National Theatre (Oslo)
The National Theatre in Oslo is one of Norway's largest and most prominent venues for performance of dramatic arts. The theatre had its first performance on 1 September 1899 but can trace its origins to Christiania Theatre, founded in 1829. There were three official opening performances, on subsequent days in September: first, selected pieces by Ludvig Holberg An Enemy of the People by Henrik Ibsen, on the third day Sigurd Jorsalfar by Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson; the National Theatre was founded as a private institution and weathered several financial crises until 1929, when the Norwegian government started providing modest support. A number of famous Norwegians have served as artistic directors for the theatre, but Vilhelm Krag who took over in 1911, is credited as having brought the theatre into its "golden age." The theatre is considered the home for Ibsen's plays, most of his works have been performed here. Notable is the children's Christmas play, The Journey to the Christmas Star, written by the theatre's finance director Sverre Brandt and performed for the first time in 1924.
The main building is centrally located between the Royal Palace and the Parliament of Norway. It is served by National Theatre National Theatre metro stations, it was designed by architect Henrik Bull. The theatre organisation manages four stages: the main stage, the amphitheatre and Painting Parlour within the main building; the fourth is the Torshov Theatre in the Torshov district of Oslo. As of 2009, the theatre's artistic director was Hanne Tømta. Deutsches Theater, Oslo Official website
Ibsen Museum (Oslo)
The Ibsen Museum occupies the last home of the playwright Henrik Ibsen. It is located close to the Royal Palace on Henrik Ibsens gate in Norway. Henrik Ibsen and his wife Suzannah lived there from 1895 to 1906; when Suzannah Ibsen died in 1914, the home was dismantled and the furniture scattered. The municipality of Kristiania assumed possession of Henrik Ibsen's study and bedroom and deposited all of it at the Norwegian Folk Museum; the library went to the county museum in the dining room to the Ibsen House Museum. The family retained possession of the remaining furniture. In 1990 actor Knut Wigert took the initiative of renting the apartment, based on a wish to make it available to the public; as a point of departure for further restorations, studies were done documenting the most important rooms in the apartment. The Norwegian Folk Museum took over responsibility for operations in 1993, Ibsen's study was restored but limited resources and a lack of original artifacts resulted in only this particular room being given an adequate presentation.
The Ibsen family made important contributions to the museum. Ambassador Tancred Ibsen lent or donated personal property inherited from his great-grandfather and his cousin, the actor Joen Bille, had for many years helped with the task of locating and reacquiring original furnishings. Financial assistance was provided by the Ministry of Culture and Church Affairs, Anders Jahres Humanitarian Institution and Ibsen Year 2006. Ibsen's former residence has been restored to the period. On the occasion of the hundred-year commemoration of Ibsen's death, the Ibsen Museum reopened a restored writer's home with the original interior, original colors and decor; the Ibsen Museum includes an exhibit reflecting the playwright's life and work, housed the home where he spent the last 11 years of his life. It was here When We Dead Awaken. Extensive groundwork was carried out to insure an authentic impression of the writer's home was created; the furniture was reinstated while the floor, walls and surfaces were reconstructed according to archaeological building studies, supplemented by a range of historical sources.
