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Ariège (department)

Ariège is a department in southwestern France, in the Occitanie region. It is named after the Ariège River and its capital is Foix. Ariège is known for its rural landscape, with a population of 153,067 as of 2016, its INSEE and postal code is 09, hence the department's informal name of le zéro neuf. The inhabitants of the department are known as Ariègeoises; the department is part of the current region of Occitanie and is surrounded by the French departments of Haute-Garonne to the west and north, Aude to the east, Pyrénées-Orientales in the south-east, as well as Spain and Andorra in the south. Covering an area of 4,890 km2, the department is divided into three arrondissements: Foix and Saint-Girons, it is composed of 13 cantons, 21 intercommunalities, 331 communes. In 2009 the Regional Natural Park of the Ariège Pyrenees was created covering about 40% of the area of the department of Ariège. There are three main areas: The Ariège plainThe north of the department consists of plains and low valleys where agriculture is prevalent.

Part of Lauragais covers the northeast of the department. Two major rivers, the Ariège and the Lèze traverse the plain from south to north. A landscape of grain fields dominates the scene with growing of sweetcorn and sunflowers and with prairies; the Pyrenean foothillsThis area includes the Plantaurel mountains and the Pre-Pyrenean hills below 1000 m. Various geological structures are present in contrast: the Foix Valley with its granite mountain landscape and the Lavelanet region with marl and limestone. Ariège high countryThe geography is dominated by the Pyrenees mountains exceeding 1,000 m above sea level which form the border between France and Spain; the Pica d'Estats, the peak of Montcalm, Pic de Sotllo are the highest points of the department. These peaks are visible from Toulouse in the Haute Garonne; the landscape is dominated by forests with coniferous species coexist with hardwoods such as chestnut trees, Black Locust trees, ash trees, beech trees. There are hundreds of kilometres of well-marked paths which allow exploration of the magnificent Pyrenees mountains.

The high mountains are accessible via good roads, cable cars or by foot. There are a number of lodges providing high level mountain accommodation that are comfortable and with good meals. There are a number of fresh water lakes which provide a variety of activities including, swimming, canoeing and picnicking. There are several downhill ski resorts, the three largest being Ax-Bonascre, Les Monts D'Olmes and Guzet-Neige. There are many cross country ski-ing resorts, one of the best being at Plateau de Beille, near Les Cabannes. Ariège is one of the most unspoiled regions of France; the locals enjoy keeping traditions alive old farming techniques. As fewer insecticides, for example, have been used, the flora and fauna of the area continue to be rich in both diversity and numbers. Butterflies are common and birds are numerous. There are many unspoiled villages and hamlets tucked away in the valleys close to the department's border with Spain – Seix and Aulus-les-Bains are examples – together with picturesque mountain villages, most notably Aleu which comes alive in the holiday season.

Ariège stands on the eastern limit of oceanic dominance over rainfall, but other influences are felt: Mediterranean – visible in the vegetation of the foothills and of the valley of the Ariège river towards Tarascon, in the Sault country Continental – in the Pyrenean valleys, with many storms and big differences of temperature between day and nightThere is no great tendency to summer drought, as the flow of air from the north-west brings rain throughout the year. Rainfall is moderate on the foothills and in some sheltered valleys, measuring 700 to 1,000 mm per year, but increases in the higher valleys with levels between 1,000 mm and 1,800 mm; the slopes exposed to the north-west, such as Aulus and Orlu, are, as one would expect, the wettest, together with the frontal ridges that meet air flow from the southwest. Snow cover is common over lasting several months above 1,500 to 2,000 metres; some periglacial areas exist over 2,500 m but the only true glacier in Ariège is that of Mont Valier, near Castillon-en-Couserans.

Temperatures are mild in the foothills, most notably at the city of Foix the average is 5 °C in January and 19 °C in July. However, they decline with elevation, e.g. at l'Hospitalet-près-l'Andorre it is 0 °C in January and 14 °C in July. Ariège is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790 under the Act of 22 December 1789, it was created from the counties of Couserans. A request was made to the Council of State to rename the department Ariège-Pyrénées. According to the proponents of this project, the word "Pyrenees" would better position the department to promote itself throughout France; the demand was rejected. Foix is the administrative capital of the Ariège, it is an ancient medieval town with Chateau de Foix, perched on a hill overlooking it. The fortress has been attacked many times without being captured including an attempt by Simon de Montfort, it has been used as a prison, the names of English prisoners of war can still be seen on the cell walls.

Another famous castle in the Ariège is Montségur, located on a rocky outcrop at a height of 1200 metres. During the Albigensian Crusade and siege in 1244 the castle was destroyed, with

Wm. Knabe & Co.

Wm. Knabe & Co. was a piano manufacturing company in Baltimore, Maryland from the middle of the nineteenth century through the beginning of the 20th century, continued as a division of Aeolian-American at East Rochester, New York until 1982. It is a line of pianos manufactured by Samick Musical Instruments. Valentin Wilhelm Ludwig Knabe was born in Creuzburg, Saxe-Weimar, on June 3, 1803; the French campaigns in Germany in 1813 prevented him from studying to become an apothecary like his father, instead he apprenticed with a cabinet maker, after which he worked two years as a journeyman cabinet maker for three years for a piano maker in Gotha, before working as a journeyman piano maker in different cities in Germany. In 1831 Knabe accompanied his fiancée's family when they emigrated from Saxe-Meiningen to the United States, but the head of the family died during the voyage and Knabe and his bride remained in Baltimore instead of continuing to Hermann, where a brother had settled several years earlier.

Knabe worked for the well-known pianomaker Henry Hartge, abandoned his plans to become a farmer. Four years he started selling and repairing used pianos from his house at the corner of Liberty and Lexington Streets. In 1839, Knabe formed a partnership with Henry Gaehle for the purpose of manufacturing pianos and by 1841 they moved to larger workshops at 13 South Liberty street. In 1843 they opened warerooms at the corner of Eutaw street and Cowpen alley, four years removed their warerooms to 9 Eutaw street, opposite the Eutaw house, selling pianos priced between $180 and $400. By 1852 they had expanded to 6, 8, 9 and 11 Eutaw streets. Knabe & Gaehle won first premiums for square pianos from the Maryland Institute for the Promotion of Mechanic Arts in 1848, 1849 and 1850, as well as for grand pianos in 1849. In 1852, the company reorganized as Knabe, Gaehle & Co. with the admission of Edward Betts as partner, by 1853 advertised their establishment was the largest in the South, employing over 100 workmen.

They manufactured six to seven octave pianos with "a double action, like Chickering's" selling for between $200 and $500. In November 1854, their factory at Cowpen alley at the rear of Eutaw House burned, at an estimated loss of $190,000, five weeks their factory at Baltimore street near Paca Street burned with little insurance coverage. Proceedings started early 1855. Henry Gaehle died, Knabe advertised he had purchased all the remaining stock and materials and would continue in business as Wm. Knabe & Co. at the old stand at 1, 3, 5, 7 North Eutaw street, opposite the Eutaw house. William Gaehle, who had become the senior partner, advertised he was in business as Wm. Gaehle & Co. manufacturing grand and square pianos at the corner of Pratt and Green streets and with warerooms at the corner of Eutaw and Fayette streets. Knabe purchased a former paper mill at the corner of West and China streets for a new factory, by 1859 had established warerooms at 207 Baltimore street, he won gold medals for square pianos from the Maryland Institute in 1855, 1856, 1857 and 1858 silver medals from the Metropolitan Institute in Washington, D. C. in 1857, a medal from the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia in 1856, first premiums from the Mechanics' Institute, Virginia in 1855 and 1856.

In 1860, Knabe started building a new five story factory on Eutaw and West streets, but had only completed one of its wings at the outbreak of the American Civil War, which compelled them to seek new trade in the West to make up for the loss of their principal market in the South. William Knabe died May 21, 1864, was succeeded by his sons William and Ernest J. Knabe, son-in-law Charles Keidel. In 1866, Wm Knabe & Co. introduced their agraffe treble with agraffes threaded into a heavier piece of brass instead of directly into the iron frame. By 1866 they employed about 230 workmen and manufactured about a thousand pianos a year, including uprights as well as squares and grands, producing as many as thirty pianos a week; the factory was equipped with a 30 horsepower steam engine, as well as steam powered elevators and drying rooms, had been augmented with a second 40-foot wide building where grand cases, sounding boards, actions were manufactured and cases varnished and iron frames gilded. Further additions and a cupola completed the factory in 1869, fronting 210 feet on Eutaw street and 165 feet on West street.

