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Argentine Navy

The Argentine Navy is the navy of Argentina. It is one of the three branches of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic, together with the Army and the Air Force; the Argentine Navy day is celebrated on May 17, anniversary of the victory in 1814 at the Battle of Montevideo over the Spanish fleet during the war of Independence. The Argentine Navy was created in the aftermath of the May Revolution of May 25, 1810, which started the war for independence from Spain; the navy was first created to support Manuel Belgrano in the Paraguay campaign, but it was sunk by ships from Montevideo, did not take part in that conflict. Renewed conflicts with Montevideo led to the creation of a second fleet, which participated in the capture of the city; as Buenos Aires had little maritime history, most men in the navy were from other nations, such as the Irish-born admiral William Brown, who directed the operation. As the cost of maintaining a navy was too high, most of the Argentine naval forces were composed of privateers.

Brown led the Argentine navy in further naval conflicts at the War with Brazil and the Anglo-French blockade of the Río de la Plata. In the 1870s the Argentine Navy began modernizing itself. At the close of the century, the force included: 5 armoured cruisers 4 coastal defence ironclads 3 second-class, high-speed, British-built cruisers 7 modern small cruisers and gunboats 4 destroyers and 22 torpedo boats; the most powerful ships at this time included the Italian-built Garibaldi and her sister ships: General Belgrano, Pueyrredón, San Martín, each at over 6,000 tons. Three older ironclads, Almirante Brown and Libertad dated from the 1880s and early 1890s; the navy's ships were built in Italy, Britain and Spain, were operated by over 600 officers and 7,760 seamen. These were supported by a battalion of an artillery battery. Argentina remained neutral in both world wars. In 1940 Argentina's navy was ranked the eighth most powerful in the world and the largest in Latin America. A ten-year building programme costing $60 million had produced a force of 14,500 sailors and over a thousand officers.

The fleet included two First World War-era American-built Rivadavia-class battleships, three modern cruisers, a dozen British-built destroyers, three submarines, plus minelayers, coastal defence ships, gunboats. A naval air force was in operation. In the postwar period, Naval Aviation and Marine units were put under direct Navy command. With Brazil, Argentina is one of two South American countries to have operated two aircraft carriers: the ARA Independencia and ARA Veinticinco de Mayo; the Argentine Navy has been traditionally involved in fishery protection, helping the Coast Guard: most notably in 1966 a destroyer fired on and holed a Soviet trawler that had refused to be escorted to Mar del Plata, in the 1970s there were four more incidents with Soviet and Bulgarian ships followed by other incidents such as the sinking of the Chian-der 3. The Navy took part in all military coups in Argentina through the 20th century. During the 1976 to 1983 dictatorship, Navy personnel were involved in the Dirty War in which thousands of people were kidnapped and killed by the forces of the military junta.

The Navy School of Mechanics, known as ESMA, was a notorious centre for torture. Among their more well-known victims were the Swedish teenager Dagmar Hagelin, French nuns Alice Domon and Léonie Duquet. During this regime, the Navy was the main supporter of a military solution for the country's two longest-standing disputes: the Beagle Conflict with Chile and the Falkland Islands with the United Kingdom. During the 1982 Falklands conflict the Main Argentine Naval Fleet consisted of modernised World War II era ships, newer vessels: two Type 42 destroyers, three French-built corvettes, one German-built Type 209 submarine; this fleet was supported by several ELMA tankers and transports, as well an ice breaker and a polar transport ship. New German MEKO type destroyers and Thyssen-Nordseewerke submarines were still under construction at the time. Despite leading the invasion of the Falkland Islands, in both strategic and tactical aspects the Argentine fleet played only a small part in the subsequent conflict with the Royal Navy.

After HMS Conqueror sank the ARA General Belgrano, the Argentine surface fleet did not venture from a 12-mile coastal limit imposed by the British because of the threat posed by the Royal Navy nuclear-powered submarines. The Argentine Navy's contributions to the war were principally the initial amphibious assaults on 2 and 3 April. In addition, the Type 42 destroyer ARA Santísima Trinidad, operating off Staten Island, played an important part in the destruction of the British landing ship Sir Galahad on 8 June,. Naval aviation carried out intensive maritime patrols, searching to locate the British fleet for the strike aircraft and British submarines for the anti-submarine Sea King helicopters, while their

Charles A. Stadler

Charles Albert Stadler was an American politician from New York. He was the son of Katharina Margarethe Stadler. Gabriel Stadler was an inn-keeper in Germersheim, took part in the failed German Revolution of 1848; the family emigrated to the United States in 1851, settled in New York City where Gabriel became an engraver. Charles attended the St. Nicholas Parochial School, other public schools, De La Salle Institute. During the American Civil War, he fought with the 55th New York Volunteers, finished the war as a sergeant major. On July 17, 1866, he married Josephine Contes, they had eight children, he became an engraver and worked in his father's shop until 1871. He became a brewer and engaged in the malting business, building the largest malting company in the United States, he was an Inspector of Public Schools from 1877 to 1879. On June 21, 1888, he married Pauline Roesicke. In 1897, his malting business became part of the American Malting Company, Stadler was President of the company from 1900 to 1916.

In 1903, he proposed to deactivate the Erie Canal, use the right-of-way of the canal bed to lay railroad tracks instead, ship freight by rail. Besides being faster than the canal boats, the rail transport would work all year round, while the canals were closed during the winter when the water froze to ice. During his last years, he spent the winters at "Seminole Grove", an estate with an extensive game preserve and fruit orchards, near Fort Myers and died there in May 1928; the New York Red Book compiled by Edgar L. Murlin Fourth Annual Record of Assemblymen and Senators from the City of New York in the State Legislature published by the City Reform Club RAILWAY IN CANAL BED in NYT on March 18, 1903 A DAY'S WEDDINGS.

Jonathan Schaeffer

Jonathan Herbert Schaeffer is a Canadian researcher and professor at the University of Alberta and the former Canada Research Chair in Artificial Intelligence. He led the team that wrote Chinook, the world's strongest American checkers player, after some good results in writing computer chess programs, he is involved in the University of Alberta GAMES group developing computer poker systems. Schaeffer is a member of the research group that created Polaris, a program designed to play the Texas Hold'em variant of poker, he is a Founder of Onlea. Born in Toronto, Ontario, he received a Bachelor of Science degree in 1979 from the University of Toronto, he received a Master of Mathematics degree in 1980 and a Ph. D. in 1986 from the University of Waterloo. Schaeffer reached national master strength in chess while in his early 20s, but has played little competitive chess since that time. Chinook is the first computer program to win the world champion title in a competition against humans. In 1990 it won the right to play in the human World Championship by being second to Marion Tinsley in the US Nationals.

At first the American Checkers Federation and English Draughts Association were against the participation of a computer in a human championship. When Tinsley resigned his title in protest, the ACF and EDA created the new title Man vs. Machine World Championship, competition proceeded. Tinsley won with four wins to Chinook's two. In a rematch, Chinook was declared the Man-Machine World Champion in checkers in 1994 in a match against Marion Tinsley after six drawn games, Tinsley's withdrawal due to pancreatic cancer. While Chinook became the world champion, it had never defeated the best checkers player of all time, superior to his closest peer; the championship continued with Chinook defending its title against Don Lafferty when it lost one game, won one and drew 18. After the match, Jonathan Schaeffer decided not to let Chinook compete anymore, but instead try to solve checkers, it was rated at 2814 Elo. In 2007, after 18 years of computation, he proved through a weak solution that checkers always results in a draw if neither player makes a mistake.

The solution involved 1014 calculations from endgame positions with fewer than 10 pieces on the board. Schaeffer is a member and, until 2004, leader of the computer poker research group at the University of Alberta, which has developed several strong computer programs for playing Texas hold'em poker; the earliest and most general of these is Poki, which uses Monte Carlo simulation to choose actions during a game. More the group has focused on the two-player variant, has developed a series of programs that approximate Nash equilibrium strategies for the game. Several of these programs are available in products such as Poker Academy from BioTools. In July 2007, Schaeffer announced a competition between the group's newest program and two human professionals, Phil Laak and Ali Eslami; the competition was held at the 2007 Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence conference, which hosted an international competition between computer poker programs. Out of four matches against the human professionals, Polaris won one, tied one, lost twice.

In the computer competition, Polaris won the Limit Hold'em event and came first in the No-Limit Hold'em event. In 2008, an updated version of Polaris defeated a team of human professionals in the Second Man-Machine Poker Competition. Schaeffer was the Vice-Provost for Information Technology at the University of Alberta. On July 1, 2012, he started serving a five-year term as Dean of Science at the University of Alberta, he is a Founder of Onlea, a nonprofit organization, which produces interactive online learning experiences such as Massive Open Online Courses. Canadian Who's Who 1997. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-4996-4. Schaeffer, Jonathan. One Jump Ahead: Challenging Human Supremacy in Checkers, 1997, Springer, ISBN 978-0-387-94930-7. Official website