Tablecloths and drapes were rewoven as exact replicas of the originals. Additionally, in the street outside the Ibsen Museum in Oslo, there is artwork of Ibsen quotes permanently embedded in the pavement; the three Ibsen Museums in Norway have a collaboration on practical measures of co-operation. The other two are the Henrik Ibsen Museum located in Skien at the farm Venstøp and the Ibsen Museum in Grimstad.. Dahl, Per Kristian Heggelund Streiflys Fem Ibsen-studier ISBN 82-91615-05-5 Edvardsen, Erik Henning Ibsen-museet / The Ibsen Museum ISBN 82-91615-02-0 Edvardsen, Erik Henning Henrik Ibsen om seg selv. ISBN 82-476-0211-3 Edvardsen, Erik Henning Ibsens Christiania ISBN 82-496-0657-4 Hjemdahl, Anne-Sofie A Thing or Two About Ibsen, his Possessions, Dramatic Poetry and Life ISBN 82-92546-07-3 Museumsbuletinen No. 1 - 2006. Norsk Folkemuseums venner, Oslo Ibsens Bathtub; the restoration of Henrik Ibsen's apartment by Erling Borgen. Borgen Production as / Norsk Folkemuseum Ibsen Museum - Oslo Henrik Ibsen Museum- Skien Ibsen Museum - Grimstad
Liv Johanne Ullmann is a Norwegian actress and film director. She was one of the "muses" of Swedish director Ingmar Bergman. Ullmann won a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Drama in 1972 for the film The Emigrants, has been nominated for another four. In 2000, she was nominated for the Palme d'Or for Faithless, she has received two BAFTA Award nominations for her performances in Scenes from a Marriage and Face to Face, two Academy Award nominations for The Emigrants and Face to Face. Ullmann was born in Tokyo, the daughter of Erik Viggo Ullmann, a Norwegian aircraft engineer, working in Tokyo at the time, Janna Erbe Norwegian, her grandfather was sent to the Dachau concentration camp during the Second World War for helping Jews escape from the town where he lived in Norway. When she was two years old, the family moved to Toronto, where her father worked at the Norwegian air force base on Toronto Island during World War II; the family moved to New York, where four years her father died of a brain tumor, an event that affected her greatly.
Her mother worked as a bookseller. They returned to Norway, settling in Trondheim. Ullmann began her acting career as a stage actress in Norway during the mid-1950s, she continued to act in theatre for most of her career, became noted for her portrayal of Nora in Henrik Ibsen's play A Doll's House, but became better known once she started to work with Swedish movie director Ingmar Bergman. She acted, with acclaim, in 10 of his movies, including Persona, The Passion of Anna and Whispers and Autumn Sonata, in which her co-actress, Ingrid Bergman, resumed her Swedish cinema career, she co-acted with Swedish actor and fellow Bergman collaborator, Erland Josephson, with whom she made the Swedish television drama, Scenes from a Marriage, edited to feature-movie length and distributed theatrically. Ullmann acted with Laurence Olivier in A Bridge Too Far, directed by Richard Attenborough. Nominated more than 40 times for awards, including various lifetime achievement awards, she won the best actress prize three times from the National Society of Film Critics, three times from the National Board of Review, received three awards from the New York Film Critics Circle and a Golden Globe.
During 1971, Ullmann was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress for the movie The Emigrants, again during 1976 for the movie Face to Face. Ullmann made her New York City stage debut in 1975 in A Doll's House. Appearances in "Anna Christie and Ghosts followed, as well as the less than successful musical version of I Remember Mama; this show, composed by Richard Rodgers, experienced numerous revisions during a long preview period closed after 108 performances. She featured in the deprecated musical movie remake of Lost Horizon during 1973. In 1977, when she appeared on Broadway at the Imperial Theater in Eugene O'Neill's "Anna Christie," she "glowed with despair and hope, was everything one could have wished her to have been" in a performance "not to be missed and never to be forgotten," with her "grace and authority", "perhaps more than Garbo...born for Anna Christie:--Or more properly, Anna Christie was born for her." In 1980 Brian De Palma, who directed Carrie, wanted Liv Ullmann to play the role of Kate Miller in the erotic crime thriller Dressed to Kill and offered it to her, but she declined because of the violence.
The role subsequently went to Angie Dickinson. In 1982 Ingmar Bergman wanted Ullmann to play the Emelie Ekdahl in his last feature film and Alexander and wrote the role with this in mind, but Ullmann declined. Liv Ullmann stated in interviews that turning it down was one of the few things she regrets. During 1984 she was chairperson of the jury at the 34th Berlin International Film Festival, during 2002 chaired the jury of Cannes Film Festival, she introduced her daughter, Linn Ullmann, to the audience with the words: "Here comes the woman whom Ingmar Bergman loves the most". Her daughter was there to receive the Prize of Honour on behalf of her father. In 2003 Ullmann reprised her role for Scenes from a Marriage in Bergman's final telemovie; this was her comeback as an actress since her last role on the screen, in the Swedish movie Zorn. In 2004 Ullmann revealed that she had received an offer in November 2003 to play in 3 episodes of the popular American series and the City. Ullmann was amused by the offer and said that it was one of the few programs she watched, but she turned it down.