Their sales ranked third in the United States, after Steinway & Sons of New York and Chickering & Sons of Boston, by 1870 their output was estimated to be about forty pianos a week, priced between $600 and $2,000. In 1873, Wm. Knabe & Co. established their own warerooms at 112 Fifth Avenue in New York. They exhibited grand and upright pianos as well as a Tschudi & Broadwood harpsichord at the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, due to the revised awards system they claimed highest honors along with many of their coexhibitors. In 1882 they delivered a rosewood concert grand to the White House for President Chester A. Arthur. William Knabe, jr. died in 1889. The company was incorporated with a capital stock of $1,000,000 the same year, with Ernest J. Knabe as president. Ernest J. Knabe was succeeded by his sons, both of whom had trained at the factory. Ernest J. Knabe, jr. was elected William Knabe, vice president and treasurer. Wm. Knabe & Co. established agencies in Canada and England by 1903, mortgaged the factory for the purpose of extending the business further.

By 1906 the factory occupied seven buildings with the original buildings extensively expanded, with a total of about 300,000 square feet of planned floor space and 765 employees


Pirma is a Mexican sports equipment manufacturing company. It expanded in the Americas; the company commercialises men's and women's urban clothing and apparel, sports uniforms, athletic shoes, goalkeeper glovess and footballs. Company's products include a variety of sports such as football, boxing and tennis, it sells accessories such as bags and goalkeeper gloves. Pirma has about 200 stores in Mexico, supplied by its two plants in León and San Francisco del Rincón both in Guanajuato state, with near 3,000 employees working at them. Apart from Mexico, the firm operates in Brazil, Costa Rica, El Salvador and the United States, exporting the 10% of its products to those countries; the origins of the company can be traced back to 1987 when entrepreneur Rafael León started to produce shoe soles in San Francisco del Rincón through its own company, "Caribbean". Three years it entered into production of athletic footwear; the company was known as "Pirma-Brasil" until 1999 when the word Brasil was suppressed due to registration of brands including countries names was not allowed.

By 2013, Pirma concentrated 8% of sporting goods production in Mexico, positioning it as the 6th company in this sector. In 2018, Pirma signed a deal with Mexican multimedia company Grupo Televisa to provide clothing for all its staff during the 2018 FIFA World Cup held in Russia; the company supplied about 200 workers of the "Televisa Deportes" division that travelled to Russia to cover the competition. Jorge Arce Juan Manuel Marquéz Julio Cesar Chavez Jr Official website

Thrust reversal

Thrust reversal called reverse thrust, is the temporary diversion of an aircraft engine's thrust so that it acts against the forward travel of the aircraft, providing deceleration. Thrust reverser systems are featured on many jet aircraft to help slow down just after touch-down, reducing wear on the brakes and enabling shorter landing distances; such devices affect the aircraft and are considered important for safe operations by airlines. There have been accidents involving thrust reversal systems, including fatal ones. Reverse thrust is available on many propeller-driven aircraft through reversing the controllable-pitch propellers to a negative angle; the equivalent concept for a ship is called astern propulsion. A landing roll consists of touchdown, bringing the aircraft to taxi speed, to a complete stop. However, most commercial jet engines continue to produce thrust in the forward direction when idle, acting against the deceleration of the aircraft; the brakes of the landing gear of most modern aircraft are sufficient in normal circumstances to stop the aircraft by themselves, but for safety purposes, to reduce the stress on the brakes, another deceleration method is needed.

In scenarios involving bad weather, where factors like snow or rain on the runway reduce the effectiveness of the brakes, in emergencies like rejected takeoffs, this need is more pronounced. A simple and effective method is to reverse the direction of the exhaust stream of the jet engine and use the power of the engine itself to decelerate. Ideally, the reversed exhaust stream would be directed straight forward. However, for aerodynamic reasons, this is not possible, a 135° angle is taken, resulting in less effectiveness than would otherwise be possible. Thrust reversal can be used in flight to reduce airspeed, though this is not common with modern aircraft. There are three common types of thrust reversing systems used on jet engines: the target, clam-shell, cold stream systems; some propeller-driven aircraft equipped with variable-pitch propellers can reverse thrust by changing the pitch of their propeller blades. Most commercial jetliners have such devices, it has applications in military aviation.

Small aircraft do not have thrust reversal systems, except in specialized applications. On the other hand, large aircraft always have the ability to reverse thrust. Reciprocating engine and jet aircraft can all be designed to include thrust reversal systems. Propeller-driven aircraft generate reverse thrust by changing the angle of their controllable-pitch propellers so that the propellers direct their thrust forward; this reverse thrust feature became available with the development of controllable-pitch propellers, which change the angle of the propeller blades to make efficient use of engine power over a wide range of conditions. Single-engine aircraft tend not to have reverse thrust. However, single-engine turboprop aircraft such as the PAC P-750 XSTOL, Cessna 208 Caravan, Pilatus PC-6 Porter do have this feature available. One special application of reverse thrust comes in its use on multi-engine seaplanes and flying boats; these aircraft, when landing on water, have no conventional braking method and must rely on slaloming and/or reverse thrust, as well as the drag of the water in order to slow or stop.

In addition, reverse thrust is necessary for maneuvering on the water, where it is used to make tight turns or propel the aircraft in reverse, maneuvers which may prove necessary for leaving a dock or beach. On aircraft using jet engines, thrust reversal is accomplished by causing the jet blast to flow forward; the engine does not rotate in reverse. High bypass ratio engines reverse thrust by changing the direction of only the fan airflow, since the majority of thrust is generated by this section, as opposed to the core. There are three jet engine thrust reversal systems in common use: The target thrust reverser uses a pair of hydraulically-operated'bucket' type doors to reverse the hot gas stream. For forward thrust, these doors form the propelling nozzle of the engine. In the original implementation of this system on the Boeing 707, still common today, two reverser buckets were hinged so when deployed they block the rearward flow of the exhaust and redirect it with a forward component; this type of reverser is visible at the rear of the engine during deployment.

The clam-shell door, or cascade, system is pneumatically operated. When activated, the doors rotate to open the ducts and close the normal exit, causing the thrust to be directed forward; the cascade thrust reverser is used on turbofan engines. On turbojet engines, this system would be less effective than the target system, as the cascade system only makes use of the fan airflow and does not affect the main engine core, which continues to produce forward thrust. In addition to the two types used on turbojet and low-bypass turbofan engines, a third type of thrust reverser is found on some high-bypass turbofan engines. Doors in the bypass duct are used to redirect the air, accelerated by the engine's fan section but does not pass through the combustion chamber such that it provides reverse thrust; the cold stream reverser system is activated by an air motor. During normal operation, the reverse thrust vanes are blocked. On selection, the system folds the doors to block off the cold stream final nozzle and redirect this airflow to the cascade vanes.

This system can redirect both the exhaust flow of the core. The cold stream system is known for structural integrity and versatility. During thrust reverser activation, a sleeve mounted aro

2017–18 Club Atlético River Plate season

The 2017–18 season is Club Atlético River Plate's 7th consecutive season in the top-flight of Argentine football. The season covers the period from 1 July 2017 to 30 June 2018. On June 26, Germán Lux signed a 3-year contract after leaving Deportivo La Coruña; this was the return of the goalkeeper to the team where he started his career in 2001. He had left in 2007. On June 30, the new signed players Germán Lux, Javier Pinola, Enzo Perez and Ignacio Scocco were presented in a press conference at the club's stadium. On September 28, River Plate presented the new home kit for the 2017–18 season. On October 11, River Plate released the new alternative kit. On December 10, River won the 2016–17 Copa Argentina after defeating Atlético Tucumán in the final game played in Mendoza; this was the second title in a row for River Plate at this competition. On January 9, Lucas Pratto signed a four and a half year contract with River Plate. On January 11, Franco Armani signed a three-year contract with River Plate.

On January 24, Juan Quintero arrived at River Plate on a one-year loan from FC Porto. On January 29, Bruno Zuculini signed a four and a half year contract with River Plate. On January 31, Leonardo Ponzio extended his contract with River Plate until June 2019. On February 14, River Plate released the new third kit, featuring vertical stripes of red black and white. On March 6, the matches of the final stage of 2017–18 Copa Argentina were drawn. River Plate was paired with Central Norte from Salta. On March 14, River Plate won the 2017 Supercopa Argentina after defeating Boca Juniors in Mendoza. On March 16, it was announced a friendly match between River Plate and Universidad de Chile to be played in Santiago, on 24 March; as of 6 February 2018. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

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Chromotherapy, sometimes called color therapy, colorology or cromatherapy, is an alternative medicine method, considered pseudoscience. Chromotherapists claim to be able to use light in the form of color to balance "energy" lacking from a person's body, whether it be on physical, spiritual, or mental levels. Color therapy is distinct from other types of light therapy, such as neonatal jaundice treatment and blood irradiation therapy, which are scientifically accepted medical treatments for a number of conditions, as well as from photobiology, the scientific study of the effects of light on living organisms. Chromotherapy is a pseudoscience. Avicenna, seeing color as of vital importance both in diagnosis and in treatment, discussed chromotherapy in The Canon of Medicine, he wrote that "color is an observable symptom of disease" and developed a chart that related color to the temperature and physical condition of the body. His view was that red moved the blood, blue or white cooled it, yellow reduced muscular pain and inflammation.

American Civil War General Augustus Pleasonton conducted his own experiments and in 1876 published his book The Influence Of The Blue Ray Of The Sunlight And Of The Blue Color Of The Sky about how the color blue can improve the growth of crops and livestock and can help heal diseases in humans. This led to modern chromotherapy, influencing scientist Dr. Seth Pancoast and Edwin Dwight Babbitt to conduct experiments and to publish Blue and Red Light. In 1933, Indian-born American-citizen scientist Dinshah P. Ghadiali published The Spectro Chromemetry Encyclopaedia, a work on color therapy. Ghadiali claimed to have discovered why and how the different colored rays have various therapeutic effects on organisms, he believed that colors represent chemical potencies in higher octaves of vibration, for each organism and system of the body there is a particular color that stimulates and another that inhibits the work of that organ or system. Ghadiali thought that, by knowing the action of the different colors upon the different organs and systems of the body, one can apply the correct color that will tend to balance the action of any organ or system that has become abnormal in its function or condition.

Dinshah P. Ghadiali's son, Darius Dinshah, continues to provide information about color therapy via his Dinshah Health Society, a nonprofit organization dedicated to advancing non-pharmaceutical home color therapy, his book Let There Be Light. Science writer Martin Gardner had described Ghadiali as "perhaps the greatest quack of them all". In 1925, Ghadiali was accused of rape and arrested in Seattle and sentenced under the Mann Act for five years at the United States Penitentiary, Atlanta. According to Gardner, photographs of Ghadiali at work in his laboratory are "indistinguishable from stills of a grade D movie about a mad scientist". Throughout the 19th century "color healers" claimed colored glass filters could treat many diseases, including constipation and meningitis. Practitioners of ayurvedic medicine believe the body has seven "chakras", which some claim are'spiritual centers', are thought to be located along the spine. New Age thought associates each of the chakras with a single color of the visible light spectrum, along with a function and organ or bodily system.

According to this view, the chakras can become imbalanced and result in physical diseases, but application of the appropriate color can correct such imbalances. The purported colors and their associations are described as: Chromotherapy is regarded by health experts as quackery. According to a book published by the American Cancer Society, "available scientific evidence does not support claims that alternative uses of light or color therapy are effective in treating cancer or other illnesses". Photobiology, the term for the scientific study of the effects of light on living tissue, has sometimes been used instead of the term chromotherapy in an effort to distance it from its roots in Victorian mysticism and to strip it of its associations with symbolism and magic. Light therapy is a specific treatment approach using high intensity light to treat specific sleep and mood disorders. Colorpuncture List of ineffective cancer treatments List of topics characterized as pseudoscience Edwin Dwight Babbitt..

The Principles of Light and Color. East Orange, New Jersey. Martin Gardner.. Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science. Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-20394-8 Color War: Dinshah P. Ghadiali’s Battle with the Medical Establishment over his Revolutionary Light-Healing Science Color+Therapy at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings