The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans. The International Hydrographic Organization recognizes it as an ocean, although some oceanographers call it the Arctic Mediterranean Sea or the Arctic Sea, classifying it a mediterranean sea or an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean, it is seen as the northernmost part of the all-encompassing World Ocean. Located in the Arctic north polar region in the middle of the Northern Hemisphere, the Arctic Ocean is completely surrounded by Eurasia and North America, it is covered by sea ice throughout the year and completely in winter. The Arctic Ocean's surface temperature and salinity vary seasonally as the ice cover melts and freezes; the summer shrinking of the ice has been quoted at 50%. The US National Snow and Ice Data Center uses satellite data to provide a daily record of Arctic sea ice cover and the rate of melting compared to an average period and specific past years. Human habitation in the North American polar region goes back at least 50,000–17,000 years ago, during the Wisconsin glaciation.
At this time, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the Bering land bridge that joined Siberia to north west North America, leading to the Settlement of the Americas. Paleo-Eskimo groups included the Pre-Dorset; the Dorset were the last major Paleo-Eskimo culture in the Arctic before the migration east from present-day Alaska of the Thule, the ancestors of the modern Inuit. The Thule Tradition lasted from about 200 B. C. to 1600 A. D. around the Bering Strait, the Thule people being the prehistoric ancestors of the Inuit who now live in Northern Labrador. For much of European history, the north polar regions remained unexplored and their geography conjectural. Pytheas of Massilia recorded an account of a journey northward in 325 BC, to a land he called "Eschate Thule", where the Sun only set for three hours each day and the water was replaced by a congealed substance "on which one can neither walk nor sail", he was describing loose sea ice known today as "growlers" or "bergy bits". Early cartographers were unsure whether to draw the region around the North Pole as water.
The fervent desire of European merchants for a northern passage, the Northern Sea Route or the Northwest Passage, to "Cathay" caused water to win out, by 1723 mapmakers such as Johann Homann featured an extensive "Oceanus Septentrionalis" at the northern edge of their charts. The few expeditions to penetrate much beyond the Arctic Circle in this era added only small islands, such as Novaya Zemlya and Spitzbergen, though since these were surrounded by pack-ice, their northern limits were not so clear; the makers of navigational charts, more conservative than some of the more fanciful cartographers, tended to leave the region blank, with only fragments of known coastline sketched in. This lack of knowledge of what lay north of the shifting barrier of ice gave rise to a number of conjectures. In England and other European nations, the myth of an "Open Polar Sea" was persistent. John Barrow, longtime Second Secretary of the British Admiralty, promoted exploration of the region from 1818 to 1845 in search of this.
In the United States in the 1850s and 1860s, the explorers Elisha Kane and Isaac Israel Hayes both claimed to have seen part of this elusive body of water. Quite late in the century, the eminent authority Matthew Fontaine Maury included a description of the Open Polar Sea in his textbook The Physical Geography of the Sea; as all the explorers who travelled closer and closer to the pole reported, the polar ice cap is quite thick, persists year-round. Fridtjof Nansen was the first to make a nautical crossing of the Arctic Ocean, in 1896; the first surface crossing of the ocean was led by Wally Herbert in 1969, in a dog sled expedition from Alaska to Svalbard, with air support. The first nautical transit of the north pole was made in 1958 by the submarine USS Nautilus, the first surface nautical transit occurred in 1977 by the icebreaker NS Arktika. Since 1937, Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations have extensively monitored the Arctic Ocean. Scientific settlements were established on the drift ice and carried thousands of kilometers by ice floes.
In World War II, the European region of the Arctic Ocean was contested: the Allied commitment to resupply the Soviet Union via its northern ports was opposed by German naval and air forces. Since 1954 commercial airlines have flown over the Arctic Ocean; the Arctic Ocean occupies a circular basin and covers an area of about 14,056,000 km2 the size of Antarctica. The coastline is 45,390 km long, it is surrounded by the land masses of Eurasia, North America, by several islands. It is taken to include Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, White Sea and other tributary bodies of water
A rotary dial is a component of a telephone or a telephone switchboard that implements a signaling technology in telecommunications known as pulse dialing. It is used when initiating a telephone call to transmit the destination telephone number to a telephone exchange. On the rotary phone dial, the digits are arranged in a circular layout so that a finger wheel may be rotated with one finger from the position of each digit to a fixed stop position, implemented by the finger stop, a mechanical barrier to prevent further rotation; when released at the finger stop, the wheel returns to its home position by spring action at a speed regulated by a governor device. During this return rotation, the dial interrupts the direct electrical current of the telephone line a specific number of times for each digit and thereby generates electrical pulses which the telephone exchange decodes into each dialed digit; each of the ten digits is encoded in sequences of up to ten pulses so the method is sometimes called decadic dialling.
The first patent for a rotary dial was granted to Almon Brown Strowger as U. S. Patent 486,909, but the known form with holes in the finger wheel was not introduced until ca. 1904. While used in telephone systems of the independent telephone companies, rotary dial service in the Bell System in the United States was not common until the introduction of the Western Electric model 50AL in 1919. From the 1980s onward, the rotary dial was supplanted by dual-tone multi-frequency push-button dialing, first introduced to the public at the 1962 World's Fair under the trade name "Touch-Tone". Touch-tone technology used a keypad in form of a rectangular array of push-buttons for dialing. From as early as 1836 onward, various suggestions and inventions of dials for sending telegraph signals were reported. After the first commercial telephone exchange was installed in 1878, the need for an automated, user-controlled method of directing a telephone call became apparent. Addressing the technical shortcomings, Almon Brown Strowger invented a telephone dial in 1891.
Before 1891, numerous competing inventions, 26 patents for dials, push-buttons, similar mechanisms, specified methods of signalling a destination telephone station that a subscriber wanted to call. Most inventions involved costly, intricate mechanisms and required the user to perform complex manipulations; the first commercial installation of a telephone dial accompanied the first commercial installation of a 99-line automatic telephone exchange in La Porte, Indiana, in 1892, based on the 1891 Strowger designs. The original dials required complex operational sequences. A workable, albeit error-prone, system was invented by the Automatic Electric Company using three push-buttons on the telephone; these buttons represented the hundreds and single units of a telephone number. When calling the subscriber number 163, for example, the user had to push the hundreds button once, followed by six presses of the tens button, three presses of the units button. In 1896, this system was supplanted by an automatic contact-making calling device.
Further development continued during the 1890s and the early 1900s in conjunction with improvements in switching technology. Almon Brown Strowger was the first to file a patent for a rotary dial on December 21, 1891, awarded on November 29, 1892, as U. S. Patent 486,909; the early rotary dials used lugs on a finger plate instead of holes, the pulse train was generated without the control of spring action or a governor on the forward movement of the wheel, which proved to be difficult to operate correctly. On rotary dial phones smaller numbers, such as 2, are dialed more than longer numbers, such as 9. In 1947, area codes were introduced in the United States, so as to facilitate direct distance dialing first by operators by subscribers. In the original system in use until 1995, the first digit of the area code could not be a one or a zero, but the second number had to be a one or zero; this allowed mechanical switching equipment in the central offices to distinguish local from "long distance" calls.
Therefore, the lowest and most dialed code was 212. The Bell System, in developing the original area codes, assigned the lowest codes to the areas where they would be most used: the large cities. 212, the lowest number, was New York City. The next to lowest, 213 and 312, were Chicago. 214 was Dallas and 412 was Pittsburgh. A high number like 919 was assigned to North Carolina. An higher number, 907, was Alaska. In the 1950s, plastic materials were introduced in dial construction, replacing metal, heavier and subject to higher wear. Despite their lack of modern features, rotary phones find special uses. For instance, the anti-drug Fairlawn Coalition of the Anacostia section of Washington, D. C. persuaded the phone company to reinstall rotary-dial pay phones in the 1980s to discourage loitering by drug purchasers, since the dials could not be used to leave coded digital messages on dealers' pagers. They are retained for authenticity in historic properties such as the U. S. Route 66 Blue Swallow Motel.
A rotary dial features a circular construction. The shaft that actuates the mechanical switching mechanism is driven by the finger wheel, a disk that has ten finger holes aligned close to the circumference; the finger wheel may be transparent or opaque permitting the viewing of the face plate, or number plate below, either in whole, or only showing the number assignment for each finger hole. The faceplate is printed with numbers, sometimes le
The 180th meridian or antimeridian is the meridian 180° both east and west of the Prime Meridian, with which it forms a great circle dividing the earth into the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. It is common to both east west longitude, it passes through the open waters of the Pacific Ocean, but passes across land in Russia and Antarctica. This meridian is used as the basis for the International Date Line, but the latter deviates from it to maintain date consistency within the territories of Russia, the United States, Kiribati and New Zealand. Starting at the North Pole and heading south to the South Pole, the 180th meridian passes through: The meridian passes between: the Gilbert Islands and the Phoenix Islands of Kiribati North Island and the Kermadec Islands of New Zealand the Bounty Islands and the Chatham Islands of New ZealandThe only place where roads cross this meridian, where there are buildings close to it, is in Fiji. Many geographic software libraries or data formats project the world to a rectangle.
