Annas, son of Seth, was appointed by the Roman legate Quirinius as the first High Priest of the newly formed Roman province of Iudaea in 6 A. D. Annas served as High Priest for ten years, when at the age of 36 he was deposed by the procurator Valerius Gratus, yet while having been removed from office, he remained as one of the nation's most influential political and social individuals, aided by the use of his five sons and his son-in-law Caiaphas as puppet High Priests. His death is unrecorded, but his son Annas the Younger known as Ananus the son of Ananus was assassinated in 66 A. D. for advocating peace with Rome. Annas appears in the Gospels and Passion plays as a high priest before whom Jesus is brought for judgment, prior to being brought before Pontius Pilate; the terms of Annas and the five brothers are: Ananus the son of Seth Properly called Joseph son of Caiaphas, who had married the daughter of Annas References in the Mosaic Law to "the death of the high priest" suggest that the high-priesthood was ordinarily held for life.
For this reason, Annas was still called "high priest" after his dismissal, along with Caiaphas. He may have been acting as president of the Sanhedrin, or a coadjutor of the high priest. Luke 3:2 indicates a joint high priesthood "of Annas and Caiaphas" when the word of God came to John the son of Zechariah in the wilderness; the involvement of the family of Annas may be implied in the plot to kill Lazarus of Bethany in John 12:10. Although Annas is not mentioned by name in the plot to kill Lazarus, several 19th-century writers such as Johann Nepomuk Sepp and the Abbé Drioux, considered that there may be a concealed reference to Annas in the parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus which points at a "rich man" with five brothers. If it is considered that the rich man dressed in purple and fine linen represents Caiaphas, as figurehead of the Sadducees Annas is intended by the "father" in Luke 16:27, the "five brothers" Luke 16:28 are Annas' five sons. In support of this is the coincidence that the father and five brothers who will not be convinced if the parable Lazarus is raised from the dead predict that Caiaphas and the five sons of Annas would not believe and plotted to have the real Lazarus killed when he was raised.
According to the Gospel of John, Jesus was first brought before Annas, after a brief questioning of him was sent to the home of Caiaphas, where some members of the Sanhedrin had met, the first trial of Jesus took place. After Pentecost, Annas presided over the Sanhedrin before which the Apostles Peter and John were brought. Annas has an important role in Jesus Christ Superstar, as one of the two main antagonists of the show spurring Pontius Pilate to take action against Jesus. In all versions, Annas has a high voice to contrast against Caiaphas' bass. Despite being Caiaphas' father-in-law, Annas is played by a younger actor. List of biblical figures identified in extra-biblical sources This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Easton, Matthew George. "Annas". Easton's Bible Dictionary. T. Nelson and Sons. Jewish Encyclopedia: Annas "Annas". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Herodias was a princess of the Herodian dynasty of Judaea during the time of the Roman Empire. Daughter of Aristobulus IV and his wife Berenice. Full sister to Herod V, Herod Agrippa, Aristobulus Minor, Mariamne III. Herod the Great executed his sons and Aristobulus IV, in 7 B. C. and engaged Herodias to her half-uncle. The marriage was opposed by Antipater II, Herod the Great's eldest son, so Herod demoted Herod II to second in line to the throne. Antipater's execution in 4 B. C. for plotting to poison his father left Herod II as first in line, but his mother's knowledge of the poison plot, failure to stop it, led to his being dropped from this position in Herod I's will just days before he died. The Gospel of Mark states that Herodias was married to Philip, therefore some scholars have argued his name was Herod Philip. Many scholars dispute this and believe it was an error, a theory supported by the fact that the Gospel of Luke drops the name Philip; because he was the grandson of the high priest Simon Boethus he is sometimes described as Herod Boethus, but there is no evidence he was called by that name.
There was one daughter from Salome. Herodias divorced Herod II, although it is unclear when they were divorced. According to the historian Josephus: Herodias took upon her to confound the laws of our country, divorced herself from her husband while he was alive, was married to Herod Antipas Herodias's second husband was Herod Antipas half-brother of Herod II, he is best known today for his role in events that led to the executions of John the Baptist and Jesus of Nazareth. Antipas divorced his first wife Phasaelis, the daughter of King Aretas IV of Nabatea, in favor of Herodias. According to biblical scholars, the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke, it was this proposed marriage which John the Baptist publicly criticized. Besides provoking his conflict with the Baptist, the tetrarch's divorce added a personal grievance to previous disputes with Aretas over territory on the border of Perea and Nabatea; the result was a war. D.. In 39 A. D. Antipas was accused by his nephew Agrippa I of conspiracy against the new Roman emperor Caligula, who sent him into exile in Gaul.
