Mauricio Borensztein, known by the stage name Tato Bores, was an Argentine film and television comedian, who specialized in political humor. His ironic TV monologues, delivered at a fast pace, became a reference point for generations of Argentines, he was born into a family of Polish Jewish heritage. He took his first steps into the humor field in 1957, after the fall of Juan Perón, debuting in state-owned Channel 7; when in character, he wore dress coat, white bow tie and a deliberately badly cut wig, waved a cigar. Besides the monologues, at some point during each show he pretended to dial the number of the Casa Rosada and speak to the President, asking pointed questions or commenting on uncomfortable news. Near the end of his life, Borensztein abandoned the weekly show format and resorted to "special programmes" every month or sometimes more often. In one of these, he appeared as Dr. Helmut Strasse, "argentinologist", an archeologist specialized in the lost land of Argentina, which had sunk into the Atlantic Ocean 500 years before the fictional time frame of the show.
The show was a humorous mockumentary about the downfall of Argentina where Borensztein, speaking in a mixture of Yiddish and some odd words in Spanish, overdubbed into straight Spanish by a narrator, commented on the latest findings and theories while he toured a digging site. Before the broadcast of one of the programmes, federal judge María Servini de Cubría was warned that the show contained an ironic comment about a ridiculously low fine she had received for mishandling a case. Servini ordered the offending segment to be cut out, forbade Borensztein to mention her name; this violated free speech, since the programme had not been broadcast and she had not verified it was criminally offensive. Borensztein received overwhelming support from the artistic community of Argentina, but respected the judicial order, from on referring to the judge as "the unnameable" or as Jueza Barubudubudía until the censorship was lifted. Un pecado por mes La comedia inmortal The Path to Crime Esta es mi vida Mala gente Por cuatro días locos Casada y señorita Vida nocturna Vacaciones en la Argentina El Asalto Propiedad El televisor Viaje de una noche de verano Disputas en la cama Departamento compartido Amante para dos He is the father of Alejandro Borensztein, Sebastián Borensztein and Marina Borensztein.
Argentine humour Tato Bores on IMDb Tato Bores at Cinenacional.com Youtube channel
Argentine painting refers to all the pictorial production done in the territory of Argentina throughout the centuries. The Cueva de las Manos, one of the masterpieces of paleolithic painting, is located in the Santa Cruz Province of Argentina, it has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Other important prehistoric artwork is located in the north of Córdoba. A collection of more than 35,000 pictographs is found in the hills of Colorado, Veladero and Unmount. More the pre-Hispanic cultures that inhabited the present territory of Argentina left a number of pictoral records. In the Andean northeast, the Ceramic Period cultures, from the Condorhuasi culture to the La Aguada and Santa María, show a comprehensive development in the painting of ceramics and stone. During the Spanish colonial era, painting developed as a religious art in churches, designed to Christianize indigenous peoples. Colonial-era religious painting was done by forced indigenous artists and African slaves under the power of the religious orders.
Colonial painting is seen in the books and manuscripts made by colonists, priests and visitors. Notable among these are the watercolors of the German Jesuit Florian Paucke. In what is now northwest Argentina in Jujuy, the Cuzco School developed in the churches, with its images of ángeles arcabuceros and triangular virgins. In the first years of the 19th century, many foreign artists visited and resided in Argentina, leaving their works. Among them were English mariner Emeric Essex Vidal, a watercolorist who left important graphic evidence of Argentine history. In the 1830s, Carlos Morel, considered the first Argentine painter, came to prominence. Soon after followed Prilidiano Pueyrredón and Cándido López, who painted the life of gauchos and the wars of premodern Argentina. In the middle of the 19th century the first Argentine artistic institutions began to be organized; these included La Sociedad Estímulo de Bellas Artes and El Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, whose first director was the painter Eduardo Schiaffino.
The great wave of European immigration established a strong relationship to European painting through Italian painters or children of Italians. Eduardo Sívori introduced naturalism with works such as El despertar de la criada, followed by painters like Reynaldo Giudici and Ernesto de la Cárcova, Ángel Della Valle developed a painting movement depicting the customs of the countryside, with works like La vuelta del malón. At a 1902 exhibition, Martín Malharro introduced impressionism to Argentina, he was followed by painters including Walter de Navazio and Ramón Silva. Soon after, Fernando Fader and the artists of the Nexus group began to push for the development of artistic currents that, without ignoring or disavowing the painting fashionable in Paris, would be capable of expressing independent views of painting; the first major artistic movements in Argentina coincided with the first signs of political liberty in the country, such as the 1913 sanction of the secret ballot and universal male suffrage, the first president to be popularly elected, the cultural revolution that involved the University Reform of 1918.
In this context, in which there continued to be influence from the Paris School, three main groups arose. The Florida group was characterized by paying the highest attention to aesthetics, its members belonged to the middle and upper classes. They met in the Richmond confectionery on the elegant and central calle Florida, from which the group takes its name, its painters included Aquiles Badi, Héctor Basaldúa, Antonio Berni, Norah Borges, Horacio Butler, Emilio Centurión, Juan del Prete, Raquel Forner, Ramón Gomez Cornet, Alfredo Guttero, Emilio Pettoruti, Xul Solar, Lino Enea Spilimbergo. The Boedo group struggles as its central themes. El Grupo Boedo, with painters such as José Arato, Adolfo Bellocq, Guillermo Hebécquer and Abraham Vigo, they were centered on the socialist Claridad publishing house, which had its workshops on calle Boedo, in the working-class suburbs of the city. Boedo group painters included José Arato, Adolfo Bellocq, Guillermo Hebécquer, Abraham Vigo; the La Boca group was influenced by Italian immigration and developed a distinctive style centered on labor and immigrant neighborhoods.
These artists included Victor Cúnsolo, Eugenio Daneri, Fortunato Lacámera, Alfredo Lazzari, Benito Quinquela Martín, Miguel Carlos Victorica. In the second avant-garde movement, or the wave of innovations in Argentine painting developed in the 1930s, many painters of the first avant-garde movement evolved and changed their artistic position. Among the leading artistic groups were: The Orion Group, composed of Luis Barragán, Vicente Forte, Leopoldo Presas, among others; the Sensitive painters, characterized by the use of color as an emotional tool. Raúl Soldi was the most prominent of this group. Th
Feminism in Argentina
Argentine law established a difference between the sexes. The law excluded her from the management of family property; the woman participated in the increase in value of the family property, but received only half the increase. A study in 1919 found great discrimination in the workplace, with women being badly underpaid, having to work long hours with no privileges, receiving less wages than men; this spurred demand for specific laws to protect women's rights. The Female Peronist Party was founded by Eva Perón in the late 1940s. At that time women were not allowed to vote. In the first elections in which women could run for office, 24 were elected to the Argentine Chamber of Deputies, all Peronists, seven female senators were elected, making Argentina the country with the most women representing the government. Following the death of Eva Perón, Delia Parodi, one of those deputies, led the party until the military coup of 1955 Between November 12, 1830 and January 14, 1831—during during the first government of Juan Manuel de Rosas—Uruguayan-born journalist Petrona Rosende de Sierra published what is considered to be the first Argentine publication written by and for women: La Aljaba.
In addition to art and friendship, the newspaper dealt with topics such as the intellectual formation of women, their role in society and their position in relation to men. Rosende de Sierra advocated the adoption of European educational theories, claiming that the government should provide primary and secondary education to women, who must have faith in their own capacity and prove their ability to overcome the resistance to female education. In one of the issues, the writer questioned her readers: "Until when the female sex will be seen plunged into the darkness in which it was locked by the oppressive system of those who denied the simplest knowledges?" Another periodical that argued for women's right to education was La Camelia, edited in 1852 by Rosa Guerra, the principal of a small private girl's school in Buenos Aires. Unlike Rosende de Sierra twenty years earlier, Guerra "believed that women did not need to prove themselves worthy of education, but had a moral and legal right to it".
At the same time, La Camelia warned that women "must not lose their feminine modesty" and avoid coming across as intellectuals as it "could be equated with loose morality." During its brief life, the publication supported dress reform, claiming women dressed as "ornamental dolls". Dress reform was a controversial issue at the time, despite her emphasis on the importance of modesty in dress, Guerra was harshly criticised by influential Catholic women and the Church. In 1854, Guerra started, she was a prolific writer who produced novels, children's books and articles and poetry for the daily newspapers. Despite her liberal politics, Guerra did not depart from the notion of "citizen-training mother" as the main role of women, she believed women were born to suffer for love, with female self-sacrifice being a constant theme in her work. This "romantic concept of womanly martyrdom" was a dominant theme in Argentine women's literature of the mid-19th century, which exalted female virtues at the expense of men's selfishness.
Born in Buenos Aires on June 26, 1819, Juana Manso was a writer, journalist and precursor of feminism in South America. In fact, she is considered by many as the first feminist of Argentina. Manso lived in Rio de Janeiro from 1849 to 1853, where she published The Women's Journal, a periodical modeled on an English magazine of the same name that, "argued against discrimination against women and supported equal education for Latin American women." Back in Buenos Aires, she founded the Ladies' Album, with a similar theme to the Brazilian journal. In her periodicals and novels, Manso advocated her ideas on equality of women, popular education and abolitionism, which were met with resistance by Argentine society, as it remained hostile to any manifestation that meant breaking ties with the colonial era. In a 1853 article titled "The Moral Emancipation of Women", published in the journal The Argentine Enlightenment, Manso wrote: The moral emancipation of women is considered by vulgarity as the apocalypse of the century.
Some run to the dictionary and exclaim: There is no parental authority! Goodbye marital despotism! To emancipate the woman! How! For that junk in the living room, that procreative machine, that golden zero, that frivolous toy, that doll of fashions, will it be a rational being? How! Would she be one day equal to the man in sacred rights that brutality trampled until today without mercy? Unheard-of scandal! What could young people use to pretend the heart of beauties? How after treating women as our property we would have to recognize our equal in it! There will come a day when the code of the peoples will guarantee women the rights of their freedom and their intelligence. Humanity can not be retrograde, her intelligence, will improve the moral faculties and make her exercise the inevitable influence that nature gives her in the great destinies of humanity. Feminism in the country emerged at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, during the consolidation of the modern Argentine State.
There was not a homogenous feminist movement, rather individual struggles carried out by women inserted in diverse political identities and different social classes. Women from the upper and upp
Spaniards, or the Spanish people, are a Romance ethnic group that are indigenous to Spain. They share a common Spanish culture, history and language. Within Spain, there are a number of nationalisms and regionalisms, reflecting the country's complex history and diverse culture. Although the official language of Spain is known as "Spanish", it is only one of the national languages of Spain, is less ambiguously known as Castilian, a standard language based on the medieval romance speech of the Kingdom of Castile in north and central Spain; the Spanish people's heritage includes the pre-Celts and Celts. There are several spoken regional languages, most notably Basque and Galician. There are many populations outside Spain with ancestors who emigrated from Spain and who share a Hispanic culture; the Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. As a result of Roman colonization, the majority of local languages, with the exception of Basque, stem from the Vulgar Latin; the Germanic Vandals and Suebi, with part of the Iranian Alans under King Respendial conquered the peninsula in 409 AD.
In turn, the Visigoths established themselves in Spain. The Iberian Peninsula was conquered and brought under the rule of the Arab Umayyads in 711 and by the Berber North African dynasties the Almohads and the Almoravids in the 11th and 12th centuries. Following the eight century Christian Reconquista against the Moors, the modern Spanish state was formed with the union of the Kingdoms of Castille and Aragon, the conquest of the last Muslim Nasrid Kingdom of Granada and the Canary Islands in the late 15th century. In the early 16th century the Kingdom of Navarre was conquered; as Spain expanded its empire in the Americas, religious minorities in Spain such as Jews and Muslims were either converted or expelled and the Catholic church fiercely persecuted heresy during a period known as the Spanish Inquisition. A small number of Spaniards descend from converted Jewish and North Africans, as a result of the 800 years of Moorish occupation of the Iberian Peninsula. In parallel, a wave of emigration to the Americas began, with over 1.86 million Spaniards emigrating to the Spanish Americas during the colonial period and the population of the Spanish Empire had risen to 16.8 million by the end of the 18th century In the post-colonial period, a further 3.5 million Spanish left for the Americas Argentina, Mexico, Chile, Puerto Rico and Cuba.
Spain is home to one of the largest communities of Romani people. The Government's statistical agency CIS estimated in 2007 that the number of Gitanos present in Spain is around one million; the Spanish Roma, which belong to the Iberian Kale subgroup, are a formerly-nomadic community, which spread across Western Asia, North Africa, Europe, first reaching Spain in the 15th century. The population of Spain is becoming diverse due to recent immigration. From 2000 to 2010, Spain had among the highest per capita immigration rates in the world and the second highest absolute net migration in the World and immigrants now make up about 10% of the population; the prolonged economic crisis between 2008 and 2015 reduced both immigration rates and the total number of foreigners in the country, Spain becoming once more a net emigrant country. The earliest modern humans inhabiting Spain are believed to have been Neolithic peoples who may have arrived in the Iberian Peninsula as early as 35,000–40,000 years ago.
In more recent times the Iberians are believed to have arrived or developed in the region between the 4th millennium BC and the 3rd millennium BC settling along the Mediterranean coast. Celts settled in Spain during the Iron Age; some of those tribes in North-central Spain, which had cultural contact with the Iberians, are called Celtiberians. In addition, a group known as the Tartessians and Turdetanians inhabited southwestern Spain and who are believed to have developed a separate civilization of Phoenician influence; the seafaring Phoenicians and Carthaginians successively founded trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast over a period of several centuries. The Second Punic War between the Carthaginians and Romans was fought in what is now Spain and Portugal; the Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC transformed most of the region into a series of Latin-speaking provinces. As a result of Roman colonization, the majority of local languages, with the exception of Basque, stem from the Vulgar Latin, spoken in Hispania, which evolved into the modern languages of the Iberian Peninsula, including Castilian, which became the main lingua franca of Spain, is now known in most countries as Spanish.
Hispania emerged as an important part of the Roman Empire and produced notable historical figures such as Trajan, Hadrian and Quintilian. The Germanic Vandals and Suebi, with part of the Iranian Alans under King Respendial, arrived in the peninsula in 409 AD. Part of the Vandals with the remaining Alans, now under Geiseric in personal union removed themselves to North Africa after a few conflicts with another Germanic tribe, the Visigoths, who established in Toulouse supported Roman campaigns against the Vandals and Alans in 415–19 AD and became the dominant power in Iberia for three centuries; the Visigoths were romanized in the eastern Empire and Christians, so their integration withi
Languages of Argentina
At least 40 spoken languages are spoken in Argentina. They include immigrant languages, with Spanish being dominant; some are spoken by elderly people whose descendants do not speak the languages. There is evidence of some now extinct languages. Argentina is predominantly a Spanish-speaking country — the fourth largest after Mexico and Colombia. Based on the 2010 national census and supporting research, there are about 40.9 million Spanish speakers in Argentina. Argentina is one of several Spanish-speaking countries that universally use what is known as voseo—the use of the pronoun vos instead of tú as well as its corresponding verb forms; the most prevalent dialect is Rioplatense, whose speakers are located in the basin of the Río de la Plata. A phonetic study conducted by the Laboratory for Sensory Investigations of and the University of Toronto showed that the intonation Porteño Spanish is unlike that of other Spanish varieties, suggested that it may be a result of convergence with Italian.
Italian immigration influenced Lunfardo, the slang spoken in the Río de la Plata region, permeating the vernacular vocabulary of other regions as well. As in other large countries, the accents vary depending on geographical location. Extreme differences in pronunciation can be heard within Argentina. One notable pronunciation difference found in Argentina is the "sh" sounding ll. In most Spanish speaking countries the letters y and ll are pronounced somewhat like the “y” in yo-yo, however in most parts of Argentina they are pronounced like “sh” in English or like "zh"; as mentioned voseo is used in Argentina. See the article on voseo for more details. In many of the central and north-eastern areas of the country the trilled /r/ takes on the same sound as the <ll> and <y> For Example, “Río Segundo” sounds like “Zhio Segundo” and “Corrientes” sounds like “Cozhientes”. The ISO639 code for Argentine Spanish is "es-AR". Argentina has more than 1,500,000 Italian speakers. Italian immigration, which began in the middle of the 19th century and reached its peak in the first two decades of the 20th century, made a lasting and significant impact on the pronunciation and vernacular of Argentina's variety of Spanish, giving it an Italian flair.
In fact, Italian dialects have contributed so much to Rioplatense that many foreigners mistake it for Italian. There are around one million Levantine Arabic speakers in Argentina, as a result of immigration from the Middle East from Lebanon and Palestine. South Bolivian Quechua is a Quechuan language spoken by some 800,000 people immigrants who have arrived in the last years. There are an estimated 70,000 speakers in Salta Province; the language is known as Central Bolivian Quechua, which has six dialects. It is referred to as Quechua IIC by linguists. Standard German is spoken by between 500,000 people. There are around 200,000 Yiddish speakers in Argentina. Guaraní is spoken by 200,000 people in Corrientes and Misiones. There are 174,000 speakers of the Catalan language. Mapudungun is spoken by 100,000 Mapuche people in the provinces of Neuquén, Río Negro, Buenos Aires, La Pampa. Chinese is spoken by at least half of the over 60,000 Chinese immigrants in Buenos Aires. Wichí is an indigenous language spoken by 53,700 people in Chaco where, along with Kom and Moqoit, it is official de jure.
Vlax Romani is spoken by 52,000 people. Japanese is spoken by 32,000 people. Ukrainian is spoken by 27,000 people. Portuguese is spoken by 25,000 people. Welsh is spoken by over 5,000 people in Chubut province; some districts have incorporated it as an educational language. Mocoví is spoken by 4,525 people in Santa Fe Province, while Mbyá Guaraní has 3,000 speakers in the northeast. Pilagá is spoken by about 2,000 people in the Chaco. There are 50 % of whom are monolingual. Kaiwá has 512 speakers, Nivaclé 200, Tapieté and Wichí Lhamtés Nocten only 100; these indigenous languages have suffered slow cultural genocide. In this category in terms of number of speakers, one can include some immigrant languages for instance Plautdietsch with only 140; some languages are critically endangered, spoken only by a handful of isolated elderly people whose children do not speak the language. Vilela has about 20 speakers. Abipón, Cacán, Chané and Haush are now extinct languages that were spoken by people indigenous to Argentina before European contact.
Little is known of Cacán and Chané. The Abipón language was a Native American language of the Mataco–Guaycuru family, spoken by the Abipón people. Cacán was spoken by Diaguita and Calchaquí aboriginals, became extinct during the late 17th century or early 18th century.
Antonio Gasalla is an Argentine actor and theatre director. Antonio Gasalla was born in Ramos Mejía, a western suburb of Buenos Aires, in 1941, he enrolled at the National Dramatic Arts Conservatory, began his work in Buenos Aires' vibrant theatre scene in 1964 as an understudy, by which he befriended a colleague, Uruguayan émigré Carlos Perciavalle. He and Perciavalle starred in their production of María Inés Quesada's Help Valentino!, which they performed as a café-concert. They accepted roles in film productions of Un viaje de locos and Clínica con música in 1974. Though known for their comedy roles, they were cast in 1974 by Sergio Renán for La tregua, the first Argentine film nominated for an Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film; the duo parted ways subsequently, Gasalla was cast in a comic role in Tiro al aire, a 1980 family film starring Héctor Alterio. Offbeat film director Alejandro Doria offered Gasalla the lead role in a 1985 comedy, Esperando la carroza. Portraying Mamá Cora, a mischievous nonagenarian in need of attention from her self-absorbed family, Gasalla underwent four hours of prosthetic and makeup work daily, while shooting lasted.
Receiving mixed reviews, the grotesque comedy was a commercial success and introduced Gasalla to a new act: female impersonation. He appeared on television work until 1990, when he was offered a comedy show, El Mundo de Gasalla, following which he hosted or starred in numerous other variety programs on Argentine television for Channel 9; the most popular of these was El palacio de la risa, where television audiences became acquainted with his feminine roles. His comic portrayals earned his first Martín Fierro Award, the most prestigious in Argentine entertainment, in 1994. Having had a falling out twenty years earlier and his erstwhile café-concert partner, Carlos Perciavalle, were reunited in a 1997-98 theatrical series in Punta del Este, Uruguay. Gasalla returned to film in 2000, portraying Fredy, a homosexual man, in Almejas y mejillones, to the theatre, where he portrayed his numerous female characters from 2000 to 2004. Ending his hiatus from television in 2004, he hosted Gasalla en pantalla and portrayed "grandma," an irreverent elderly woman, for Susana Giménez's popular variety show.
This role earned him another Martín Fierro Prize. Collaborating in homages to the late comedian Niní Marshall in 2005 and for the Maipo Theatre's centennial in 2008, he portrayed Argentine President Cristina Kirchner in Nito Artaza's Cristina en el país de las maravillas. Gasalla more directed Hernán Casciari's Más respeto que soy tu madre, playing the title role, as well. Gasalla remains among the most successful Argentine television personalities. Following a May 4, 2009, guest appearance in Marcelo Tinelli's Showmatch, the popular variety show's ratings jumped to some of the highest in local television history, his success on the stage earned him a standing as the "king of Corrientes Avenue." Gasalla's female impersonations remain the hallmark of his career not only for his intricate portrayals, but for their sheer number. Some of the best-known over the years have included: Grandma/Mamá Cora: a senile, though willful, nonagenarian. Soledad Solari: a woman with multiple phobias. Inesita: a high-society maven under her plastic surgeon's knife.
Yolanda: an elderly, hypochondriac woman psychologically attached to her wheelchair. Bárbara: a parody of television hosts Rona Barrett or Barbara Walters. Noelia: an overdressed, eccentric schoolteacher. Flora: an inflexible, petty public servant; the Nurse: she loses more patients than she saves. Mirta Bertotti: the middle-aged matriarch of a dysfunctional family. Esther Estrés: Estrés translates as "stress" in Spanish. Dr. Gutman: an indiscreet psychoanalyst. Gasalla/ Antonio Gasalla on IMDb