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Arendal

Arendal is a municipality in Agder county in southeastern Norway. Arendal belongs to the region of Sørlandet; the administrative centre of the municipality is the city of Arendal. Some of the notable villages in Arendal include Rykene, Eydehavn, Færvik, Kongshavn, Brattekleiv, Longum, Saltrød, Staubø, Kolbjørnsvik; the offices of UNEP/GRID-Arendal are located in the city of Arendal. The 270-square-kilometre municipality is the 288th largest by area out of the 422 municipalities in Norway. Arendal is the 20th most populous municipality in Norway with a population of 44 800; the municipality's population density is 174.7 inhabitants per square kilometre and its population has increased by 11.3% over the last decade. The town of Arendal was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838. On 1 January 1875, a small area with 22 inhabitants was transferred from the town to the neighboring municipality of Østre Moland and another small area with 52 residents was transferred to the neighboring municipality of Øyestad.

On 1 January 1902, the rural municipality of Barbu was merged into the town of Arendal. In 1944, a small area of Moland with a population of 21 inhabitants was transferred to Arendal as well. On 1 January 1992, the town was vastly expanded; the neighboring rural municipalities of Hisøy, Tromøy, Øyestad were all merged with the town of Arendal which had a population of 12,478, bringing the total population of the new municipality of Arendal to 38,042. The Old Norse form of the name was Arnardalr; the first element is the genitive case of ǫrn which means "eagle" and the last element is dalr which means "valley" or "dale", thus meaning the "eagle valley". The coat-of-arms of Arendal were granted on 7 November 1924; the blue and silver arms show a sailing ship as a symbol for the importance of fisheries and sailing to the local economy. A ship appeared on the oldest known seal of the town. In the late 19th and early 20th century the arms showed the ship in the upper part and a landscape with the coat of arms of Norway in the base of the shield.

The Church of Norway has six parishes within the municipality of Arendal. It is part of the Arendal prosti in the Diocese of Agder og Telemark; the village of Arendal was established in the middle of the 16th century, was called Arendall. It had no formal town status; when the town of Christianssand was founded by King Christian IV in 1641, he granted the citizens a monopoly on all trade in Nedenæs and Lister og Mandal counties. This grant, intended to subsidize Christianssand and its fortifications, placed existing towns in a difficult position. Both towns and the peasants in the rural countryside protested the hardships; as a result, Arendal received royal permission in 1622 to continue as a loading-place for timber until a means could be found to transfer its trade to Christianssand. The town of Arendal was given market city privileges in 1723; however the peasants in the surrounding district, who by law were to sell their goods only at Arendal, were smuggling their goods out on cutters and selling them in Denmark, in the Baltic, in Britain.

This continued until 1735. This charter, combined with Danish imposition of a monopoly on grain imports, caused great poverty and starvation among the peasants in the surrounding districts, leading to several famous rebellions; as a result of the rebellions, the age of privileges for towns like Christianssand and Arendal came to an apparent end in 1768 by royal proclamation. But the problems did not end then; the charges against Lofthus were that he dealt in grain and other commodities to the detriment to Arendal's privileges. Shipping and timber trade as well as mining and ironworks were important branches of industry in Nedenæs county for many centuries in the Arendal region. Frequent contacts with the world abroad put their mark on our culture and traditions. In 1880, it was the country's biggest port in terms of tonnage handled. At the end of the 19th century, Arendal was recognized as a major shipping centre with many wealthy shipowners. However, this came to an end following the 1886 Arendal crash, in which Axel Nicolai Herlofson had defrauded many bank customers in the city, leading to bankruptcies and extreme unemployment.

At one point in the middle of the 18th century, Arendal was one of Norway's biggest mining cities. The main production consisted of iron magnetite. Around the turn of the twentieth century, when thousands of Norwegians sought to take advantage of the more stable economic climate of the United States by emigrating, many of those from Arendal took their economic traditions with them. In New York City and the surrounding areas, a great deal of Americans who claim Norwegian ancestry can trace their roots to Arendal, as a great deal of Norwegian sailors, trimmers and carpenters from Arendal settled in areas of New York such as Brooklyn, Port Richmond, several industrial centers in northern New Jersey such as Jersey City, Perth Amboy, Elizabeth. In 1939, Arendal had the 4th largest Norwegian tanker fleet. During the German invasion of Norway on 9 April 1940, A

Nils Vigeland

Nils Vigeland is an American composer and pianist. Vigeland made his professional debut as a pianist in 1969 with the Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra, he studied composition with Lukas Foss at Harvard College, graduating with a B. A. in 1972. He earned his Ph. D at The University at Buffalo where he studied composition with Morton Feldman and piano with Yvar Mikhashoff. After graduation, Vigeland toured for eight years with percussionist Jan Williams and flautist Eberhard Blum, performing extended length works for flute and piano that Feldman composed for them. From 1980 to 1989, Vigeland directed The Bowery Ensemble, which gave an annual series of concerts in Cooper Union, NYC; the ensemble was associated with the music of the New York School and gave the first performance of over thirty works by composers including Pauline Oliveros, Christian Wolff, Leo Smit, Chris Newman and John Thow. Recordings of Vigeland's music are available from Mode, EMF, Lovely Music, Naxos, his choral music is published by Boosey and Hawkes.

He taught at Manhattan School of Music for thirty years, retiring as Chair of the Composition Department in 2013. Christopher Cerrone Ted Hearne Reiko Fueting Scott Wollschleger Juan Pablo Contreras Nils Vigeland's official website at Saint-Petersburg Contemporary Music Center Interview with Nils Vigeland reMusik Journal, Saint-Petersburg Contemporary Music Center. Interview: № 4-120205. Nils Vigeland Home page at Manhattan Music School of Music

Katanning, Western Australia

Katanning is a town located 277 kilometres south-east of Perth, Western Australia on the Great Southern Highway. At the 2016 census, Katanning had a population of 3,687; the meaning of Katanning is unknown but it is thought to be a local Aboriginal word Kart-annin that means "meeting place of the heads of tribes", meaning "clear pool of sweet water", or Katanning, which means "spiders on your back". Others suggest; the first Europeans to explore the Katanning area were Governor James Stirling and Surveyor General John Septimus Roe who travelled through the area in 1835 en route from Perth to Albany. In about 1870, sandalwood cutters moved into the area but they did not settle, it was not until the development of the Great Southern Railway, a land grant railway built by the West Australian Land Company from Beverley to Albany in 1889, that the township came into existence. The townsite was developed by the West Australian Land Company; the state government purchased the railway and the townsite in 1896 and formally gazetted the town in 1898, when the population of the town was 226, 107 males and 119 females.

In April 1891 the Premier Roller Flour Mill was opened in the centre of the town by brothers Frederick Henry Piesse and Charles Austin Piesse. The mill provided an important cash market for local wheat growers; the mill supplied flour to the whole of the Albany district, replacing more expensive imports from Adelaide. At that time Albany was Western Australia's principal port; the ground-floor street frontages of the mill were converted into shops from the 1930s, including a music shop, butchers', dress shops, a barber, tearooms. By 2008 the building was owned by the Shire of Katanning, which sold it for $1 to a private developer who renovated the by-then dilapidated building and turned it into a hotel and restaurant that opened in 2018. Katanning remains an important centre on the Great Southern Railway to Albany. Katanning sits on the border between the warm-summer and the purely subtropical mediterranean varieties with January and February being just below 22 °C. Under the Köppen climate classification it is classified as Csb