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Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty

An Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty is an area of countryside in England, Wales or Northern Ireland, designated for conservation due to its significant landscape value. Areas are designated in recognition of their national importance, by the relevant public body: Natural England, Natural Resources Wales, or the Northern Ireland Environment Agency. In place of AONB, Scotland uses the similar national scenic area designation. Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty enjoy levels of protection from development similar to those of UK national parks, but unlike with national parks the responsible bodies do not have their own planning powers, they differ from national parks in their more limited opportunities for extensive outdoor recreation. The idea for what would become the AONB designation was first put forward by John Dower in his 1945 Report to the Government on National Parks in England and Wales. Dower suggested there was need for protection of certain beautiful landscapes which were unsuitable as national parks owing to their small size and lack of wildness.

Dower's recommendation for the designation of these "other amenity areas" was embodied in the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949 as the AONB designation. The purpose of an AONB designation is to conserve and enhance the natural beauty of the designated landscape. There are two secondary aims: meeting the need for quiet enjoyment of the countryside and having regard for the interests of those who live and work there. To achieve these aims, AONBs rely on practical countryside management; as they have the same landscape quality, AONBs may be compared to the national parks of England and Wales. National parks are well known to many inhabitants of the UK. However, the National Association of AONBs is working to increase awareness of AONBs in local communities, in 2014 negotiated to have the boundaries of AONBs in England shown on Google Maps. There are 46 AONBs in Britain; the first AONB was designated in 1956 in South Wales. The most confirmed is the Tamar Valley AONB in 1995, although the existing Clwydian Range AONB was extended in 2012 to form the Clwydian Range and Dee Valley AONB, the Strangford Lough and Lecale Coast AONBs were merged and redesignated as a single AONB in 2010.

AONBs vary in terms of size and use of land, whether they are or wholly open to the public. The smallest AONB is the Isles of Scilly, 16 km2, the largest is the Cotswolds, 2,038 km2; the AONBs of England and Wales together cover around 18% of the countryside in the two countries. The AONBs of Northern Ireland together cover about 70% of Northern Ireland's coastline. AONBs in England and Wales were created under the same legislation as the national parks, the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949. Unlike AONBs, national parks have special legal powers to prevent unsympathetic development. AONBs in general remain the responsibility of their local authorities by means of special committees which include members appointed by the minister and by parishes, only limited statutory duties were imposed on local authorities within an AONB by the original 1949 Act. However, further regulation and protection of AONBs in England and Wales was added by the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000, under which new designations are now made, the government has in the National Planning Policy Framework stated that AONBs and national parks have equal status when it comes to planning decisions on landscape issues.

Two of the AONBs, which extend into a large number of local authority areas, have their own statutory bodies, known as conservation boards. All English and Welsh AONBs have other staff; as required by the CRoW Act, each AONB has a management plan that sets out the characteristics and special qualities of the landscape and how they will be conserved and enhanced. The AONBs are collectively represented by the National Association for Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty, an independent registered charity acting on behalf of AONBs and their partners, which uses the slogan Landscapes for Life. AONBs in Northern Ireland was designated under the Amenity Lands Act 1965. There are growing concerns among environmental and countryside groups that AONB status is under threat from development; the Campaign to Protect Rural England said in July 2006 that many AONBs were under greater threat than before. Three particular sites were cited: the Dorset AONB threatened by a road plan, the threat of a football stadium in the Sussex Downs AONB, larger than any other, a £1 billion plan by Imperial College London to build thousands of houses and offices on hundreds of acres of AONB land on the Kent Downs at Wye.

In September 2007 government approval was given for the development of a new football ground for Brighton and Hove Albion within the boundaries of the Sussex Downs AONB, after a fierce fight by conservationists. The subsequent development, known as Falmer Stadium, was opened in July 2011; the Weymouth Relief Road in Dorset was constructed between 2008 and 2011, after environmental groups lost a High Court challenge to prevent its construction. Writing in 2006, Professor Adrian Phillips listed threats facing AONBs, he wrote that the apparent big threats were uncertainty

List of heads of government of Estonia

This is a list of people, who have been heads of government of the Republic of Estonia from 1918, either as a Chairman of the Council of Elders, Prime Minister, State Elder or President-Regent. The office of Prime Minister first came into use soon after Estonia gained its independence in 1918. From 1918 to 1934, Estonia used a parliamentary political system, where the presidency and ministry were subject to parliamentary confidence, but instead of a presidential office, the government was headed by a Prime Minister and from 1920 to 1934, a similar office called State Elder; the 1934 constitution gave the State Elder the role of the president, with a separate head of government created, restoring the office of Prime Minister. The new system was obstructed by a 1934 coup d'état by head of government Konstantin Päts. During his authoritarian era, he ruled as both Prime State Elder; the latter office was entrusted to him until the presidential elections. In 1937, the two offices were combined into the office of President-Regent, but the situation was again changed with the 1938 constitution, when Konstantin Päts gave up the office of Prime Minister to a new officeholder.

The Soviet occupation of Estonia in 1940 made Johannes Vares the new Prime Minister of Estonia, but his rule was declared to have been illegal. According to the 1938 constitution, Prime Minister was to lead the presidency in case the President couldn't be elected, a move, implemented for the Estonian Government in Exile; the interim government restored the office of Prime Minister in 1990. A total of 23 people have headed the Government of Estonia, 15 before and 8 after the Soviet occupation. Konstantin Päts headed the government for the longest, a total of 3,563 days during six different terms. Andrus Ansip is the second longest office holder, having been democratically in office longer than Päts; the shortest time in office was for Ado Birk, when he served as Prime Minister for only 3 days and never stepping into office. Acting Prime Minister Otto Tief was in office for 8 days between the German and Soviet occupations in 1944. Ants Piip, August Rei, Jüri Uluots, Juhan Kukk, Friedrich Karl Akel and Jüri Jaakson were in office for less than a year.

Konstantin Päts served a total of six terms, although his sixth term turned into an authoritarian regime. Jaan Tõnisson was in office four times, although there was just one full day of Ado Birk's cabinet between his first two terms. Otto August Strandman, Jaan Teemant, Karl August Einbund, Tiit Vähi and Mart Laar all served two terms in office. Longest average term lengths are all in the reindependence period with Andrus Ansip in the lead, Mart Laar second and Mart Siimann third. Longest interwar average term is held by Konstantin Päts. During the interwar democratic era however, longest average term was achieved by Jaan Teemant, followed by Otto August Strandman and by Konstantin Päts himself; the era before occupation had the shortest average term lengths with the two extremes of Ado Birk and Otto Tief, but Ants Piip with 92 days. Jaan Tõnisson had an average term length of only 216 days. Andres Tarand and Siim Kallas have the shortest average term lengths during the reindependence era. Mart Laar was only 32 years old when he became Prime Minister in 1992.

Ado Birk, Ants Piip, Juhan Kukk, Taavi Rõivas, Edgar Savisaar, Mart Laar and Juhan Parts were in their 30s when appointed. Jaan Tõnisson was 64 when stepping into office in 1933; the rest were in their 40s or 50s when assuming office, average age at appointment is 48

Sagina Mahato

Sagina Mahato is a 1970 Bengali film. Produced by Shri J. K. Kapur and directed by Tapan Sinha, the film stars Saira Banu; the film is based on the true story of the labour movement of 1942-43, told through with fictional characters, the mock trial of Sagina Mahato, the trade union leader of a factory in Siliguri. It was entered into the 7th Moscow International Film Festival; the film was shot on locations near Darjeeling. The film was remade as a Hindi film titled Sagina in 1974, by Sinha with the same leads, produced by the same producers team J. K. Kapur and Heman Ganguly, though this version wasn't successful. Film music composed by legendary playback singer Anup Ghoshal This is story of a tea estate labour leader in the north eastern region of India during the British Raj. Sagina Mahato fights for the rights of the labourers and has the courage to face the tyranny of the British bosses, he is helped by a young communist Amal who comes to the place to upraise the poor and downtrodden masses. Amal, an outsider, turned Sagina as a leader and thus alienated him from the mass by elaborating, codifying, approximating his social hierarchy.

The story by Gour Kishor Ghosh (first published in Desh25:12, 18 January 1958, reveals the problems of vulgar vanguardism from the radical humanist standpoint. Dilip Kumar Saira Banu Anil Chatterjee Romi Chowdhury Swarup Dutta Sumita Sanyal Kalyan Chatterjee Bhanu Bandopadhyay BFJA Awards in 1971 Best Actor: Dilip Kumar Best Actor in Supporting Role: Anil Chatterjee Best Art Direction: Suniti Mitra Best Music: Tapan Sinha Best Male Playback Singer Award: Anup Ghoshal History of tea in India Sagina Mahato, Promotional Booklet British Library Sagina Mahato in Gomolo.in Sagina Mahato on IMDb