This makes it non-trivial to do simple tasks over the 180th meridian. Some examples: The GeoJSON specification suggests splitting geometries so that neither of their parts cross the antimeridian. In OpenStreetMap, areas are split at the 180th meridian. 179th meridian east 179th meridian west Prime meridian International Date Line
Stewart, British Columbia
Stewart is a district municipality at the head of the Portland Canal in northwestern British Columbia, Canada on the Canada–US border. In 2011, its population was about 494; the Nisga'a, who lived around the Nass River, called the head of Portland Canal Skam-A-Kounst, meaning "safe house" or "strong house" because it served them as a retreat from the harassment of the Haida and Tlingit from the outer coast. They travelled in the area seasonally to pick berries and hunt birds, it and the rest of the Portland Canal had been the domain of the Tsetsaut people called the Skam-a-Kounst Indians, or Jits'aawit in Nisga'a, an Athapaskan people who became decimated by war and disease and were driven out of the Stewart area by either Haida or Nisga'a in 1856-57. The Portland Canal was first explored and named in July 1793 by Captain George Vancouver in honour of William Henry Cavendish Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, Home Secretary from 1794 to 1801. Vancouver met two friendly native people at the current site of Stewart, BC.
The area around the Portland Canal was again explored in 1896 by Captain D. D. Gaillard of the United States Army Corps of Engineers. Two years after Gaillard's visit, the first prospectors and settlers arrived. Among them was D. J. Raine, for whom a creek and a mountain in the area are named; the Stewart brothers arrived in 1902. In 1905, Robert M. Stewart, the first postmaster, named the town Stewart. Gold and silver mining dominated the early economy. Nearby Hyder, boomed with the discovery of rich silver veins in the upper Salmon River basin in 1917 and 1918. Hyder became an access and supply point for the mines, while Stewart served as the port for Canadian mining activity, centred on the town of Premier, accessed by a 14 miles road from Hyder. Other mines in the area were the Jumbo, BC Silver, Red Cliff, Porter-Idaho. More large camps were south of Stewart at Maple Bay. Stewart had a population of about 10,000 prior to World War I, which declined to about 700 in 2000; as of 2005, its population had reduced to less than 500.
Disney's Eight Below, starring Paul Walker and Jason Biggs, was filmed here. The exterior shots from John Carpenter's science fiction classic The Thing were filmed in the nearby glacial mountains. Stewart is accessible by highway from the British Columbia highway system, via Highway 37A, or by air through Stewart Airport. West of Stewart is Hyder, only 3 kilometres from the town. East of the town is Meziadin Junction, 61 kilometres from the town. East is Kitwanga, British Columbia, located 218 kilometres from the town, Dease Lake, British Columbia, located 392 kilometres north of Stewart. Stewart has a humid continental climate, with about 1,866.8 mm per year of precipitation, much of it as snow, an average yearly temperature of 6.1 °C, according to Environment Canada. Stewart is Canada's most northerly ice-free port. Due to its proximity to the ocean, the climate retains strong maritime influences, with winters being far milder than locations farther inland. With an average of 985 hours of annual sunshine, Stewart is one of the cloudiest places in the world.
Alaska boundary dispute Granduc Mine Hyder, Alaska Premier, British Columbia Stewart and Hyder International Chamber of Commerce Stewart Community Information Google Map photo of Stewart Stewart Airport
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
Contiguous United States
The contiguous United States or the conterminous United States consists of the 48 adjoining U. S. states on the continent of North America. The terms exclude the non-contiguous states of Alaska and Hawaii, all other off-shore insular areas; these differ from the related term continental United States which includes Alaska but excludes Hawaii and insular territories. The greatest distance within the 48 contiguous states is 2,802 miles. Together, the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia occupy a combined area of 3,119,884.69 square miles. Of this area, 2,959,064.44 square miles is contiguous land, composing 83.65% of total U. S. land area, similar to the area of Australia. 160,820.25 square miles of the contiguous United States is water area, composing 62.66% of the nation's total water area. The contiguous United States would be placed 5th in the list of sovereign states and dependencies by area. Brazil is the only country, larger in total area than the contiguous United States, but smaller than the entire United States, while Russia and China are the only three countries larger than both.
