The Areni-1 shoe is a 5,500-year-old leather shoe, found in 2008 in excellent condition in the Areni-1 cave located in the Vayots Dzor province of Armenia. It is a one-piece leather-hide shoe, the oldest piece of leather footwear in the world known to contemporary researchers; the discovery was made by an international team led by Boris Gasparyan, an archaeologist from the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia. An Armenian post-graduate student, Diana Zardaryan, discovered the leather shoe in the course of excavations by a team of archeologists from Armenia’s Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography and the United States; the shoe was found upside down at the base of a shallow and plastered pit, 45 cm deep and 44–48 cm wide, beneath an overturned broken Chalcolithic ceramic bowl. A broken pot and goat horns were found nearby. Excavations in the same area found the world's oldest wine-making site; the research was funded by the National Geographic Society, the Chitjian Foundation, the Gfoeller Foundation, the Steinmetz Family Foundation, the Boochever Foundation and the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology at UCLA.
The team's findings were published on June 2010, in the journal PLOS One. The shoe was found in near-perfect condition due to the cool and dry conditions in the cave and a thick layer of sheep dung which acted as a solid seal. Large storage containers were found in the same cave, many of which held well-preserved wheat and apricots, as well as other edible plants; the shoe contained grass and the archaeologists were uncertain as to whether this was because the grass was used as insulation to keep the foot warm, or used to preserve the shape of the shoe while not being worn. Lead archaeologist Ron Pinhasi could not determine whether the shoe belonged to a woman. While small a woman's U. S. and Canada size 7, European size 37, or UK size 6, he stated that "the shoe could well have fitted a man from that era". The shoe laces were preserved as well. Major similarities exist between the manufacturing technique and style of one-piece leather-hide shoes discovered across Europe and the one reported from Areni-1 Cave, suggesting that shoes of this type were worn for millennia across a large and environmentally diverse geographic region.
According to Pinhasi, the Areni-1 shoe is similar to the Irish pampooties, a shoe style worn in the Aran Islands up to the 1950s. The shoes are similar to the traditional shoes of the Balkans, still seen today in festivals, known as Opanci; when the material was dated by the two radiocarbon laboratories in Oxford and California, it was established that the shoe dates back to 3,500 B. C; this date is a few hundred years older than the date given for the leather shoe found on Ötzi the Iceman, 400 years older than those found at Stonehenge, 1,000 years older than those found at the Great Pyramid of Giza. After having been treated for preservation, the Areni-1 shoe is on display at the History Museum of Armenia, Yerevan. Areni-1 winery
Syunik, is the southernmost province of Armenia. It is bordered by the Vayots Dzor Province from the north, Azerbaijan's Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic exclave from the west, the de facto independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic from the east, Iran from the south, its capital and largest city is the town of Kapan. The National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia reported its population was 141,771 in the 2011 census, down from 152,684 at the 2001 census. Syunik is supposed to be one of the 15 provinces of the ancient Kingdom of Armenia. At various times, the region of present-day Syunik was known by other names such as Syunia and Zangezur. However, the present-name of the province is derived from the ancient Armenian Siunia dynasty, who were the Nakharar of the historic province of Syunik since the 1st century. Syunik is located between the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan from the west, the de facto independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic from the east; the Vayots Dzor Province of Armenia forms its northern borders, while Aras River at the south separates Syunik from Iran.
Syunik covers an area of 4,506 km², making it the second-largest province in Armenia after Gegharkunik in terms of the total area. The current territory of the province occupies most of the historic Syunik province of Ancient Armenia. Syunik is a mountainous region covered with thick green forests; the Zangezur Mountains occupy most of the territories of Syunik. Mount Kaputjugh with a height of 3905 meters and Mount Gazanasar with a height of 3829 meters are the highest peaks of the province. Many of the forests in Syunik are protected by the government, including the Arevik National Park, the Shikahogh State Reserve, the Boghakar Sanctuary, the Goris Sanctuary, the Plane Grove Sanctuary, the Sev Lake Sanctuary, the Zangezur Sanctuary, Major water basins include the rivers of Vorotan, Sisian and Vachagan. Summer temperature can reach up to 40 °C, although the average temperature is around 22 °C, while in winter it may reach down to -12.5 °C. Its border with Nakhchivan to the west is defined by the Zangezur Mountains.
Meghri mountain ridge at the extreme south of Armenia used to be home to the Endangered Caucasian leopards. However, only one individual of them was camera-trapped between August 2006 to April 2007, no signs of other leopards were found during track surveys conducted over an area of 296.9 km2. The local prey base could support 4–10 individuals, but poaching and disturbance caused by livestock breeding, gathering of edible plants and mushrooms and human-induced wildfires are so high that they exceed the tolerance limits of leopards. During surveys in 2013–2014, camera traps recorded leopards in 24 locations in southern Armenia, of which 14 are located in the Zangezur Mountains. Inscriptions found in the region around Lake Sevan attributed to King Artaxias I confirm that the historic province of Syunik was part of the Artaxiad Kingdom of Armenia during the 2nd century BC; the first dynasty to rule Syunik was the Siunia dynasty, beginning in the 1st century. The first known Nakharar ruler was Valinak Siak and his successor was his brother Andok or Andovk.
In 379, Babik the son of Andok, was re-established as a Naxarar by the Mamikonian family. Babik had a sister called Pharantzem who had married the Arsacid Prince Gnel, nephew of the Armenian King Arsaces II and married Arsaces II as her second husband. Babik's rule lasted for less than ten years and by about 386 or 387, Dara was deposed by the Sassanid Empire. Valinak was followed by Vasak. Vasak had two sons: Bakur and a daughter who married Vasak's successor, Varazvahan. Varazvahan's son Gelehon ruled from 470–477, who died in 483. Babik the brother of Varazvahan became the new Naxarar in 477. Hadz the brother of Gelehon died on 25 September 482; the Syunik Province was governed by Vahan, Stephen and Grigor. A dynasty was formed, governed by a branch of the Bagratuni, with minor vassal princes from one or more previous dynasties. Vasak III suffered an assault from the emir of Sevada, he established a garrison in the district of Dzoluk. He called for help from the Persian revolutionary chief Babak Khorramdin, who married a daughter of the king.
After the death of Vasak III in 821, Babak inherited the country. Babak was harassed by both Muslims and Armenians, he abdicated and the children of Vasak and Sahak, regained power. Philip controlled including the cantons of the Vayots Dzor and Baghk. Sahak governed the western canton of Syunik, known as Gegharkunik. In 826, Sahak allied with his ancient enemy – Sevada, the Qaisite emir of Manazkert – against the governor of Caliph, but he was defeated and died in Kavakert, his son Grigor-Sufan succeeded him as prince of Western Syunik. In the Eastern region, Philipo died on 10 August 848, he was succeeded by three children. Babgen fought with Grigor-Sufan and killed him but Babgen died shortly after and Vasak-Ichkhanik followed him. Vasak-Ichkhanik had peaceful relations with Vasak-Gabor, who had ascended to the throne of Western Syunik, replacing his father Grigor-Sufan. Nerseh Pilippean, brother of Babgen, directed an expedition to Aghuania defeating and killing the prince Varaz-Terdat II (of the Persian dynasty Mi
Jermuk, is a mountain spa town and the centre of the urban community of Jermuk in Vayots Dzor Province at the south of Armenia, at a road distance of 53 km east of the provincial capital Yeghegnadzor. It was considered one of the popular destinations for medical tourism in the Soviet Union. Jermuk is known for mineral water brands bottled in the town, it is attractive for its fresh air, artificial lakes, walking trails, the surrounding forests and mineral water pools. The town is being redeveloped to become a modern center of health services, it is being set up to become a major chess centre, with numerous chess international tournaments scheduled in the town. As per the 2016 official estimate, Jermuk had a population of around 3,400. However, as of the 2011 census, the population of Jermuk was 5,572; the nearby villages of Herher and Gndevaz are part of the municipality of Jermuk. The name of the town is derived from the Armenian word of "jermuk" or "jermook", in Western Armenian "chermoug" meaning "warm mineral spring", first mentioned during the 13th century by historian Stepanos Orbelian in his work History of the Sisakan Province.
