The Poles referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture and are native speakers of the Polish language. The population of self-declared Poles in Poland is estimated at 37,394,000 out of an overall population of 38,538,000, of whom 36,522,000 declared Polish alone. A wide-ranging Polish diaspora exists throughout Europe, the Americas, in Australasia. Today the largest urban concentrations of Poles are within the Warsaw and Silesian metropolitan areas. Poland's history dates back over a thousand years, to c. 930–960 AD, when the Polans – an influential West Slavic tribe in the Greater Poland region, now home to such cities as Poznań, Kalisz and Września – united various Lechitic tribes under what became the Piast dynasty, thus creating the Polish state. The subsequent Christianization of Poland, in 966 CE, marked Poland's advent to the community of Western Christendom. Poles have made important contributions to the world in every major field of human endeavor.
Notable Polish émigrés – many of them forced from their homeland by historic vicissitudes – have included physicists Marie Skłodowska Curie and Joseph Rotblat, mathematician Stanisław Ulam, pianists Fryderyk Chopin and Arthur Rubinstein, actresses Helena Modjeska and Pola Negri, novelist Joseph Conrad, military leaders Tadeusz Kościuszko and Casimir Pulaski, U. S. National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski, politician Rosa Luxemburg, filmmakers Samuel Goldwyn and the Warner Brothers, cartoonist Max Fleischer, cosmeticians Helena Rubinstein and Max Factor. Slavs have been in the territory of modern Poland for over 1500 years, they organized into tribal units, of which the larger ones were known as the Polish tribes. In the 9th and 10th centuries the tribes gave rise to developed regions along the upper Vistula, the Baltic Sea coast and in Greater Poland; the last tribal undertaking resulted in the 10th century in a lasting political structure and state, one of the West Slavic nations. The concept which has become known as the Piast Idea, the chief proponent of, Jan Ludwik Popławski, is based on the statement that the Piast homeland was inhabited by so-called "native" aboriginal Slavs and Slavonic Poles since time immemorial and only was "infiltrated" by "alien" Celts, Baltic peoples and others.
After 1945 the so-called "autochthonous" or "aboriginal" school of Polish prehistory received official backing in Poland and a considerable degree of popular support. According to this view, the Lusatian Culture which archaeologists have identified between the Oder and the Vistula in the early Iron Age, is said to be Slavonic. In contrast, the critics of this theory, such as Marija Gimbutas, regard it as an unproved hypothesis and for them the date and origin of the westward migration of the Slavs is uncharted. Polish people are the sixth largest national group in the European Union. Estimates vary depending on source, though available data suggest a total number of around 60 million people worldwide. There are 38 million Poles in Poland alone. There are Polish minorities in the surrounding countries including, indigenous minorities in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and eastern Lithuania, western Ukraine, western Belarus. There are some smaller indigenous minorities in nearby countries such as Moldova.
There is a Polish minority in Russia which includes indigenous Poles as well as those forcibly deported during and after World War II. The term "Polonia" is used in Poland to refer to people of Polish origin who live outside Polish borders estimated at around 10 to 20 million. There is a notable Polish diaspora in the United States and Canada. France has a historic relationship with Poland and has a large Polish-descendant population. Poles have lived in France since the 18th century. In the early 20th century, over a million Polish people settled in France during world wars, among them Polish émigrés fleeing either Nazi occupation or Soviet rule. In the United States, a significant number of Polish immigrants settled in Chicago, Detroit, New Jersey, New York City, Pittsburgh and New England; the highest concentration of Polish Americans in a single New England municipality is in New Britain, Connecticut. The majority of Polish Canadians have arrived in Canada since World War II; the number of Polish immigrants increased between 1945 and 1970, again after the end of Communism in Poland in 1989.
In Brazil the majority of Polish immigrants settled in Paraná State. Smaller, but significant numbers settled in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Espírito Santo and São Paulo; the city of Curitiba has the second largest Polish diaspora in the world and Polish music and culture are quite common in the region. A recent large migration of Poles took place followi
Bay County, Michigan
Bay County is a county in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the population was 107,771; the county seat is Bay City. Bay County comprises the Bay City, MI Metropolitan Statistical Area and is included in the Saginaw-Midland-Bay City Combined Statistical Area in the Mid/Central Michigan region. Bay County was created in 1857 from portions of Midland County, Saginaw County, Arenac County, its name references that it "surrounds Saginaw Bay." Being only sparsely populated at that time, Arenac County government was unorganized and was attached to Saginaw County for administrative purposes. There was considerable opposition to the creation of Bay County from elected officials in both Saginaw and Midland counties. In 1854, a bill introduced to the state legislature to create Bay County was defeated by a small majority. In 1857, a new bill was introduced into the legislature. After initial opposition from the representatives of Saginaw and Midland counties, a compromise revision that would present the matter for ratification to the voters of "in said county" was passed by the legislature on February 17, 1857.
The matter was soundly defeated. However, the population within the boundaries proposed; the bill passed by the legislature included phrasing, deliberately included by the Bay City lawyer Chester H. Freeman, that allowed Bay County to claim ratification. Under the act, the county was to become effective April 20, 1857. Residents of Bay County held elections for county officials in June 1857. However, Saginaw County did not recognize the organization of the new county government. In the winter of 1858, Freeman secured passage of a bill in the legislature that would have confirmed the organization of Bay County, but the bill was vetoed by the governor. However, a case that went before the Michigan Supreme Court in its May 1858 term settled the matter. In the case, a defendant was tried in a Saginaw County court, but filed a plea for abatement, claiming that the supposed offense was committed in Bay County and was not in the jurisdiction of the Saginaw County court. Freeman had represented the defendant and prepared arguments, but became incapacitated due to illness.
At the request of Freeman's wife, Colonel William M. Fenton argued the case before the Michigan Supreme Court, with the result that Bay County was declared a organized county. In 1978, Bay County became the second Michigan county to adopt a County Executive form of government. Act 139 of 1973 provides for an optional unified form of county government under an appointed County Manager or an elected County Executive. With the County Executive, all departments of the county government that are not headed by a separate elected official are under the direction of the County Executive; the County Executive has veto power over the motions and resolutions passed by the County Commission. Since the adoption of this form of government, Bay County has had four County Executives: Gary Majeske, Kim Higgs, Thomas Hickner, James Barcia. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 631 square miles, of which 442 square miles is land and 188 square miles is water, it is the fifth-smallest county in Michigan by land area.
The Saginaw River flows through Bay City while the Kawkawlin River drains much of the central portion of the county. The Pinconning River and Saganing Creek drain the northern portion; the Saginaw Bay of Lake Huron lies to the east. Interstate 75 and U. S. Highway 23, which are concurrent within the county, are the major north–south route. North of Bay City, M-13 follows a parallel route a few miles to the east. US 10 has its eastern terminus in Bay City. M-25, M-15, M-84 enter Bay City from the east and southwest and terminate in or near the city. Arenac County Gladwin County Tuscola County Midland County Saginaw County The 2010 United States Census indicates Bay County had a 2010 population of 107,771; this is a decrease of -2,386 people from the 2000 United States Census. Overall, the county had a -2.2% growth rate during this ten-year period. In 2010 there were 44,603 households and 29,116 families in the county; the population density was 243.7 per square mile. There were 48,220 housing units at an average density of 109.0 per square mile.
The racial and ethnic makeup of the county was 91.2% White, 1.5% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 4.7% Hispanic or Latino, 0.1% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. There were 44,603 households out of which 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.6% were husband and wife families, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.7% were non-families, 29.3% were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.92. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.2% under age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 23.6% from 25 to 44, 29.5% from 45 to 64, 16.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 95.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93 males; the 2010 American Community Survey 1-year estimate indicates the median income for a household in the county was $45,451 and the median income for a family was $52,784.
Males had a median income of $31,035 versus $18,294 for females. The per capita income for the county was $22,378. About 11.2% of families and 16.2% of the population were below the poverty line
Iosco County, Michigan
Iosco County is a county in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 25,887; the county seat is Tawas City. Iosco is traditionally said to be a Native American word meaning "water of light." However, it was coined as a pseudo-Native American name by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, an American geographer and ethnologist who served as the US Indian agent in Michigan in the late 19th century. He named several towns during the state's formative years; the county was created by the Michigan Legislature in 1840 as Kanotin County, renamed Iosco County in 1843. It was administered by a succession of other Michigan counties prior to the organization of county government in 1857. A majority of the population used to be Chippewa Indians, the area offered shelter from tall white pines, food from the river and lake. Iosco County was cut from a piece of land seded from the Chippewa Indians to the United States Government. In the 1800's when the lumber boom hit, many more people moved to the area.
The 400-acre Alabaster Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, is associated with an operating gypsum open-pit mine south of Tawas City. The large company town included internal rail lines for transportation and a tramway extending over Lake Huron on long piers for loading gypsum onto ships. Started in 1862, the mine supplied gypsum for temporary buildings constructed in Chicago at the World Columbian Exposition of 1893. At present, two companies continue to mine gypsum in Iosco County. In 2009, Alabaster Township formed the non-profit Alabaster Wind Power Development Corp. to conduct the necessary 2-year studies of wind data at this site as a potential location for the development of wind turbines. It proposed using 10 large tramway platforms which extend more than 6,000 feet into the lake to gauge winds; the turbines could be built on the tramways. At the time, the federal government was offering subsidies for such studies and development of alternative energy projects.
According to the US Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,890 square miles, of which 549 square miles is land and 1,341 square miles is water. The county is considered to be part of Northern Michigan. In total, it covers about 6,361,837 acres. Lumberman's Monument Canoer's memorial 60 Lakes Area - Located near Hale Iargo Springs Tawas Point Light House - First lit in 1853 Tawas Bay Pine River – rises in Alcona County and flows into Iosco County, where it empties into Van Etten Lake at 44°29′38″N, 83°23′16″W northwest of Oscoda Au Sable River Tuttle Marsh Wildlife Area Van Etten Lake Tawas Lake Foote Dam Pond Au Sable State Forest – the Grayling Fire Management Unit consists of Alcona and Oscoda Counties, northern Iosco county. US 23 – known as the Sunrise Side Coastal Highway. M-55 – one of three cross-peninsular state highways, it begins in Tawas City at the junction with US 23. M-65 F-41 River Road National Scenic Byway – starts at M-65 and runs parallel with the Au Sable River for 23 miles eastward to US 23 in Oscoda, Michigan.
It is a designated National Scenic Byway. It passes the Lumberman's Monument. Alcona County - north Arenac County - southwest Ogemaw County - west Oscoda County - northwest Huron National Forest As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 27,339 people, 11,727 households, 7,857 families in the county. Most of the population is located on the shoreline along US-23,East Tawas, Tawas City, Oscoda County; the population density was 50 people per square mile. There were 20,432 housing units at an average density of 37 per square mile; the county's racial makeup was 96.92% White, 0.41% Black or African American, 0.66% Native American, 0.46% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.23% from other races, 1.27% from two or more races. 0.98% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 23.2% were of German, 12.3% English, 10.6% Irish, 9.9% American, 8.3% Polish and 7.1% French ancestry according to Census 2000. 97.4% spoke English and 1.0% Spanish as their first language. There were 11,727 households out of which 24.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.20% were married couples living together, 8.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.00% were non-families.
28.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.79. The county population included 22.40% under the age of 18, 5.40% from 18 to 24, 23.40% from 25 to 44, 27.30% from 45 to 64, 21.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 96.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,321, the median income for a family was $37,452. Males had a median income of $30,338 versus $21,149 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,115. About 9.50% of families and 12.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.50% of those under age 18 and 7.60% of those age 65 or over. The county government operates the jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, records deeds and vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of social services.
The county board of commissioners controls the budget, with limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions — police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance, etc. — are the responsibility of individual cities and townships. Iosco County has been reliably Republican from the beginning. Sin
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Ogemaw County, Michigan
Ogemaw County is a county located in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 21,699; the county seat is West Branch. The county newspaper of record is the Ogemaw Herald; the county was created by the Michigan Legislature in 1840 from unorganized territory, but was absorbed into Iosco County in 1867. It was re-created in 1873 and organized in 1875; the county's name is an Anglicization of the Anishinaabemowin word ogimaa, meaning "chief". According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 575 square miles, of which 563 square miles is land and 11 square miles is water. Ogemaw County is considered to be part of Northern Michigan. I-75 – runs SE across the southwest part of the county. Passes south of West Branch. M-30 – enters from Gladwin County at 5.5 miles east of the SW corner of Ogemaw County. Runs north and NE to intersection with M55 near West Branch. M-33 – runs north-south through the middle of county. Passes Rose City. M-55 – runs east-west across the lower part of county.