The 2010 census population of this area was 306,675,006, comprising 99.33% of the nation's population, a density of 103.639 inhabitants/sq mi, compared to 87.264/sq mi for the nation as a whole. The contiguous United States does not include overseas U. S. territories such as American Samoa, U. S. Virgin Islands, Northern Mariana Islands and Puerto Rico, the latter of which has a higher population than Alaska and Hawaii. While conterminous U. S. has the precise meaning of contiguous U. S. other terms used to describe the 48 contiguous states have a greater degree of ambiguity. Because Alaska is on the North American continent, the term continental United States includes that state, so the term is qualified with the explicit inclusion of Alaska to resolve any ambiguity. On May 14, 1959, the United States Board on Geographic Names issued the following definitions based on the reference in the Alaska Omnibus Bill, which defined the continental United States as "the 49 States on the North American Continent and the District of Columbia..."
The Board reaffirmed these definitions on May 13, 1999. However before Alaska became a state, it was properly included within the continental U. S. due to being an incorporated territory. CONUS, a technical term used by the U. S. Department of Defense, General Services Administration, NOAA/National Weather Service, others, has been defined both as the continental United States, as the 48 contiguous states; the District of Columbia is not always mentioned as being part of CONUS. OCONUS is derived from CONUS with O for outside added, thus referring to Outside of Continental United States; the term lower 48 is used to refer to the conterminous United States. The National Geographic style guide recommends the use of contiguous or conterminous United States instead of lower 48 when the 48 states are meant, unless used in the context of Alaska. During World War II, the first four numbered Air Forces of the United States Army Air Forces were said to be assigned to the Zone of the Interior by the American military organizations of the time—the future states of Alaska and Hawaii each only organized incorporated territories of the Union, were covered by the Eleventh Air Force and Seventh Air Force during the war.
Alaskans and non-continental territories have unique labels for the contiguous United States because of their own locations relative to them. Alaska became the 49th state of the United States on January 3, 1959. Alaska is on the northwest end of the North American continent, but separated from the rest of the United States Pacific coast by the Canadian province of British Columbia. In Alaska, given the ambiguity surrounding the usage of continental, the term "continental United States" is unheard of when referring to the contiguous 48 states. Several other terms have been used over the years; the term Lower 48 has, for many years, been a common Alaskan equivalent for "contiguous United States". Hawaii became the 50th state of the United States on August 21, 1959, it is the southernmost and so far, the latest state to join the Union. Not part of any continent, Hawaii is located in the Pacific Ocean, about 2,200 miles from North America and halfway to Asia. In Hawaii and overseas American territories, for instance, the terms the Mainland or U.
S. Mainland are used to refer to the contiguous United States. Puerto Rico is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea 1,000 miles southeast of Miami, Florida. Puerto Ricans born in Puerto Rico are free to move to the mainland. A Stateside Puerto Rican is a term for residents in a U. S. state who were trace family ancestry to Puerto Rico. Apart from off-shore US islands, a few continental portions of the contiguous US are accessible by road only by traveling through Canada. Point Roberts, Washington. Alburgh, Vermont, is not directly connected by land, but
Area code 604
Area code 604 is a telephone area code that serves southwestern British Columbia: the Lower Mainland, Sunshine Coast, Howe Sound/Sea to Sky Corridor, Fraser Valley and the lower Fraser Canyon regions. It serves the city of Vancouver and surrounding regions. 604 is one of the original 86 area codes assigned in 1947 in the contiguous United States and the then-nine provinces of Canada, served the entire province of British Columbia. Until 1988, area code 604 included Point Roberts, Washington, a pene-enclave of the United States. Despite British Columbia's growth in the second half of the 20th century, 604 remained the province's sole area code for over 50 years. By the mid-1990s, the need for a new area code in the province could no longer be staved off due to Canada's number allocation system; every competitive local exchange carrier in the country is allocated blocks of 10,000 numbers—corresponding to a single three-digit prefix—for every rate centre where it offers service for the smallest hamlets.
While smaller rate centres do not need that many numbers, once a number is assigned to a carrier and rate centre, it cannot be moved elsewhere to a larger rate centre. Additionally, some larger cities are split between multiple rate centres that have never been amalgamated; this resulted in thousands of wasted numbers, the growing popularity of cell phones and fax machines only exacerbated this. The number shortage was severe in the Lower Mainland, home to most of the province's landlines, as well as most of its cell phones and fax machines. In 1997, 604 was cut back to the Lower Mainland, with the new area code 250 created for the remainder of the province; the 1997 split was intended as a long-term solution for the Lower Mainland. However, within three years, 604 was close to exhaustion once again due to the aforementioned number allocation problem and the continued proliferation of cell phones and pagers. While numbers tended to be used up quickly in the Vancouver area due to its rapid growth, the number allocation problem was still severe in the Lower Mainland as a whole.
On November 3, 2001, area code 778 was implemented as a concentrated overlay for the two largest regional districts in the Lower Mainland, Metro Vancouver and the Fraser Valley Regional District. This experiment was announced in NANP planning letter PL-246. While the remainder of the Lower Mainland continued to use only 604, the addition of area code 778 required the implementation of ten-digit dialing throughout the region; the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission announced on June 7, 2007, that 778 would become an overlay for the entire province on July 4, 2007, after the same number allocation problem that afflicted 604 brought 250 close to exhaustion. Effective June 23, 2008, ten-digit dialing became mandatory in BC, attempts to make a seven-digit call triggered an intercept message with a reminder of the new rule. After September 12, 2008, seven-digit dialing was no longer functional. Overlays have become the preferred method of relief in Canada, as they offer an easy workaround for the number allocation problem.
The incumbent local exchange carrier in 604 and 778 is Telus. Through "number portability" and sub-allocation of all numbers in some exchanges to a competitor, many numbers in the 778 area code are now serviced by Shaw Cablesystems. Abbotsford 217 226 302 504 556 557 615 621 743 744 746 751 752 755 756 768 776 832 850 851 852 853 854 855 859 864 870 Agassiz-Kent-Harrison Hot Springs-Chehalis 796 Aldergrove 308 309 409 607 613 614 624 625 626 627 807 825 835 856 857 866 897 996 Anmore 461 469 Boston Bar 867 Bowen Island 947 Burnaby 250 290 291 292 293 294 296 297 298 299 311 312 327 328 341 412 419 420 421 422 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 444 450 451 453 454 456 473 570 571 610 611 612 619 803 880 Chilliwack 316 378 391 392 393 402 407 490 701 702 703 784 791 792 793 794 795 798 799 819 823 824 843 845 846 847 858 991 997 Coquitlam 931 936 939 Delta 940 943 946 948 952 963 Gibsons 840 885 886 887 989 Hope 201 206 712 749 750 860 869 Langley and 427 455 508 509 513 514 530 532 533 534 539 546 757 881 882 888 994 Maple Ridge 460 462 463 465 466 467 Mission 286 287 289 410 814 820 826 New Westminster 200 202 209 237 239 245 306 351 357 374 375 376 377 395 512 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 537 540 544 545 551 553 616 617 636 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 777 787 788 805 808 813 818 822 828 833 838 862 868 878 889 908 920 North Vancouver and 210 243 770 903 904 914 924 929 960 971 973 980 981 982 983 984 985 986 987 988 990 995 998 Pemberton 894 Pender Harbour 883 Pitt Meadows 458 460 465 Port Coquitlam 342 464 468 471 472 474 552 554 927 941 942 944 945 Port Moody 461 469 492 917 931 933 934 936 937 939 949 Powell River 208 223 344 413 414 483 485 486 487 489 578 Richmond 204 207 214 227 231 232 233 234 241 242 244 246 247 248 249 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 284 285 288 295 303 304 330 370 394 448 821 Roberts Creek See Gibsons Sechelt 740 741 747 989 885 Squamish 213 389 390 405 567 815 848 849 890 892 898 919 Surrey is divided into the following local rate centres: Cloverdale 574 575 576 577 579 Newton 501 502 503 507 543 547 561 562 572 573 590 591 592 594 595 596 597 598 599 635 Whalley 495 496 497 498 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 634 930 951 953 954 955 957 White Rock 305 385 531 535 536 538 541 542 548 Vancouver 205 215 216 218 219 220 221 222 224 225 228 230 235 240 250 251 252 253 254 255 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 266 267 268 269 280 281 282 290 291 292 293 294 296 297 298 299 301 307 312 313 314 315 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327