That year Steven Soderbergh wrote a role in the movie Ocean's 12 for Ullmann but she turned that down. Ullmann narrated the Canada–Norway co-produced animated short movie The Danish Poet, which won the Academy Award for Animated Short Film at the 79th Academy Awards during 2007. In 2008 she was the head of the jury at the 30th Moscow International Film Festival, she published two autobiographies and Choices. During 2012, she attended the International Indian Film Academy Awards in Singapore, where she was honored for her Outstanding Contributions to International Cinema and she showed her movie on her relationship with Ingmar Bergman. Ullmann's first film as a director was Sofie, in which she directed her friend and former co-actor, Erland Josephson, she directed the Bergman-compo
L'École Internationale de Théâtre Jacques Lecoq
École internationale de théâtre Jacques Lecoq is a school of physical theatre situated on Rue du Faubourg-Saint-Denis in the 10th arrondissement of Paris. Founded in 1956 by Jacques Lecoq, the school offers a professional and intensive two-year course emphasizing the body and space as entry point in theatrical performance and prepares its students to create collaboratively; this method is called mimodynamics. The school’s graduate list includes renowned figures of stage such as Ariane Mnouchkine of Théâtre du Soleil and Simon McBurney of Théâtre de Complicité among others; the Lecoq program lasts for two years. Ninety students from all over the world are accepted in the first year, out of these, thirty will be accepted into the second year. Classes are conducted in French; the first year focuses upon observing movement dynamics in the world and in doing so, rediscovering life anew. In the words of Jacques Lecoq:To mime is to embody and therefore understand better. A person who handles bricks all day long reaches a point where he no longer knows what he is handling.
It has become an automatic part of his physical life. If he is asked to mime the object, he rediscovers the meaning of its weight and volume; this has interesting consequences for our teaching method: miming is a way of rediscovering a thing with renewed freshness…Note that his method, called mimodynamics and involving corporal movement, is not miming in the traditional sense, as the spoken word is involved. The focus and the goals of mimodynamics are different than those of miming. Aside from observing the world anew through the study of natural elements, animals, words and colours, students discover themselves anew with the Neutral Mask, an exercise which reveals their habits and tendencies and teaches stage presence; the second year focuses on exploring major dramatic territories, such as melodrama, tragedy, Commedia dell'arte clowning and so on. In general, each day students have three sessions:Movement analysis; this includes physical preparation – learning and analysing 20 essential movements, juggling, stage combat, etc.
Improvisation. Autocours; each Friday, students are asked to work in groups to prepare for a performance upon a certain theme related to their other classwork. The process of collaborative directing is frustrating at first, but allows students to engage with each other creatively. In this way, students get to know each other well, learn to work with others to create a piece of work. In addition to the two-year professional course the school offers LEM, a course which studies space and rhythm through scenography. Lecoq, Jacques; the Moving Body. London: Methuen. Lecoq, Jacques. A comprehensive overview of his pedagogy published as Le Corps poétique in French Official website, English version
The Goethe Medal known as the Goethe-Medaille, is a yearly prize given by the Goethe Institute honoring non-Germans for meritorious contributions in the spirit of the Institute. It is an official decoration of the Federal Republic of Germany; the prize used to be given on the anniversary of Goethe's death. Since 2009, it has been given on the anniversary of Goethe's birth; the first awards were made in 1955. In the intervening years, through 2018, a total of 348 women and men from 65 countries have been so honored. Not to be confused with Goethe-Medaille für Kunst und Wissenschaft and Goetheplakette der Stadt Frankfurt am Main; the recent recipients are: Heidi Abderhalden and Rolf Abderhalden, Colombian theater maker Claudia Andujar, Brazilian photographer and activist Péter Eötvös, Hungarian composer and conductor Urvashi Butalia, Indian feminist and historian Emily Nasrallah, Lebanese writer Irina Shcherbakova, Russian historian and journalist Akinbode Akinbiyi, British-Nigerian photographer Yurii Andrukhovych, Ukrainian writer and translator David Lordkipanidze, Georgian anthropologist and archaeologist Sadiq Jalal al-Azm, Syrian philosopher and writer Neil MacGregor, British art historian and former museum director Eva Sopher, German-Brazilian cultural entrepreneur Krystyna Meissner, Polish director Robert Wilson, American director and playwright Gerard Mortier, Belgian opera director S. Mahmoud Hosseini Zad, Persian translator of German literature.