Enters from Iosco County at 6 miles north of SE corner of Ogemaw County. Runs west to intersection with I-75, west of West Branch. Huron National Forest Au Sable State Forest Rifle River State Recreation Area As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 21,645 people, 8,842 households, 6,189 families residing in the county; the population density was 38 people per square mile. There were 15,404 housing units at an average density of 27 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.48% White, 0.13% Black or African American, 0.60% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.13% from other races, 1.25% from two or more races. 1.16% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 28.7% were of German, 12.3% American, 10.2% English, 9.2% Irish, 7.0% French and 6.7% Polish ancestry according to Census 2000. 97.9% spoke only English at home. There were 8,842 households out of which 27.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.40% were married couples living together, 8.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.00% were non-families.
25.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.87. The county population contained 23.50% under the age of 18, 6.40% from 18 to 24, 24.40% from 25 to 44, 27.00% from 45 to 64, 18.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 98.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,474, the median income for a family was $34,988. Males had a median income of $31,003 versus $20,544 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,768. About 11.00% of families and 14.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.50% of those under age 18 and 9.90% of those age 65 or over. Ogemaw County has been reliably Republican. Since 1884, the Republican Party nominee has carried the county vote in 82% of the national presidential elections.
Ogemaw County operates the County jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, records deeds and vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of social services. The county board of commissioners controls the budget and has limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions – police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance etc. – are the responsibility of individual cities and townships. Rose City West Branch Prescott Lupton Skidway Lake List of Michigan State Historic Sites in Ogemaw County, Michigan National Register of Historic Places listings in Ogemaw County, Michigan Ogemaw County Website Ogemaw County Herald - Newspaper "Bibliography on Ogemaw County". Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University
Saginaw Bay is a bay within Lake Huron located on the eastern side of the U. S. state of Michigan. It forms the rest of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. Saginaw Bay is 1,143 square miles in area, it is located in parts of five Michigan counties: Arenac, Huron and Tuscola. The Saginaw Bay watershed is the largest drainage basin in Michigan, draining 15% of the total land area; the watershed contains the largest contiguous freshwater coastal wetland system in the United States. The Saginaw Bay Watershed Initiative Network leads the effort to promote sustainable development in the Saginaw Bay Watershed by coordinating watershed programs and providing grants to innovative projects across the region, it is listed as an Area of Concern by the EPA. Possible origins for the name "Saginaw" could be from the Ojibwa words O-Sag-e-non or Sag-in-a-we, meaning "to flow out", it may refer to the Saginaw River, which flows out into Saginaw Bay, into Lake Huron. The name "Saginaw" is not related to a region in Quebec whose name is of Algonquin origin.
This area was long settled by indigenous peoples, lastly by bands of the Ojibwe people prior to European exploration. They dominated the areas around the Great Lakes. In the early 17th century, French explorers were the first Europeans to visit the Great Lakes region; the first to visit the Saginaw Bay area was Father Jacques Marquette, a French Jesuit missionary priest, who went there in 1668 after establishing a mission in St. Ignace. In 1686, father Jean Enjalran arrived in the valley to establish an Indian mission, but his efforts failed. France ceded its nominal control of the region to Great Britain under the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1763 following Britain's victory in the Seven Years' War. Twenty years Britain ceded it to the newly independent United States of America, it became part of the Michigan Territory in 1805 and was admitted to the Union as the State of Michigan. During development of natural resources in the 19th century, Saginaw Bay was busy with shipping of lumber and other commodities to eastern markets.
About 1813, Louis Campau erected an Indian trading post along the Saginaw River, which led to the development of Saginaw City, Michigan in 1816 (which was combined with East Saginaw City in March 1890 to form Saginaw, Michigan. The history of other settlements of the Saginaw Bay area was connected to this. Bay City, Michigan is a major port at the lower end of the bay; the two Charity Islands in the middle of the bay, Charity Island and Little Charity Island, are excellent fishing grounds. The shore areas and beaches have become popular with summer tourists. Saginaw Bay Light No. 1, a navigational light 11 nautical miles northeast of the mouth of the Saginaw River, houses NOAA weather equipment providing weather conditions for the Bay. Gravelly Shoal Light, located near Charity Island houses a weather station. A World War II escort carrier was named Saginaw Bay; the Saginaw Bay Yacht Club remains one of the most prestigious in the region. Http://www.nature.org/saginawbay Beacons in the Night, Michigan Lighthouse Chronology, Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University.
