Arena rock

Arena rock is a style of rock music that originated in the mid-1970s. As hard rock bands and those playing a softer yet strident kind of pop rock became popular, groups began creating material inherently designed for large audiences, arena rock developed from their use of more commercially oriented and radio-friendly sounds; the highly produced music, including both upbeat, dramatic songs and slower power ballads, features strong emphasis on melody and employs anthemic choruses. Other major characteristics include the use of keyboard instruments. Many of the above labels are used pejoratively, discussions over music criticism delves into the question of if musicians' focus on rock spectacle and mass appeal results in compromised artistic merit in terms of the difference between the interests of the "middlebrow" populace versus other listeners. Interest in arena rock is stereotypically associated with working class to middle class white men living in either Canada or the United States, cited as the basis for condescending prejudice over social status in some criticisms.

However, the style of music has been popularly successful worldwide in terms of touring. Historian Gary A. Donaldson has summed up arena rock as "big hair, big voices, big guitars". In contrast to other types of music with a more raw, timeworn approach, musicians emphasize dramatic production. With bands inherently designing their material for large audiences, the songs focus on the melody, songs featuring strident choruses. Guitar effects and the playing of keyboard instruments play large roles in the sound. Fireworks displays, use of smoke, methods of sophisticated lighting have become part of what's known as arena rock's visual aesthetic. Despite the differences in terms of genre and the gigantic, screaming crowds that greeted the Beatles as they performed in the U. S. proved influential on arena rock with artists' complex views of the connection between themselves as musicians and the primal needs of their mass audiences. The rise of the rock style signified the end of the hippie-type of idealistic 1960s culture after the disillusionment that followed the infamous Altamont Free Concert of 1969, represented a newer form of musical expression, still confident and strident while being more commercial.

With hundreds of people injured and one dying, said concert has been described as "the spiritual death of the decade". In the period from the end of the 1960s to the middle of the 1970s, advances in technology allowed for the increased power of amplification and sound systems without losing sound quality, thus giving hard rock bands the opportunity to use larger and larger venues. Attributing the birth of arena rock to the Rolling Stones' 1969 US tour, The Guardian ranked the tour number 19 on their list of the 50 key events in rock music history. Prior to the tour the loudest sound at big-capacity shows was the crowd, so the Stones ensured they had lighting and sound systems that would allow them to be seen and heard in the biggest arenas, with The Guardian stating their "combination of front-of-house excellence and behind the scenes savvy took the business of touring to an new level."The Flint, Michigan born outfit Grand Funk Railroad, which advertised itself as a "people's band" on the release of their 1969 debut album given their nationwide touring, played to about 125,000 in Georgia and 180,000 in Texas within a short period of time.

Although hard rock became heavy metal music and the arena rock style, they shared an emphasis on loudness, screen vision and formed more sound that had dominated the rock mainstream from late 70s to early 80s. Arena rock's popularity, being described as "a dominant force" musically from the 1970s onward, resulted in a number of musical reactions; the British pub rock movement arose in large part due to its emphasis on small-scale events, aimed at promoting a friendly, intimate connection between performers and audiences. The explosion of punk rock and punk subcultures in general in the 1970s directly challenged the perceived excesses of mainstream rock at the time; the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame states that the following decade the late 1980s, is "considered a golden era of hard rock in terms of commercial airplay". The music of the 1970s reflected changing philosophical interests compared to previous decades, with personal growth, private revelation, self-improvement gaining more emphasis compared to past interests in collectivist social activism.

The period coming to be known dismissively as the "Me Decade", rock releases celebrated a hedonistic, self-indulgent abandonment. Multiple artists pursued an arena rock sound based on individual inspiration and achievement in anthemic songs about independence. In terms of the changing trends into the 1980s and onward, the style replaced disco in terms of mass pop culture appeal. During that period, arena rock evolved in a way, still melodic and performance-driven yet far more aggressive and confrontational. Mainstream rock became dominated by these hair metal bands, with a large emphasis still being put on both on music and visuals. Flashy clothing with elements such as heavy makeup and dramatic hairstyles became common. Prominent examples of this genre include Def Leppard, L. A. Guns, Mötley Crüe, Poison, their popularity crashed after the success of alternative rock bands who began to break through into popular consciousness with an more abra


Tirumular was a Tamil Shaivite mystic and writer, considered one of the sixty-three Nayanmars and one of the 18 Siddhars. His main work, the Tirumantiram, which consists of over 3000 verses, forms a part of the key text of the Tamil Shaiva Siddhanta, the Tirumurai; the dates of Tirumular's life are controversial, because his work makes reference to so many currents of religious thought, the dates that different scholars assign are appealed to for anchoring the relative chronology of other literature in Tamil language and Literature copied from Tamil to Sanskrit. Verse 74 of the Tirumantiram makes the claim that Tirumular lived for 7 yugams before composing the Tirumantiram; some are therefore inclined to place his composition well before the Common Era. The scholar and lexicographer S. Vaiyapuripillai, suggested that he belonged to the beginning of the eighth-century CE, pointing out that Tirumular could not well be placed earlier given that he appears to refer to the Tevaram hymns of Sambandar and Sundarar, that he used "very late words" and that he made mention of the weekdays.

Others wish to push the date still later: Dominic Goodall, for instance, appears to suggest, on the grounds of religious notions that appear in the work with Sanskrit labels for which a certain historical development can be traced in other datable works, that the Tirumantiram cannot be placed before the 11th- or 12th-century CED. Yet another view, alluded to for instance by Vaiyapuripillai, is that the text may contain an ancient core, but with "a good number of interpolated stanzas" of date. Whatever the case, allusions to works and ideas in the Tirumantiram cannot, at least for the moment, be used as useful indicators of their chronology. SundaraNathar, as the saint is known, was a Yogi from ThenMadurai who travelled to Mount Kailaayam and was initiated directly by Lord Sivan. After spending many years in Mount Kailaayam, he undertook a journey under the order of Lord Sivan to Thamizhakam, to meet his contemporary sage friend Agathiyar in Pothigai Hills. While on his way, near Sathanur Village, he saw a group of cows crying.

He went near to the cows, only to discover that their cowherd, Moolan was dead bitten by a snake. He was touched by the sight of the cows that wept in sorrow and decided to use his Oham power and move his soul from his body to that of the dead cowherd's body, he left his body inside a tree log. On waking up from the body of cowherd, the cows became happy and so he navigated them to the village, he returned to the place where he left his body, to return to his own body. To his surprise, his actual body had disappeared away from the tree log nowhere to be found. During this moment, he heard a divine voice from the sky who told him that He was the one who made his body to disappear. Lord Sivan told him the reason why He did that, that's because Lord Sivan wanted Sundara Nathar to spread his teachings through the body of Moolan so that each and every common people would get enlightened through the knowledge spread in Moolan's body because of the simple dialect of a cowherd man using the Tamil Language compared to Sundara Nathar's own body which would involve an advance and divine Tamil Language that would make it difficult for the common people to understand and comprehend.

Thus, from that day onwards he was known by the name of Thirumoolar. The cowherd was called by the name of Moolan in the village. Thus, he gained the name of Moolar, he was immersed in Thapam under a peepul tree in Thiruvavaduthurai and received the holy hymn verse in Tamil. 3000 of holy hymns have been documented in to the book called Tirumantiram. But the exact years of the events are not known. Agastyar Bogar Patanjali Thirumandhiram Thirumanthiram with Tamil explanation — Tamil version of Thirumanthiram Tirumantiram — English version of Thirumanthiram

Escape to Nowhere

Escape to Nowhere is the fourth studio album of the American heavy metal band Omen. It was released in 1988 by Metal Blade; this is the first Omen studio album with Coburn Pharr on vocals, replacing J. D. Kimball. Cam Daigneault had replaced Steve Witting on drums before album's release, but all drums tracks used in the album are played by Witting. Escape to Nowhere is the first Omen album to feature keyboards. OmenCoburn Pharr - Vocals Kenny Powell - Guitars Steve Wittig - Drums Jody Henry - BassAdditional musiciansBob Kinkel - Keyboards Paul Silver - additional Guitar on Radar Love Cam Daigneault - Drums ProductionPaul O'Neill - Production Gary Smith - Cover Art