Naveen Kishore, publisher of Seagull Books. Petros Markaris, Greek novelist. Irena Veisaitė Bolat Atabayev Dževad Karahasan John le Carré Adam Michnik Ariane Mnouchkine Ágnes Heller, Hungarian philosopher Fuad Rifka John Spalek Lars Gustafsson Victor Scoradet Sverre Dahl Gholam Dastgir Behbud Bernard Sobel John E. Woods Daniel Barenboim Dezső Tandori Kim Min-ki Vera San Payo de Lemos Giwi Margwelaschwili Said Samuel Assefa Ruth Klüger Dmytro Zatonsky Yoko Tawada Simone Young Mohan Agashe Kevin Willie Imre Kertész Paul Michael Lützeler Anatoli A. Michailow Sergio Paulo Rouanet Lenka Reinerová Jorge Semprún Werner Michael Blumenthal Georges-Arthur Goldschmidt Francisek Grucza Touradj Rahnema Antonio Skármeta Adonis Sofia Gubaidulina Gerardo Marotta Werner Spies Nicholas Boyle György Konrád Daniel Libeskind Sara Sayin George Tabori Abdel-Ghaffar Mikkawy 20th century recipients are: 1961: fr:Robert Minder 1963: pl:Marian Szyrocki 1967: Peter Jørgensen 1968: Gertrud Seidmann 1969: nl:Cornelis Soeteman 1970: Pierre Bertaux 1976: Pierre-Paul Sagave, Elichi Kikuchi, Waichi Sakurai, John Asher, Ingerid Dal 1982: Ekrem Akurgal, de:Werner Kraft 1983: Bruno Bettelheim 1985: Alokeranjan Dasgupta, Johannes Edfelt 1987: Gordon A. Craig, Pierre Boulez 1988: George Mosse, Pierre Bourdieu, Giorgio Strehler 1989: Ernst Gombrich 1990: György Ligeti, Thomas Messer, pl:Hubert Orłowski, Eda Sagarra, Hilde Spiel 1991: Leslie Bodi, Jan Hoet, Panagiotis Kondylis, Eduardo Paolozzi, Hans Sahl 1992: Elisabeth Augustin, Karl Raimund Popper, cs:Hugo Rokyta 1993: Michel Tournier 1994: István Szabó, Billy Wilder 1995: Isang Yun 1997: Nam June Paik, Rolf Liebermann 1998: Ralf Dahrendorf 1999: Dani Karavan, Leoluca Orlando, Jiří Gruša The Goethe-Medal
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Boulogne-Billancourt is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 8.2 km from the centre of Paris. Boulogne-Billancourt is a subprefecture of the Hauts-de-Seine department and the seat of the Arrondissement of Boulogne-Billancourt. With an average household income in 2013 of €47,592, nearly twice the French average of €25,548, Boulogne-Billancourt is one of the wealthiest cities in France. Boulogne-Billancourt is the most populous suburb of Paris and one of the most densely populated municipalities in Europe. An important industrial site, it has reconverted into business services and is now home to major communication companies headquartered in the Val de Seine business district; the original name of the commune was Boulogne-sur-Seine. Before the 14th century, Boulogne was a small village called Menuls-lès-Saint-Cloud. In the beginning of the 14th century, King Philip IV of France ordered the building in Menuls-lès-Saint-Cloud of a church dedicated to the virgin of the sanctuary of Boulogne-sur-Mer a famous pilgrimage center in northern France.
The church, meant to become a pilgrimage centre closer to Paris than the distant city of Boulogne-sur-Mer, was named Notre-Dame de Boulogne la Petite. The village of Menuls-lès-Saint-Cloud became known as Boulogne-la-Petite, as Boulogne-sur-Seine. In 1924, Boulogne-sur-Seine was renamed Boulogne-Billancourt to reflect the development of the industrial neighbourhood of Billancourt annexed in 1860; as for the name Billancourt, it was recorded for the first time in 1150 as Bullencort, sometimes spelled Bollencort. It comes from Medieval Latin cortem, accusative of cors, meaning "enclosure", "estate", suffixed to the Germanic patronym Buolo, thus having the meaning of "estate of Buolo". On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighbouring communes. On that occasion, the communes of Auteuil and Passy were disbanded and divided between Boulogne-Billancourt and the city of Paris. Boulogne-sur-Seine received a small part of the territory of Passy, about half of the territory of Auteuil.
Some of the shooting events of the 1900 Summer Olympics took place in Boulogne-Billancourt. In 1929, the Bois de Boulogne, hitherto divided between the communes of Boulogne-Billancourt and Neuilly-sur-Seine, was annexed in its entirety by the city of Paris. On that occasion, Boulogne-Billancourt, to which most of the Bois de Boulogne belonged, lost about half of its territory. Boulogne-Billancourt is known for being the birthplace of three major French industries, it was the location, in 1906 for the first aircraft factory, that of Appareils d'Aviation Les Freres Voisin, followed by those of many other aviation pioneers, the tradition continues with several aviation related companies still operating in the area. The automobile industry had a large presence with Renault on Île Seguin, Salmson building both cars and aircraft engines; the French film industry started here and, from 1922 to 1992 it was the home of the Billancourt Studios, since becoming a major location for French film production.
It was used as the setting of the TV show Code Lyoko. The ecologic neighborhood of the Trapèze in Boulogne-Billancourt: the district stands on 74ha and will be able to contain up to 18000 inhabitants at the end of its construction. 65 % of the district's energy is brought by geothermal power, which freshens the buildings. Solar panels and a vegetable greenhouse were installed in the aim to link the district to sustainable energies. Bicycle and “soft” travels will of course be put first to reduce the pollution caused by cars, others vehicles which do not run on electricity; the Ambroise Paré Hospital is located in the city. With the city of Sèvres, Boulogne-Billancourt is part of the communauté d'agglomération Val de Seine. Boulogne-Billancourt is served by two stations on Paris Métro Line 10: Boulogne – Jean Jaurès and Boulogne – Pont de Saint-Cloud, it is served by three stations on Paris Métro Line 9: Marcel Sembat and Pont de Sèvres. Boulogne-Billancourt hosts the global headquarters of several multinational companies, including: Alcatel-Lucent Carrefour Française des Jeux Pika Édition Renault TF1 Vallourec YoplaitPrior to 2000 Schneider Electric's head office was in Boulogne-Billancourt.
The Musée Albert-Kahn at 14, rue du Port, Boulogne-Billancourt is a national museum and includes four hectares of gardens, joining together landscape scenes of various national traditions. The museum includes historic photographs and film; the Musée des Années Trente is a museum of industrial objects from the 1930s. See also: Enseignement à Boulogne-Billancourt The public collèges in the commune include Jacqueline-Auriol, Paul-Landowski, Jean-Renoir; the public high schools are the Lycée polyvalent Étienne-Jules-Marey. Prior to the September 1968 opening of Prévert, the first high school/sixth-form in Boulogne, an annex of Lycée La Fontaine served the city; the private school Groupe Scolaire Maïmonide Rambam covers maternelle through lycée. There is the private high school Notre-Dame; the latter's performance and ranking in Boulogne-Billancourt are given by its success of baccalaureate rate in different series. According to the ranking of L'Express in 2015, the national rank of Notre-Dame de Boulogne was 1