Jermuk occupies an area, considered as part of the Vayots Dzor canton of the Syunik province of Greater Armenia. It was first mentioned during the 13th century by historian Stepanos Orbelian in his work History of the Province of Sisakan; the remains of an ancient cyclopean fortress and the ruins of an 8th-century basilica testify that the region around the fountains of Jermuk has been settled long before the 13th century. The area of Jermuk has been ruled by the Siunia dynasty between the 10th and 13th centuries, when Vayots Dzor was part of the Kingdom of Syunik; the princes of Syunik regarded the mineral springs of Jermuk as healing and built several pools filled with it, thereby making the little town their holiday destination. During the Middle Ages, the Silk Road passed through the area of Vayots Dzor the road that links the town of Martuni with Yeghegnadzor to the northwest of Jermuk. At the beginning of the 16th century, Eastern Armenia fell under the Safavid Persian rule; the territory of Jermuk became part of the Erivan Beglarbegi and the Erivan Khanate.
The period between the 16th and 17th centuries is considered to be the darkest period in the history of Vayots Dzor. The region was turned into a frequent battlefield between the invading troops of the Turkic and Iranian tribes; as a result, many significant monuments and prosperous villages were destroyed and the population was displaced. In 1747, Jermuk became part of the newly-formed Nakhichevan Khanate; as a result of the Treaty of Turkmenchay signed between the Russian Empire and Persia in 1828 following the Russo-Persian War of 1826–28, many territories of Eastern Armenia—including Vayots Dzor—became part of the Russian Empire. In 1828-30, many Armenian families from the Iranian towns of Salmas and Khoy were resettled in Eastern Armenia in the areas that became part of the Erivan Governorate in 1840; the first wave of Armenian settlers arrived in the Vayots Dzor region in 1828-29. Under the Russian rule, the town of Jermuk witnessed development. During the 1830s, the Russian geologist G. Voskoboynikov arrived in Armenia and began explorations on Jermuk's geographical depth as well as the contents and characteristics of Jermuk waters.
His observations on Jermuk were published in the "Mountain Magazine" journal in 1831, in 1855, in the "Caucasian Calenda" magazine. Voskoboynikov’s works were the first scientific talks on Jermuk. In the 1860s, all of the historic pools of Jermuk built by the Orbelian princes of Syunik were renovated by "Gevorg Khanagyan", following a resolution by the Russian government. Today, those baths which are preserved as historical monuments. In 1870, Jermuk became part of the newly-formed Sharur-Daralagezsky Uyezd within the Erivan Governorate. In 1931, Jermuk was included in the newly-formed Azizbekov raion of Soviet Armenia; the first urban development plan of Jermuk was introduced by architect P. Msryan in 1945; the 2nd plan was composed in 1952 by architect P. Manukyan; the plan was modified at the beginning of the 1960s. Between 1918 and 1920 Jermuk was included within the short-lived Republic of Armenia. After the Sovietization of Armenia and the surrounding territories became one of the regions that resisted the Soviet rule and formed the unrecognized Republic of Mountainous Armenia under the leadership of Garegin Nzhdeh.
However, after falling to the Bolsheviks in July 1921, Jermuk became part of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1961, Jermuk was incorporated into an urban settlement within the Azizbekov raion; the first sanatorium was opened in 1962, followed by the 2nd one in 1963 and the mineral water spa centre in 1966, thus setting for the fertile activity of the Jermuk health resort centre, in order to turn Jermuk into a modern resort for all Soviet nationals. In 1967, Jermuk was granted the status of a town of republican subordination. With the gradual development of the services, the population of Jermuk reached up to 9,000 during the 1980s. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, as a result of the post-independence economic crisis of Armenia, the population has drastically declined to less than 5,000 during the 1st decade of the 21st century. In 1995, Jermuk was became part of the newly-formed Vayots Dzor Province as per the 1995 administrative reforms. However, many development plans have been implemented in Jermuk during the recent years, in order to further develop the town as a summer resort and a winter tourism destination, including the n
University of Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania is a private Ivy League research university located in the University City neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is one of the nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence and the first institution of higher learning in the United States to refer to itself as a university. Benjamin Franklin, Penn's founder and first president, advocated an educational program that trained leaders in commerce and public service, similar to a modern liberal arts curriculum; the university's coat of arms features a dolphin on its red chief, adopted from Benjamin Franklin's own coat of arms. University of Pennsylvania is home many professional and graduate schools including, the first school of medicine in North America, the first collegiate business school and the first "student union" building and organization were founded at Penn; the university has four undergraduate schools which provide a combined 99 undergraduate majors in the humanities, natural sciences and engineering, as well twelve graduate and professional schools.
It provides the option to pursue specialized dual degree programs. Undergraduate admissions is competitive, with an acceptance rate of 7.44% for the class of 2023, the school is ranked as the 8th best university in the United States by the U. S. News & World Report. In athletics, the Quakers field varsity teams in 33 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference and hold a total of 210 Ivy League championships as of 2017. In 2018, the university had an endowment of $13.8 billion, the seventh largest endowment of all colleges in the United States, as well as an academic research budget of $966 million. As of 2018, distinguished alumni include 14 heads of 64 billionaire alumni. S. House of Representatives. Other notable alumni include 27 Rhodes Scholars, 15 Marshall Scholarship recipients, 16 Pulitzer Prize winners, 48 Fulbright Scholars. In addition, some 35 Nobel laureates, 169 Guggenheim Fellows, 80 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, many Fortune 500 CEOs have been affiliated with the university.
University of Pennsylvania considers itself the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, though this is contested by Princeton and Columbia Universities. The university considers itself as the first university in the United States with both undergraduate and graduate studies. In 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield, who toured the American colonies delivering open air sermons; the building was designed and built by Edmund Woolley and was the largest building in the city at the time, drawing thousands of people the first time it was preached in. It was planned to serve as a charity school as well, but a lack of funds forced plans for the chapel and school to be suspended. According to Franklin's autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the idea to establish an academy, "thinking the Rev. Richard Peters a fit person to superintend such an institution". However, Peters declined a casual inquiry from Franklin and nothing further was done for another six years.
In the fall of 1749, now more eager to create a school to educate future generations, Benjamin Franklin circulated a pamphlet titled "Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania", his vision for what he called a "Public Academy of Philadelphia". Unlike the other Colonial colleges that existed in 1749—Harvard, William & Mary and Princeton—Franklin's new school would not focus on education for the clergy, he advocated an innovative concept of higher education, one which would teach both the ornamental knowledge of the arts and the practical skills necessary for making a living and doing public service. The proposed program of study could have become the nation's first modern liberal arts curriculum, although it was never implemented because William Smith, an Anglican priest who became the first provost and other trustees preferred the traditional curriculum. Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America.
At the first meeting of the 24 members of the Board of Trustees, the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern. Although a lot across Sixth Street from the old Pennsylvania State House, was offered without cost by James Logan, its owner, the Trustees realized that the building erected in 1740, still vacant, would be an better site; the original sponsors of the dormant building still owed considerable construction debts and asked Franklin's group to assume their debts and, their inactive trusts. On February 1, 1750, the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. On August 13, 1751, the "Academy of Philadelphia", using the great hall at 4th and Arch Streets, took in its first secondary students. A charity school was chartered July 13, 1753 in accordance with the intentions of the original "New Building" donors, although it lasted only a few years. On June 16, 1755, the "College of Philadelphia" was chartered, paving the way for the addition of undergraduate instruction.
All three schools shared the same Board of Trustees and were consider
Armenia the Republic of Armenia, is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located in Western Asia on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south. Armenia is a multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia; the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great in the 1st century BC and became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD. The official date of state adoption of Christianity is 301; the ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the kingdom fell in 1045 and Armenia was soon after invaded by the Seljuk Turks.
An Armenian principality and a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia came under the rule of the Ottoman and Iranian empires ruled by either of the two over the centuries. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remained under Ottoman rule. During World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. In 1918, following the Russian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, in 1922 became a founding member of the Soviet Union.
In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment; the unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD. Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Artsakh, proclaimed in 1991; the original native Armenian name for the country was Հայք, however it is rarely used. The contemporary name Հայաստան became popular in the Middle Ages by addition of the Persian suffix -stan.. However the origins of the name Hayastan trace back to much earlier dates and were first attested in circa 5th century in the works of Agathangelos, Faustus of Byzantium, Ghazar Parpetsi and Sebeos.
The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, according to the 5th-century AD author Moses of Chorene, defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region. The further origin of the name is uncertain, it is further postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription as Armina; the Ancient Greek terms Ἀρμενία and Ἀρμένιοι are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC, he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a lineal descendant of Hayk.
The Table of Nations lists Aram as the son of Shem, to whom the Book of Jubilees attests, "And for Aram there came forth the fourth portion, all the land of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates to the north of the Chaldees to the border of the mountains of Asshur and the land of'Arara." Jubilees 8:21 apportions the Mountains of Ararat to Shem, which Jubilees 9:5 expounds to be apportioned to Aram. The historian Flavius Josephus states in his Antiquities of the Jews, "Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks called Syrians. Of the four sons of Aram, Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus: this country lies between Palestine and Celesyria. Ul founded Armenia. Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the mountains of Ararat. There is evidence of an early civilisation in Armenia in the Bronze Age and earlier, dating to about 4000 BC. Archaeological surveys in 2010 and 2011 at the Areni-1 cave complex have resulted in the discovery of the world's earliest known leather shoe and wine-producing facility.
According to the story of Hayk, the legendary founder of Armenia, around 2107 BC Hayk fought against Belus, the Babylonian God of War, at Çavuştepe along the Engil river to establish the first Armenian state. This event coinc
The black-headed bunting is a passerine bird in the bunting family Emberizidae. It breeds in south-east Europe east to Iran and migrates in winter to India, with some individuals moving further into south-east Asia. Like others in its family, it is found in open grassland habitats where they fly in flocks in search of grains and seed. Adult males are well marked with chestnut back and a black head. Adult females in breeding plumage look like duller males. In other plumages, they can be hard to separate from the related red-headed bunting and natural hybridization occurs between the two species in the zone of overlap of their breeding ranges in northern Iran; the genus name Emberiza is from Old German Embritz, a bunting, the specific melanocephala is from Ancient Greek melas, "black", kephale "head". This bird is 15 cm long, larger than reed bunting, long-tailed; the breeding male has chestnut upperparts and a black hood. The female is a washed-out version of the male, with paler underparts, a grey-brown back and a greyish head.
The juvenile is similar but the vent is yellow, both can be difficult to separate from the corresponding plumages of the related red-headed bunting although the black-headed tends to have the cheeks darker than the throat. First year males have a grey crown and the back has patches of chestnut and grey. First year females can be difficult to separate from female red-headed buntings although having more streaking on the crown than on the lower back; the vent is yellow. The black- and red-headed buntings represent sister species which forms a clade along with the crested bunting; the black-headed bunting breeds in open scrubby areas including agricultural land. In winter they move to Asia and large flocks are found in agricultural fields and grasslands; the longest migration noted from a ringed individual is about 7,000 km. Another ringed bird was determined to have flown 1,000 km in seven days. Males arrive in the winter quarters well before the females; the winter range within India is in western and northern India extending south to northern Karnataka.
In winter they form large communal roosts in thorny acacia trees joining other species such as the yellow-throated sparrow. The main breeding zone extends from south-eastern Europe to central Asia; the wintering grounds are in India although vagrants have been found wintering as far east as Japan, Hong Kong, Laos, South Korea and Malaysia. Summer vagrants may occur as far north in Europe as Norway; the black-headed bunting is found in flocks. They breed in summer, building a nest on the ground; the nest is a cup lined with hair. The clutch consists of four to six eggs; the eggs hatch after the chicks fledge after about 10 days. Its natural food consists of insects when feeding young, otherwise seeds. In Bulgaria, the collapse of the drying cotton thistle stems on which the birds build their nests has caused high mortality. In northern Iran, there is a region of range overlap with the red-headed bunting and natural hybrids are common although molecular data indicates that there is considerable genetic divergence between the two species.
Like the red-headed bunting but unlike many other Emberiza buntings, it has two moults in a year. It undergoes one moult in the winter quarters prior to migrating back to the breeding region, another after breeding. Young birds fledge with a soft plumage and moult into a juvenile plumage before migrating and assume an adult plumage after moulting in their winter quarters. In winter their call is soft zrit; the song consists of a loud series of strophes each made up a high harsh notes that accelerate into a jangling mix with some clear slurred notes interspersed before stopping abruptly. Photographs and sound recordings on the Internet Bird Collection
Eastern rock nuthatch
The Persian nuthatch or the eastern rock-nuthatch is a species of bird in the Sittidae family. It is found in Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, India, Iraq, Pakistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan