Feminism in Argentina
Argentine law established a difference between the sexes. The law excluded her from the management of family property; the woman participated in the increase in value of the family property, but received only half the increase. A study in 1919 found great discrimination in the workplace, with women being badly underpaid, having to work long hours with no privileges, receiving less wages than men; this spurred demand for specific laws to protect women's rights. The Female Peronist Party was founded by Eva Perón in the late 1940s. At that time women were not allowed to vote. In the first elections in which women could run for office, 24 were elected to the Argentine Chamber of Deputies, all Peronists, seven female senators were elected, making Argentina the country with the most women representing the government. Following the death of Eva Perón, Delia Parodi, one of those deputies, led the party until the military coup of 1955 Between November 12, 1830 and January 14, 1831—during during the first government of Juan Manuel de Rosas—Uruguayan-born journalist Petrona Rosende de Sierra published what is considered to be the first Argentine publication written by and for women: La Aljaba.
In addition to art and friendship, the newspaper dealt with topics such as the intellectual formation of women, their role in society and their position in relation to men. Rosende de Sierra advocated the adoption of European educational theories, claiming that the government should provide primary and secondary education to women, who must have faith in their own capacity and prove their ability to overcome the resistance to female education. In one of the issues, the writer questioned her readers: "Until when the female sex will be seen plunged into the darkness in which it was locked by the oppressive system of those who denied the simplest knowledges?" Another periodical that argued for women's right to education was La Camelia, edited in 1852 by Rosa Guerra, the principal of a small private girl's school in Buenos Aires. Unlike Rosende de Sierra twenty years earlier, Guerra "believed that women did not need to prove themselves worthy of education, but had a moral and legal right to it".
At the same time, La Camelia warned that women "must not lose their feminine modesty" and avoid coming across as intellectuals as it "could be equated with loose morality." During its brief life, the publication supported dress reform, claiming women dressed as "ornamental dolls". Dress reform was a controversial issue at the time, despite her emphasis on the importance of modesty in dress, Guerra was harshly criticised by influential Catholic women and the Church. In 1854, Guerra started, she was a prolific writer who produced novels, children's books and articles and poetry for the daily newspapers. Despite her liberal politics, Guerra did not depart from the notion of "citizen-training mother" as the main role of women, she believed women were born to suffer for love, with female self-sacrifice being a constant theme in her work. This "romantic concept of womanly martyrdom" was a dominant theme in Argentine women's literature of the mid-19th century, which exalted female virtues at the expense of men's selfishness.
Born in Buenos Aires on June 26, 1819, Juana Manso was a writer, journalist and precursor of feminism in South America. In fact, she is considered by many as the first feminist of Argentina. Manso lived in Rio de Janeiro from 1849 to 1853, where she published The Women's Journal, a periodical modeled on an English magazine of the same name that, "argued against discrimination against women and supported equal education for Latin American women." Back in Buenos Aires, she founded the Ladies' Album, with a similar theme to the Brazilian journal. In her periodicals and novels, Manso advocated her ideas on equality of women, popular education and abolitionism, which were met with resistance by Argentine society, as it remained hostile to any manifestation that meant breaking ties with the colonial era. In a 1853 article titled "The Moral Emancipation of Women", published in the journal The Argentine Enlightenment, Manso wrote: The moral emancipation of women is considered by vulgarity as the apocalypse of the century.
Some run to the dictionary and exclaim: There is no parental authority! Goodbye marital despotism! To emancipate the woman! How! For that junk in the living room, that procreative machine, that golden zero, that frivolous toy, that doll of fashions, will it be a rational being? How! Would she be one day equal to the man in sacred rights that brutality trampled until today without mercy? Unheard-of scandal! What could young people use to pretend the heart of beauties? How after treating women as our property we would have to recognize our equal in it! There will come a day when the code of the peoples will guarantee women the rights of their freedom and their intelligence. Humanity can not be retrograde, her intelligence, will improve the moral faculties and make her exercise the inevitable influence that nature gives her in the great destinies of humanity. Feminism in the country emerged at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, during the consolidation of the modern Argentine State.
There was not a homogenous feminist movement, rather individual struggles carried out by women inserted in diverse political identities and different social classes. Women from the upper and upp
Luis Sandrini was a prolific Argentine comic film actor and film producer. Considered as one of the most respected and most acclaimed Argentine comedians by the public and critics, he has made over 80 appearances in film between 1933 and 1980. He was the son of Genovés immigrants, his father was a theatrical actor, Luis began to work in a circus next to his parents, like clown. In the 1930s he entered the theatrical company of Enrique Muiño and Elías Isaac Alippi, where he met his first wife, the actress Chela Cordero. Made his debut in the cinema in 1933 acting in the first Argentine sound film Tango in which he worked with a great of the theater of magazines like Pepe Arias and the stars of the tango Libertad Lamarque, Azucena Maizani and Tita Merello, with the last one he had a romance when they filmed the film Juan Tenorio, he appeared on the radio, where he made Felipe, the prototype of Buenos Aires nice man, creation of Miguel Coronatto Paz, so successful that years was taken to television on Channel 13, where he shared screen with other great comedians as Tato Bores, Alberto Olmedo, Pepe Biondi, José Marrone, Carlos Balá, Dringue Farías and Juan Carlos Altavista, among others.
In the theater he made "Cuando los duendes cazan perdices" taken to the movies, behind the scenes, was astonished by the beauty of the young actress Malvina Pastorino whom he married. This resounding success made him become the most representative figure of the golden age of Argentine cinema, his last appearances were in costumbristas familiar films of Enrique Carreras. He died when he filmed the movie, My Family's Beautiful!, by Palito Ortega, where he worked alongside another great of the show, Niní Marshall. Luis Sandrini knew to conquer the heart not only of the people of his country but the rest of the Hispanic world due to the great characterizations of his personages, by which the films in which this great comedian act are known by all like the films of Sandrini, standing out from the rest of the cast and overshadowing the directors of the films. Famous expressions of his characters have passed into history, like that well-known of his film "Cuando los duendes cazan perdices": "¡La vieja ve los colores!".
He was praised for his characterizations and his characters have given people talk many years after the first releases of his films. The TV program Peter Capusotto y sus videos features a character played by Diego Capusotto called Bombita Rodríguez, believed to be inspired by Professor Tirabombas or Professor Hippie, both of Sandrini. Peruvian writer Mario Vargas Llosa, Nobel Prize for Literature in 2010, recalls Sandrini in a passage in his novel Who Killed Palomino Molero?: "Lituma and the lieutenant had been at the movies, watching an Argentine film by Luis Sandrini, which made people laugh a lot, but not at them." Mexican comedian Roberto Gómez Bolaños, Chespirito, in his memoirs, says about Sandrini:"He is an Argentine who should have official residence in the Olympus of comedians: Mr. Luis Sandrini, an actor in the full extent of the word, who brings us laughs like tears, it had been my idol since childhood and it always remained." -Roberto Gómez Bolaños Among the prizes and recognitions that he obtained they count the Argentine Academy of Cinematography Arts and Sciences Award to the best actor in 1950 por The Fault the Other One Had, a special mention in 1949 "for his brilliant performance in the Argentine cinema", the Silver Condor Award for Best Comedian in 1950 for Don Juan Tenorio and Juan Globo, the Silver Condor for Best Actor in 1954 for La Casa Grande and in 1972 for La Valija, the 1981 Honour Konex Award, the latter posthumously.
My Family's Beautiful! Frutilla Diablo metió la pata Vivir con alegría Casamiento de Laucha, El Así es la vida Canto cuenta su historia, El Chicos crecen, Los Yo tengo fe Hoy le toca a mi mujer Professor Tirabombas, El Mi amigo Luis Pájaro loco Professor patagónico, El Elefante color ilusión, Un Pimienta y pimentón El Profesor hippie.... Professor Héctor'Tito' Montesano Kuma Ching En mi casa mando yo.... Esteban Rossi Cuando los hombres hablan de mujeres.... Alejandro ¡Al diablo con este cura!.... Padre Francisco Lambertini Pimienta.... Peregrino Ferrari Bicho raro Viaje de una noche de verano Mujeres los prefieren tontos, Las Cigarra no es un bicho, La.... Taxi Driver Castillo de los monstruos, El.... El Profesor Y el cuerpo sigue aguantando Chafalonías "Felipe" TV Series.... Felipe Mi esqueleto Hombre que hizo el milagro, El Fantoche Hombre virgen, El Barro humano, El.... Taxista Cuando los duendes cazan perdices Maldición gitana The Seducer of Granada Casa grande, La Payaso Me casé con una estrella Culpa la tuvo el otro, La....
Víctor Valdez/Sincerato Cuesta/Víctor Valdez's Mother Seductor, El Baño de Afrodita, El Embajador, El.... Palmiro Sosa Juan Globo Don Juan Tenorio ¡Olé torero!.... Manuel Yo soy tu padre The Thief.... Plácido López The Private Life of Mark Antony and Cleopatra.... Marco Antonio Diablo andaba en los choclos, El The Maharaja's Diamond The Dance of Fortune Dos rivales, Los Captain Poison.... Jorge de Córdoba Suerte llama tr
Alberto Olmedo was an Argentine comedian and actor, popularly regarded as one of the most important comedians in the history of his country, for his outstanding work in television and theater. Olmedo was born in the city of Rosario. In his teens, he was a gifted gymnast, an aspiring actor who tried his luck with several amateur theater companies, enjoyed some local success. Olmedo moved to Buenos Aires in 1954. One year while working as a technician in Canal 7, Argentina's first television station, his improvisation skills caught the attention of the management, who gave him acting jobs in several TV shows. While Olmedo had a string of successful children's programs during the 1960s, he gained the most notoriety when given the opportunity to mix slapstick and adult-oriented entertainment. Starting with Gringalet in 1959, Olmedo starred in 49 movies, including: Los Doctores las Prefieren Desnudas, in 1973, Maridos en Vacaciones, Fotógrafo de Señoras, Las Mujeres Son Cosas de Guapos, Los Fierecillos Indomables, Sálvese Quien Pueda, Rambito y Rambón, Primera Misión.
His last movie was Atracción Peculiar, released shortly after his death. Los Fierecillos Indomables had a sequel in 1983. Many of Olmedo's movies in the 1980s were adult-oriented comedies featuring Jorge Porcel and vedettes Moria Casán and Susana Giménez. Conservative Argentine authorities rated these movies as PM-18, save for a few tamer films aimed at family audiences; the "Olmedo and Porcel" movies are considered to be the pinnacle of Argentina's sexploitation movie genre. Most of these movies were directed by Gerardo Sofovich or his brother Hugo, who directed Olmedo's TV shows El Chupete and No Toca Botón!. Olmedo's Capitán Piluso show was a hit with children in the 1960s, but he preferred working for adult audiences. After acting in the successful Operación Ja Ja weekly show, Olmedo landed his first leading role in El Chupete. In 1976, shortly after the beginning of the military dictatorship known as the National Reorganization Process, Olmedo had his own death announced on the show. Once the truth was revealed, the actor was punished for his prank and banished from the airwaves for two years.
In the 1980s, No Toca Botón! was the highest-rated show in Argentina. In fits of improvisation, Olmedo would stray from script, tear down props, dash past the cameras, verbally abuse his fellow actors, he created popular characters such as General González, Rucucu the Ukrainian magician, the dictator of Costa Pobre, above all el Manosanta, a multi-level parody on charlatans of all stripes and Argentines' reckless pursuit of sex and money. Those years saw the blooming of a partnership with character actor Javier Portales, who provided a counterweight to Olmedo's wild improvising. Olmedo, nicknamed el Negro, would evoke his Rosario background by using Rosario slang and narrating implausible stories about his childhood exploits. Olmedo died in the resort city of Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires Province, on March 5, 1988. According to police reports, he slipped off his eleventh-floor apartment's balcony, it is believed that he tried under the influence of alcohol or cocaine, to perform a high-wire stunt on the balcony and lost his balance.
The only witness to his last moments was girlfriend Nancy Herrera, pregnant with his posthumous son Alberto. Olmedo married and divorced twice, had six children, he is buried in Buenos Aires. Jorge Porcel Argentine humour Alberto Olmedo at Cinenacional.com "Official" home page Olmedo Bio Alberto Olmedo on IMDb An exposition of Olmedo-related art
Mauricio Borensztein, known by the stage name Tato Bores, was an Argentine film and television comedian, who specialized in political humor. His ironic TV monologues, delivered at a fast pace, became a reference point for generations of Argentines, he was born into a family of Polish Jewish heritage. He took his first steps into the humor field in 1957, after the fall of Juan Perón, debuting in state-owned Channel 7; when in character, he wore dress coat, white bow tie and a deliberately badly cut wig, waved a cigar. Besides the monologues, at some point during each show he pretended to dial the number of the Casa Rosada and speak to the President, asking pointed questions or commenting on uncomfortable news. Near the end of his life, Borensztein abandoned the weekly show format and resorted to "special programmes" every month or sometimes more often. In one of these, he appeared as Dr. Helmut Strasse, "argentinologist", an archeologist specialized in the lost land of Argentina, which had sunk into the Atlantic Ocean 500 years before the fictional time frame of the show.
The show was a humorous mockumentary about the downfall of Argentina where Borensztein, speaking in a mixture of Yiddish and some odd words in Spanish, overdubbed into straight Spanish by a narrator, commented on the latest findings and theories while he toured a digging site. Before the broadcast of one of the programmes, federal judge María Servini de Cubría was warned that the show contained an ironic comment about a ridiculously low fine she had received for mishandling a case. Servini ordered the offending segment to be cut out, forbade Borensztein to mention her name; this violated free speech, since the programme had not been broadcast and she had not verified it was criminally offensive. Borensztein received overwhelming support from the artistic community of Argentina, but respected the judicial order, from on referring to the judge as "the unnameable" or as Jueza Barubudubudía until the censorship was lifted. Un pecado por mes La comedia inmortal The Path to Crime Esta es mi vida Mala gente Por cuatro días locos Casada y señorita Vida nocturna Vacaciones en la Argentina El Asalto Propiedad El televisor Viaje de una noche de verano Disputas en la cama Departamento compartido Amante para dos He is the father of Alejandro Borensztein, Sebastián Borensztein and Marina Borensztein.
Argentine humour Tato Bores on IMDb Tato Bores at Cinenacional.com Youtube channel
Ethnic groups of Argentina
The ethnography of Argentina makes this country, along with other areas of modern settlement like Canada, Australia or New Zealand, a crisol de razas, or a melting pot of different peoples. In fact, immigration to Argentina was so strong that it became the country with the second highest number of immigrants, with 6.6 million, second only to the United States with 27 million, ahead of such other immigratory receptors such as Canada and Australia. Upon the independence of Argentina, the newborn country had a large territory but was thinly populated, its ethnic composition was the same from the colonial era that had lasted from 16th to early 19th centuries. In the mid-19th century, a large wave of immigration started to arrive due to newly established Constitutional policies that encouraged immigration, due to issues in the Old World such as wars, hunger, social unrest and pursuit for opportunities or a better life in the New World; this immigration was from Europe but from the Arab world and Japan.
Thus, most Argentines are descendants of these 19th and 20th century immigrants, with about 97% of the population being of European or partial European descent and mestizo. Arab descent is significant and the Jewish population is the biggest in all Latin America. Mestizo population in Argentina, unlike in other Latin American countries, is low, as is the Black population after being decimated by diseases and wars in the 19th century, though since the 1990s a new wave of Black immigration has been arriving. Native Argentines on the other hand have significant populations in the country's North-West. Asian peoples have increasing minorities in some Buenos Aires neighborhoods and are expanding to other large Argentine cities. Through the centuries people from neighboring countries like Bolivia and Peru have immigrated to Argentina and established important communities; the number and composition of the population was stable until 1853, when the national government, after passing a constitution, started a campaign to attract European immigration to populate the country.