Saginaw Bay Watershed Initiative Network
Interstate 75 in Michigan
Interstate 75 is a part of the Interstate Highway System that runs north–south from Miami, Florida, to Sault Ste. Marie in the Upper Peninsula of the US state of Michigan. I-75 enters the state from Ohio in the south, north of Toledo and runs northward through Detroit and Bay City, crosses the Mackinac Bridge, ends at the Canadian border in Sault Ste. Marie; the freeway runs for 396 miles on both of Michigan's major peninsulas. The landscapes traversed by I-75 include Southern Michigan farmland, northern forests, suburban bedroom communities, the urban core of Detroit; the freeway uses three of the state's monumental bridges to cross major bodies of water. There are four auxiliary Interstates in the state related to I-75, as well as nine current or former business routes, with either Business Loop I-75 or Business Spur I-75 designations; the freeway bears several names in addition to the I-75 designation. The southern segment was called the Detroit–Toledo Expressway during planning in the 1950s and 1960s.
Through Detroit, I-75 is the Fisher Freeway or the Walter P. Chrysler Freeway, named for pioneers in the auto industry. Sections on either side of the Mackinac Bridge are the G. Mennen Williams Freeway or the Prentiss M. Brown Freeway, named for politicians who helped get the bridge built; the entire length is the American Legion Memorial Highway, after the organization of the same name. Various sections carry components of the four Great Lakes Circle Tours in the state. Several Indian trails spanned the state along the general path of the modern freeway. After statehood, several of these were converted into plank roads that became some of the first state highways. In the 1920s, five of these were added to the United States Numbered Highway System: US Highway 2, US 10, US 24, US 25, US 27. In the 1950s, a Michigan Turnpike was proposed as a tolled, controlled-access highway in the Lower Peninsula. After passage of the Federal Highway Act of 1956, this turnpike proposal was shelved as a free Interstate Highway was planned.
Construction started in 1957, signs went up in 1959, I-75 was completed in 1973. Since completion, the freeway has been upgraded with the construction of the Zilwaukee Bridge near Saginaw and improved connections to the Ambassador Bridge in Detroit. Known as "Michigan's Main Street", I-75 is listed on the National Highway System for its entire length; the NHS is a network of roadways important to the country's economy and mobility. The freeway is the busiest in the state: between M-8 and McNichols Road in Detroit 194,300 vehicles used the freeway on average each day in 2010. I-75 carries segments of all four Great Lakes Circle Tours in the state, it is the only highway located on both Michigan's Upper and Lower peninsulas. Between the Ohio state line and Kawkawlin, I-75 contains between a minimum of six and a maximum of ten lanes total. Crossing the state line north of Toledo, Ohio, I-75 enters Michigan in Monroe County carrying the Lake Erie Circle Tour near the North Maumee Bay of Lake Erie.
The freeway runs parallel past the community of Luna Pier. Further north, I-75 passes to the southeast of Monroe and crosses the River Raisin between the city and the river mouth. North of the river, the freeway turns further inland running through farmland. Near Newport, I-275 splits off to the northwest and I-75 continues its northeasterly trek through Monroe County; when it crosses the Huron River, the trunkline enters Wayne County between South Rockwood and Rockwood. On the north side of the county line, I-75 begins to run inland of, parallel to, the Detroit River, entering the Downriver area; the freeway turns northerly after the interchange with M-85 near Gibraltar, the LECT departs I-75 to follow M-85 north of the interchange. The landscape transitions to suburban residential areas instead of farmland through this area; the freeway turns back northeasterly in Taylor and intersects the southern end of M-39 in Lincoln Park. I-75 passes through an industrial area of Metro Detroit. Further north, the freeway spans the River Rouge in the southern part of Detroit.
I-75 follows the Detroit River as far east as the Ambassador Bridge. Near the bridge's approaches, the freeway turns 90° away from the river and intersects the eastern end of I-96 before turning again to follow the river further inland. From there, I-75 meets M-10 and crosses under M-1. East of Woodward, the freeway travels past both Comerica Park and Ford Field, homes of the Detroit Tigers and Detroit Lions professional sports teams as well as the site of Little Caesars Arena, home of the Detroit Red Wings and Detroit Pistons. East of Ford Field, I-75 turns northwesterly to follow the Chrysler Freeway away from the downtown Detroit area; the transition from the Fisher Freeway involves a set of one-lane ramps through the interchange with the connections to I-375 and M-3. Heading north-northwesterly, I-75 passes to the east of the campus of Wayne State University and through an interchange with I-94; the Chrysler Freeway passes to the west of Hamtramck and to the east of Highland Park, enclaves within Detroit.
I-75 continues through residential areas of Detroit's northern side. North of M-102, the freeway crosses out into Oakland County; the Chrysler Freeway