Accompanied there by Herodias, he died at an unknown date. It is uncertain if Herodias had any children by Herod Antipas. In the Gospels of Matthew and Mark, Herodias plays a major role in John the Baptist's execution, using her daughter's dance before Antipas and his party guests to ask for the head of the Baptist as a reward. According to the Gospel of Mark, Antipas did not want to put John the Baptist to death, for Antipas liked to listen to John the Baptist preach. Furthermore, Antipas may have feared that if John the Baptist were to be put to death, his followers would riot; the Gospel of Matthew amplifies the role of Herod by omitting these details. Some biblical scholars have questioned whether the Gospels give accurate accounts of John the Baptist's execution. According to the ancient historian Josephus, John the Baptist was put to death by Antipas because he feared the prophet's seditious influence; some exegetes believe that Antipas' struggle with John the Baptist as told in the Gospels was some kind of a remembrance of the political and religious fight opposing the Israelite monarchs Ahab and Jezebel to the prophet Elijah.
In medieval Europe a widespread belief held Herodias to be the supernatural leader of a supposed cult of witches, synonymous with Diana and Abundia. Together with Salome, Herodias was a frequent subject in images of the Power of Women topics in the medieval and Renaissance period; the most common moment shown including Herodias is the Feast of Herod, showing Salome presenting John's severed head on a platter as Herodias dines with her husband and others. Hérodias, story by Gustave Flaubert, one of the Three Tales, published in 1877. Hérodiade, opera by Jules Massenet, based on the story by Gustave Flaubert. Hérodiade, ballet by Paul Hindemith. Hérodiade, oil painting by Aimé Morot. Salomé, play by Oscar Wilde, translated into English by Lord Alfred Douglas, 1895. Salome, opera by Richard Strauss, based on a German translation of the play by Oscar Wilde. Salomé, an opera by French composer Antoine Mariotte, set to a French libretto based on Oscar Wilde's play. Salome: The Wandering Jewess. My First 2,000 Years of Love, by George Sylvester Viereck, 1930.
Salome, song by Irish rock band U2. In Parsifal, the opera by Richard Wagner, the lead female character of Kundry is revealed to be Herodias, in the second act. In the opera she was said to have laughed at Christ when she saw him being crucified and was cursed with immortality, she finds redemption through the actions of Parsifal. List of biblical figures identified in extra-biblical sources Florence Morgan. Herodias: At Home in the Fox's Den. Interfaces. Collegeville, Minn.: Liturgical Press, 2003. Meier, John P. A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus, Volume Two: Mentor and Miracles. Anchor Bible Reference Library, New York: Doubleday, 1994. Theissen, Gerd; the Shadow of the Galilean: The Quest of the Historical J
Anna the Prophetess
Anna or Anna the Prophetess is a woman mentioned in the Gospel of Luke. According to that Gospel, she was an elderly woman of the Tribe of Asher who prophesied about Jesus at the Temple of Jerusalem, she appears in Luke 2:36–38 during the presentation of Jesus at the Temple. The passage mentioning Anna is as follows: Luke 2:36–38 There was a prophet, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher, she was old. She never left the temple but worshiped night and day and praying. Coming up to them at that moment, she gave thanks to God and spoke about the child to all who were looking forward to the redemption of Jerusalem. Footnote: Or had been a widow for eighty-four years. New International Version From these three verses in Luke, the following is known of Anna: She was a prophetess, she was a daughter of Phanuel. She was a member of the tribe of Asher, she was widowed after seven years of marriage. She was a devout Jew who practiced prayer and fasting. Luke describes Anna as "very old". Many Bibles and older commentaries state.
The Greek text states καὶ αὐτὴ χήρα ὡς ἐτῶν ὀγδοηκοντατεσσάρων translated as "she was a widow of eighty four years". The passage is ambiguous: it could mean that she was 84 years old, or that she had been a widow for 84 years; some scholars consider the latter to be the more option. On this option, she could not have married younger than about age 14, so she would have been at least 14 + 7 + 84 = 105 years old; the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church commemorate Anna as a saint. The Eastern Orthodox Church considers Anna and Simeon the God-Receiver as the last prophets of Old Testament and observes their feast on February 3/February 16 as the synaxis following the Presentation of Christ, which Orthodox tradition calls "The Meeting of Our Lord and God and Savior, Jesus Christ". Along with Simeon, the prophetess Anna is commemorated on February 3 in the Byzantine rite of the Catholic Church, her figure is drawn in the icons of the Presentation of Christ, together with the Holy Child and the Virgin Mary and Simeon the God-Receiver.
Orthodox tradition considers that Christ met his people, Israel, in the persons of those two and Anna. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Anna". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company
Al-Khazneh is one of the most elaborate temples in the ancient Arab Nabatean Kingdom city of Petra. As with most of the other buildings in this ancient town, including the Monastery, this structure was carved out of a sandstone rock face; the structure is believed to have been the mausoleum of the Nabatean King Aretas IV in the 1st century AD. It is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the region, it became to be known as "Al-Khazneh", or The Treasury, in the early 19th century by the area's Bedouins as they had believed it contained treasures. Al-Khazneh was built as a mausoleum and crypt at the beginning of the 1st century AD during the reign of Aretas IV Philopatris, its Arabic name Treasury derives from one legend that bandits or pirates hid their loot in a stone urn high on the second level. Significant damage from bullets can be seen on the urn. Local lore attributes this to Bedouins, who are said to have shot at the urn in the early 20th century, in hopes of breaking it open and spilling out the "treasure"—but the decorative urn is in fact solid sandstone.
Another legend is. Many of the building's architectural details have eroded away during the two thousand years since it was carved and sculpted from the cliff; the sculptures are thought to be those of various mythological figures associated with the afterlife. On top are figures of four eagles that would carry away the souls; the figures on the upper level are dancing Amazons with double-axes. The entrance is flanked by statues of the twins Castor and Pollux who lived on Olympus and in the underworld. In 1812, the city of Petra and Al-Khazneh was rediscovered by Swiss explorer Johann Ludwig Burckhardt; as Western Europe continued to explore the Middle East, tourism became more common, by the 1920s, a small hotel had opened near Petra. While Petra was not as popular as larger, more central cities like Cairo, tourism started to change the economy and social structure of the Bedouin people who lived nearby. Tourism is now the main source of income in Jordan. Hotels, souvenir shops and horse rental services are all found within a few mile radius of Petra itself.
While the economic effects have been positive, the site itself faces threat from the increased tourism. Humidity from large crowds of people visiting the site can cause damage to the dry sandstone. White spots have appeared on walls and columns from stearic acid deposition due to hands resting against the walls; the Khazneh surface itself has receded by 40mm in less than ten years from touching, leaning, or rubbing on the walls of the Khazneh. The Treasury has appeared in many Hollywood movies, gaining particular fame after being featured in climactic scenes in the popular 1989 film Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, in which its facade is represented as the entrance to the final resting place of the Holy Grail near Hatay; the interior scenes of the temple were filmed at Elstree Studios in England. Ancient Megastructures: Petra, a television series from National Geographic Channel, is dedicated to the Khazneh, explaining how it was created through human resourcefulness and courageous endeavour.
The Treasury is depicted in Hergé's The Red Sea Sharks, one of the Adventures of Tintin and the Eye of the Tiger, Sky 1 travel series An Idiot Abroad, The Sisters of Mercy 1988 music video for Dominion, the movie Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen where the Matrix is located, the history series The Naked Archeologist, the Korean drama "Misaeng". Ad Deir Petra Siq List of megalithic sites Biblical archaeology "Solving the Enigma of Petra and the Nabataeans" Biblical Archaeology Review Over 110 pictures, many details A three-dimensional representation of the temple
The term historical Jesus refers to attempts to reconstruct the life and teachings of Jesus by critical historical methods, in contrast to Christological definitions and other Christian accounts of Jesus. It considers the historical and cultural context in which Jesus lived. All scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed. Reconstructions of the historical Jesus are based on the Pauline epistles and the Gospels, while several non-Biblical sources bear witness to the historical existence of Jesus. Since the 18th century, three separate scholarly quests for the historical Jesus have taken place, each with distinct characteristics and developing new and different research criteria. Scholars differ about the beliefs and teachings of Jesus as well as the accuracy of the biblical accounts, the only two events subject to "almost universal assent" are that Jesus was baptized by John the Baptist and was crucified by the order of the Roman Prefect Pontius Pilate. Historical Jesus scholars contend that he was a Galilean Jew living in a time of messianic and apocalyptic expectations.
Some scholars credit the apocalyptic declarations of the gospels to him, while others portray his "Kingdom of God" as a moral one, not apocalyptic in nature. The portraits of Jesus that have been constructed in these processes have differed from each other, from the image portrayed in the gospel accounts; these portraits include that of Jesus as an apocalyptic prophet, charismatic healer, Cynic philosopher, Jewish messiah and prophet of social change, but there is little scholarly agreement on a single portrait, or the methods needed to construct it. There are, overlapping attributes among the various portraits, scholars who differ on some attributes may agree on others. Most scholars of antiquity agree. Historian Michael Grant asserts that if conventional standards of historical textual criticism are applied to the New Testament, "we can no more reject Jesus' existence than we can reject the existence of a mass of pagan personages whose reality as historical figures is never questioned." There is no indication that writers in antiquity who opposed Christianity questioned the existence of Jesus.
There is no physical or archeological evidence for Jesus, all the sources we have are documentary. The sources for the historical Jesus are Christian writings, such as the gospels and the purported letters of the apostles. All extant sources that mention Jesus were written after his death; the New Testament represents sources that have become canonical for Christianity, there are many apocryphal texts that are examples of the wide variety of writings in the first centuries AD that are related to Jesus. The authenticity and reliability of these sources has been questioned by many scholars, few events mentioned in the gospels are universally accepted; the Synoptic Gospels are the primary sources of historical information about Jesus and of the religious movement he founded. These religious gospels–the Gospel of Matthew, the Gospel of Mark, the Gospel of Luke–recount the life, ministry and resurrection of a Jew named Jesus who spoke Aramaic and wore tzitzit. There are different hypotheses regarding the origin of the texts because the gospels of the New Testament were written in Greek for Greek-speaking communities, were translated into Syriac and Coptic.
The fourth gospel, the Gospel of John, differs from the Synoptic Gospels. Historians study the historical reliability of the Acts of the Apostles when studying the reliability of the gospels, as the Book of Acts was written by the same author as the Gospel of Luke; the seven Pauline epistles considered by scholarly consensus to be genuine are dated to between AD 50 and 60 and are the earliest surviving Christian texts that may include information about Jesus. Although Paul the Apostle provides little biographical information about Jesus and states that he never knew Jesus he does make it clear that he considers Jesus to have been a real person and a Jew. Moreover, he claims to have met with the brother of Jesus. In addition to biblical sources, there are a number of mentions of Jesus in non-Christian sources that have been used in the historical analyses of the existence of Jesus. Biblical scholar Frederick Fyvie Bruce says the earliest mention of Jesus outside the New Testament occurs around 55 CE from a historian named Thallos.
Thallos' history, like the vast majority of ancient literature, has been lost but not before it was quoted by Sextus Julius Africanus, a Christian writer, in his History of the World. This book was lost, but not before one of its citations of Thallos was taken up by the Byzantine historian Georgius Syncellus in his Chronicle. There is no means by which certainty can be established concerning this or any of the other lost references, partial references, questionable references that mention some aspect of Jesus' life or death, but in evaluating evidence, it is appropriate to note they exist. There are two passages in the writings of the Jewish historian Josephus, one from the Roman historian Tacitus, that are considered good evidence. Josephus' Antiquities of the Jews, written around 93–94 AD, includes two references to the biblical Jesus Christ in Books 18 and 20; the general scholarly view is that while the longer passage, known as the Testimonium Flavianum, is most not authentic in its entirety, it is broadly agreed upon that it consisted of an authentic nucleus, subject to Christian interpolation.
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The Jewish Encyclopedia
The Jewish Encyclopedia: A Descriptive Record of the History, Religion and Customs of the Jewish People from the Earliest Times to the Present Day is an English-language encyclopedia containing over 15,000 articles on the history and state of Judaism up to the early-20th century. The encyclopedia's managing editor was Isidore Singer and the editorial board was chaired by Isaac K. Funk and Frank H. Vizetelly; the work's scholarship is still regarded: the American Jewish Archives deemed it "the most monumental Jewish scientific work of modern times", Rabbi Joshua L. Segal said "for events prior to 1900, it is considered to offer a level of scholarship superior to either of the more recent Jewish encyclopedias written in English."It was published in 12 volumes between 1901 and 1906 by Funk & Wagnalls of New York, reprinted in the 1960s by KTAV Publishing House. It is now in the public domain. Singer conceived of a Jewish encyclopedia in Europe and proposed creating an Allgemeine Encyklopädia für Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judenthums in 1891.
He envisioned 12 volumes, published over 10-to-15 years, at a cost of 50 dollars as a set. They would contain unbiased articles on ancient and modern Jewish culture; this proposal received good interest from the Brockhaus publishing company. However, after the House of Rothschild in Paris, consulted by Zadoc Kahn, offered to back the project with only 8 percent of the minimum funds requested by Brockaus, the project was abandoned. Following the Dreyfus affair and associated unpleasantness, Singer emigrated to New York City. Believing that American Jews could do little more than provide funding for his project, Singer was impressed by the level of scholarship in the United States, he wrote a new prospectus, changing the title of his planned encyclopedia to Encyclopedia of the History and Mental Evolution of the Jewish Race. His radical ecumenism and opposition to orthodoxy upset many of his Jewish readers. Funk agreed to publish the encyclopedia on the condition that it remain unbiased on issues which might seem unfavorable for Jews.
Singer accepted and was established in an office at Funk & Wagnalls on 2 May 1898. Publication of the prospectus in 1898 created a severe backlash, including accusations of poor scholarship and of subservience to Christians. Kaufmann Kohler and Gotthard Deutsch, writing in American Hebrew, highlighted Singer's factual errors, accused him of commercialism and irreligiosity. Now considering that the project could not succeed with Singer at the helm, Funk & Wagnalls appointed an editorial board to oversee creation of the encyclopedia. Funk & Wagnalls assembled an editorial board between October 1898 and March 1899. Singer toned down his ideological rhetoric, indicated his desire to collaborate, changed the work's proposed title to The Jewish Encyclopedia. Despite their reservations about Singer, rabbi Gustav Gottheil and Cyrus Adler agreed to join the board, followed by Morris Jastrow, Frederick de Sola Mendes, two published critics of the project: Kauffmann Kohler and Gotthard Deutsch Theologian and Presbyterian minister George Foot Moore was added to the board for balance.
Soon after work started, Moore was replaced by Baptist minister Crawford Toy. Last was added the elderly Marcus Jastrow for his symbolic imprimatur as America's leading Talmudist. In March 1899, the Central Conference of American Rabbis, contemplating a competing project, agreed to discuss collaborating with Funk & Wagnalls—thus securing the position of the Jewish Encyclopedia as the only major project of its kind. Shuly Rubin Schwartz describes the payment scheme arranged at this time as follows: Members of the local executive committee, exclusive of Singer and, of course, would receive one thousand dollars per annum, while the rest of the department editors would receive five hundred. All collaborators, editors included, would be paid five dollars per printed page of about one thousand English words. If the article was written in a foreign language, payment would be only $3.50 per page. Singer's compensation was forty dollars a week, his salary was considered an advance, since Singer alone was to share with the company in the profits.
Other editors participating in all 12 volumes were Gotthard Deutsch, Richard Gottheil, Joseph Jacobs, Kaufmann Kohler, Herman Rosenthal, Crawford Howell Toy. Morris Jastrow, Jr. and Frederick de Sola Mendes assisted with volumes I to II. William Popper served as assistant revision editor and chief of translation for volumes IV through XII; the editors plunged into their enormous task and soon identified and solved some inefficiencies with the project. Article assignments were shuffled around and communication practices were streamlined. Joseph Jacobs was hired as a coordinator, he wrote four hundred articles and procured many of the encyclopedia's illustrations. Herman Rosenthal, an authority on Russia, was added as an editor. Louis Ginzberg joined the project and became head of the rabbinical literature department; the board faced many difficult editorial questions and disagreements. Singer wanted specific entries for every Jewish community in the world, with detailed information about, for example, the name and dates of the first Jewish settler in Prague.
Conflict arose over what types of Bible interpretation should be included
Lucius Vitellius the Elder
Lucius Vitellius Veteris or the Elder was the youngest of four sons of procurator Publius Vitellius and the only one who did not die through politics. He was consul three times, unusual during the Roman empire for someone, not a member of the Imperial family; the first time was in the year 34 as the colleague of Paullus Fabius Persicus. Under Emperor Tiberius, he was consul and in the following year governor of Syria in 35, he deposed Pontius Pilate in 36 after complaints from the people in Samaria. He supported Emperor Caligula, was a favorite of Emperor Claudius' wife Valeria Messalina. During Claudius' reign, he was Consul again twice, governed Rome while the Emperor was absent on his invasion of Britain. Around the time that Claudius married Agrippina the Younger in 47, 48 or 49, Vitellius served as a Censor. Josephus, in his Antiquities of the Jews, records that he wrote Tiberius to request that the Jewish high priestly robe be allowed back under Jewish control and this request was granted.
He wielded great influence and was known for his outstanding character, though, at one time, a Senator accused him of treason. He died of paralysis in 51. Lucius received a state funeral and had a statue on the rostra bearing the inscription ‘steadfast loyal to the Emperor’. Lucius married Sextilia, a reputable woman from a distinguished family, who gave birth to two sons, Aulus Vitellius Germanicus, Lucius Vitellius. Vitellius is a prominent character in Robert Graves's novel Claudius the God, an intimate friend of Claudius. Lucius Vitellius entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith Livius.org: Lucius Vitellius