This state policy lasted several decades. At first the number of immigrants was modest compared to other countries such as the United States, but in the 1870s, due to the economic crisis in Europe, it started to increase, reaching an high rate between 1890 and 1930. Unofficial records show that, during the 1860s, 160,000 immigrants arrived in Argentina, while in the 1880s the net number increased to 841,000 doubling the population of the country in that decade. Between 1857 and 1950, 6,611,000 European immigrants arrived in Argentina, making it the country with the second biggest immigration wave in the world, only second to the United States with 27 million, ahead of such other areas of new settlement such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Uruguay and permanently changing the ethnography of Argentina. Immigrants arrived through the port of Buenos Aires and many stayed in the capital or within Buenos Aires Province and this still happens today. In 1895, immigrants accounted for 52% of the population in the capital, 31% in the province of Buenos Aires.
Waves of immigrants from European countries arrived in the late early 20th centuries. Over 30 percent of the country's population was born overseas by 1914, half of the population in Buenos Aires and Rosario was foreign-born. Over 80% of the Argentine population, per the 1914 Census, were immigrants, their children or grandchildren; the Hotel de Inmigrantes, built in 1906 to accommodate the 100,000 to 200,000 yearly arrivals at the Port of Buenos Aires, was made a National Historic Monument. Italian immigration to Argentina began in the 19th century, just after Argentina won its independence from Spain. Argentine culture has significant connections to Italian culture, in terms of language and traditions. Italians became established throughout Argentina, with the greatest concentrations in the city of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires Province, Santa Fe Province, Entre Ríos Province, Córdoba Province, Tucumán Province, La Pampa Province, the nearby country of Uruguay. There are many reasons for the Italian immigration to Argentina: Italy was enduring economic problems caused by the unification of the Italian states into one nation.
The country was impoverished, unemployment was rampant, certain areas were overpopulated, Italy was subject to significant political turmoil. Italians saw in Argentina a chance to build for themselves a brand new life; the Italian population in Argentina is the second largest in the world, outside of Italy, at 25 million people. Italians form a majority of the population of Argentina and neighboring Uruguay: up to two-thirds have some Italian background. Among Latin American countries, only Brazil has more people of Italian descent. German immigration to Argentina occurred during five main time periods: pre–1870, 1870–1914, 1918–1933, 1933–1940 and post–1945. Argentina and Germany have long had close ties to each other. A flourishing trade developed between them as early as the German Unification, Germany had a privileged position in the Argentine economy. Argent
Argentine painting refers to all the pictorial production done in the territory of Argentina throughout the centuries. The Cueva de las Manos, one of the masterpieces of paleolithic painting, is located in the Santa Cruz Province of Argentina, it has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Other important prehistoric artwork is located in the north of Córdoba. A collection of more than 35,000 pictographs is found in the hills of Colorado, Veladero and Unmount. More the pre-Hispanic cultures that inhabited the present territory of Argentina left a number of pictoral records. In the Andean northeast, the Ceramic Period cultures, from the Condorhuasi culture to the La Aguada and Santa María, show a comprehensive development in the painting of ceramics and stone. During the Spanish colonial era, painting developed as a religious art in churches, designed to Christianize indigenous peoples. Colonial-era religious painting was done by forced indigenous artists and African slaves under the power of the religious orders.
Colonial painting is seen in the books and manuscripts made by colonists, priests and visitors. Notable among these are the watercolors of the German Jesuit Florian Paucke. In what is now northwest Argentina in Jujuy, the Cuzco School developed in the churches, with its images of ángeles arcabuceros and triangular virgins. In the first years of the 19th century, many foreign artists visited and resided in Argentina, leaving their works. Among them were English mariner Emeric Essex Vidal, a watercolorist who left important graphic evidence of Argentine history. In the 1830s, Carlos Morel, considered the first Argentine painter, came to prominence. Soon after followed Prilidiano Pueyrredón and Cándido López, who painted the life of gauchos and the wars of premodern Argentina. In the middle of the 19th century the first Argentine artistic institutions began to be organized; these included La Sociedad Estímulo de Bellas Artes and El Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, whose first director was the painter Eduardo Schiaffino.
The great wave of European immigration established a strong relationship to European painting through Italian painters or children of Italians. Eduardo Sívori introduced naturalism with works such as El despertar de la criada, followed by painters like Reynaldo Giudici and Ernesto de la Cárcova, Ángel Della Valle developed a painting movement depicting the customs of the countryside, with works like La vuelta del malón. At a 1902 exhibition, Martín Malharro introduced impressionism to Argentina, he was followed by painters including Walter de Navazio and Ramón Silva. Soon after, Fernando Fader and the artists of the Nexus group began to push for the development of artistic currents that, without ignoring or disavowing the painting fashionable in Paris, would be capable of expressing independent views of painting; the first major artistic movements in Argentina coincided with the first signs of political liberty in the country, such as the 1913 sanction of the secret ballot and universal male suffrage, the first president to be popularly elected, the cultural revolution that involved the University Reform of 1918.
In this context, in which there continued to be influence from the Paris School, three main groups arose. The Florida group was characterized by paying the highest attention to aesthetics, its members belonged to the middle and upper classes. They met in the Richmond confectionery on the elegant and central calle Florida, from which the group takes its name, its painters included Aquiles Badi, Héctor Basaldúa, Antonio Berni, Norah Borges, Horacio Butler, Emilio Centurión, Juan del Prete, Raquel Forner, Ramón Gomez Cornet, Alfredo Guttero, Emilio Pettoruti, Xul Solar, Lino Enea Spilimbergo. The Boedo group struggles as its central themes. El Grupo Boedo, with painters such as José Arato, Adolfo Bellocq, Guillermo Hebécquer and Abraham Vigo, they were centered on the socialist Claridad publishing house, which had its workshops on calle Boedo, in the working-class suburbs of the city. Boedo group painters included José Arato, Adolfo Bellocq, Guillermo Hebécquer, Abraham Vigo; the La Boca group was influenced by Italian immigration and developed a distinctive style centered on labor and immigrant neighborhoods.
These artists included Victor Cúnsolo, Eugenio Daneri, Fortunato Lacámera, Alfredo Lazzari, Benito Quinquela Martín, Miguel Carlos Victorica. In the second avant-garde movement, or the wave of innovations in Argentine painting developed in the 1930s, many painters of the first avant-garde movement evolved and changed their artistic position. Among the leading artistic groups were: The Orion Group, composed of Luis Barragán, Vicente Forte, Leopoldo Presas, among others; the Sensitive painters, characterized by the use of color as an emotional tool. Raúl Soldi was the most prominent of this group. Th
Jorge Ariel Guinzburg was an Argentine journalist, theatrical producer, TV and radio host. Guinzburg was born on February 1949 to a Jewish family in Buenos Aires, he finished high school in 1966. In 1967, he started studying Law and Philosophy but dropped out. In 1971, he became scriptwriter for Juan Carlos Mareco and some time for the Fontana Show. Abrevaya and Guinzburg became members of Satiricón by 1972 and, according to writer Carlos Ulanovsky, both boys were funny and good natured. In 1977, Guinzburg and Abrevaya started publishing a comic called Diógenes y el Linyera in Clarín, one of the most popular newspapers in Buenos Aires. Guinzburg created more than twenty radio shows such as: El ventilador and Vitamina G, he won several awards for his labor. He starred and produced many theater plays. In TV, he wrote and hosted numerous comedy and game shows like Peor es nada, El Legado, La Biblia y el Calefón and Mañanas Informales. Guinzburg died in the Mater Dei clinic on March 12, 2008, he was in the clinic six days before his death.
He was affected by a pulmonary disease. He was 59 at the time of his death, his second wife Andrea Stivel is a TV producer and his daughter Malena Guinzburg is a stand-up comedian