by the latters father, a declassified CIA report in May 1972 described the union as a political move. On the other hand, the marriage was significant in that it united a Sunni royal, the Princess, and a Shia royal, Princess Fawzia of Egypt and Mohammad Reza Pahlavi were engaged in May 1938. However, they saw each other once before their wedding. They married at the Abdeen Palace in Cairo on 15 March 1939, when they returned to Iran the wedding ceremony was repeated at Marble Palace, which was their future residence. Following the marriage, the Princess was granted Iranian nationality, two years the crown prince succeeded his exiled father and was to become the Shah of Iran. She led the newly founded Association for the Protection of Pregnant Women and Children in Iran, with Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi she had one child, a daughter, HIH Princess Shahnaz Pahlavi.
The marriage was not a success, Queen Fawzia moved to Cairo in May 1945 and obtained an Egyptian divorce. The reason for her return was that she viewed Tehran as underdeveloped in contrast to modern and she consulted an American psychiatrist in Baghdad for her troubles shortly before she left Tehran. On the other hand, CIA reports claim that Princess Fawzia ridiculed and humiliated the Shah due to his impotence, in her book Ashraf Pahlavi, twin sister of the Shah, argues that it was the Princess not the Shah who asked for divorce
Khwāja Shams-ud-Dīn Muḥammad Ḥāfeẓ-e Shīrāzī, known by his pen name Hafez, was a Persian poet who lauded the joys of love and wine but targeted religious hypocrisy. His collected works are regarded as a pinnacle of Persian literature and are to be found in the homes of most people in Iran and his life and poems have been the subject of much analysis and interpretation, influencing post-14th century Persian writing more than any other author. Hafez primarily wrote in the genre of lyric poetry that is the ideal style for expressing the ecstasy of divine inspiration in the mystical form of love poems. Themes of his ghazals are the beloved and exposing hypocrisy. In his ghazals, he deals with love and tavern, all presenting the ecstasy and freedom from restraint, whether in actual worldly release or in the voice of the lover speaking of divine love. His influence in the lives of Persian speakers can be found in Hafez readings and the frequent use of his poems in Persian traditional music, visual art, adaptations and translations of his poems exist in all major languages.
Hafez was born in Shiraz and his parents were from Kazerun, Fars Province. Despite his profound effect on Persian life and culture and his popularity and influence. Accounts of his early life rely upon traditional anecdotes, early tazkiras mentioning Hafez are generally considered unreliable. At an early age, he memorized the Quran and was given the title of Hafez, the preface of his Divān, in which his early life is discussed, was written by an unknown contemporary whose name may have been Moḥammad Golandām. Two of the most highly regarded editions of Hafezs Divān are compiled by Moḥammad Ghazvini and Qāsem Ḡani. Modern scholars generally agree that Hafez was born either in 1315 or 1317 and his mausoleum, Hāfezieh, is located in the Musalla Gardens of Shiraz. Many semi-miraculous mythical tales were woven around Hafez after his death and it is said that by listening to his fathers recitations, Hafez had accomplished the task of learning the Quran by heart at an early age. At the same time, he is said to have known by heart the works of Rumi, Farid ud-Din, and Nizami.
According to one tradition, before meeting his patron Hajji Zayn al-Attar, Hafez had been working in a bakery, there, he first saw Shakh-e Nabat, a woman of great beauty, to whom some of his poems are addressed. Ravished by her beauty but knowing that his love for her would not be requited, still, he encountered a being of surpassing beauty who identified himself as an angel, and his further attempts at union became mystic, a pursuit of spiritual union with the divine. A Western parallel is that of Dante and Beatrice, at 60, he is said to have begun a Chilla-nashini, a 40-day-and-night vigil by sitting in a circle that he had drawn for himself. On the 40th day, he again met with Zayn al-Attar on what is known to be their fortieth anniversary and was offered a cup of wine