Crewkerne is a town and electoral ward in Somerset, situated 9 miles south west of Yeovil and 7 miles east of Chard in the South Somerset district close to the border with Dorset. The civil parish of West Crewkerne includes the hamlets of Henley; the town lies on the River A30 road and West of England Main Line railway. The earliest written record of Crewkerne is in the 899 will of Alfred the Great who left it to his youngest son Æthelweard. After the Norman conquest it was held by William the Conqueror and in the Domesday Survey of 1086 was described as a royal manor. Crewkerne Castle was a Norman motte castle; the town grew up in the late mediaeval period around the textile industry, its wealth preserved in the fifteenth century Church of St Bartholomew. During the 18th and 19th centuries the main industry was cloth making, including webbing, sails for the Royal Navy. Local ecological sites include the Bincombe Beeches Local Nature Reserve and the Millwater biological Site of Special Scientific Interest.
Crewkerne railway station is served by South Western Railway on the main south western railway line. There are local supermarkets and local shops, some local industry; the town is the birthplace of several notable people and has varied cultural and sporting facilities including those at Wadham Community School. The name Crewkerne is thought to be derived from Cruc-aera; the town was known as Crocern, or Cruaern in the 899 will of Alfred the Great when he left it to his younger son Æthelweard, by 1066 the manor was held by Edith Swanneck mistress of King Harold. After the Norman conquest it was held by William the Conqueror and the church estate was given to the Abbaye-aux-Hommes in Caen, Normandy. In the Domesday Survey of 1086 it was described as a royal manor. In 1499, John de Combe, a precentor of Exeter Cathedral and former vicar of Crewkerne, founded Crewkerne Grammar School; the school survived until 1904. The parish was part of the hundred of Crewkerne. Crewkerne Castle was a Norman motte castle on a mound to the north-west of the town, known as Castle Hill.
The town grew up in the late mediaeval period around the textile industry, its wealth preserved in its fifteenth century parish church. It prospered as a coaching stop in the Georgian period; the Manor Farmhouse in Henley was built from hamstone in the early 17th century, but incorporates medieval fragments. The building is designated by English Heritage as a Grade II* listed building. During the 18th and 19th centuries the main industry was cloth making, including webbing, sails for the Royal Navy; the town council has responsibility for local issues, including setting an annual precept to cover the council’s operating costs and producing annual accounts for public scrutiny. The parish council evaluates local planning applications and works with the local police, district council officers, neighbourhood watch groups on matters of crime and traffic; the parish council's role includes initiating projects for the maintenance and repair of parish facilities, as well as consulting with the district council on the maintenance and improvement of highways, footpaths, public transport, street cleaning.
Conservation matters and environmental issues are the responsibility of the council. The town falls within the non-metropolitan district of South Somerset, formed on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, having been Crewkerne Urban District; the district council is responsible for local planning and building control, local roads, council housing, environmental health and fairs, refuse collection and recycling and crematoria, leisure services and tourism. This electoral ward includes Misterton and at the 2011 Census had a population of 7,826; the Town Hall occupies the lower part of the Victoria Hall in the Market Square. The Hamstone building was rebuilt around 1742, altered in 1836, when a south piazza was added after the demolition of the shambles. In 1848-9 it became a museum, reading room and library and was remodelled in 1900 by Thomas Benson of Yeovil to create shops and offices, it is a Grade II listed building. Somerset County Council is responsible for running the largest and most expensive local services such as education, social services, the library, public transport, trading standards, waste disposal and strategic planning, although fire and ambulance services are provided jointly with other authorities through the Devon and Somerset Fire and Rescue Service and Somerset Constabulary and the South Western Ambulance Service.
It is part of the Yeovil county constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It elects one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election, part of the South West England constituency of the European Parliament which elects six MEPs using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation; the town lies west of the River Parrett. The main residential areas are around the town centre with Kithill and Park View to the South and Wadham Park to the North. In the northern outskirts of the town is the Bincombe Beeches 5 hectares Local Nature Reserve. Which is managed by the town council and includes a line of beech trees, some of which are between 150 and 200 years old. Between 2002 and 2005 grants were obtained to improve access to the site and support the planting of new trees; the Millwater biological Site of Special Scientific Interest consists of a complex mosaic of pasture, wet grassland, tall-herb fen, standin
Avon and Somerset Constabulary
Avon and Somerset Constabulary is the territorial police force responsible for law enforcement in the county of Somerset and the now-defunct county of Avon, which includes the city and county of Bristol and the unitary authorities of Bath and North East Somerset, North Somerset and South Gloucestershire. As of September 2017 the force had a workforce of 2,630 police officers, 2,275 police staff, 315 police community support officers and 340 special constables; the constabulary provides service for over 1.6 million people and, in terms of geographic area of responsibility, is the 11th largest in England and Wales. The police area covered by Avon & Somerset Constabulary today can trace its policing heritage back to the start of the modern policing system; the Municipal Corporations Act 1835 created municipal boroughs across England and Wales, each with the power to create a borough police force. Prior to this time'policing' was unrecognisable from today's system with watchmen and parish constables providing variable levels of law enforcement, if any, driven by magistrates.
As a result of the Act the following borough police forces were created within the current Avon and Somerset Constabulary police area: Bath City Police, Bristol Constabulary, Bridgwater Borough Police, Wells City Police, Glastonbury Borough Police, Chard Borough Police, Yeovil Borough Police. However, outside of the new boroughs there was no modern police. Therefore, the government introduced the County Police Act 1839 which permitted county authorities to set up county forces to police areas outside of the boroughs. Following these Acts, Gloucestershire Constabulary was created in 1839 which covered what is now the north part of the current police area of Avon & Somerset Constabulary. There was still some opposition to the new model of policing however, rural Somerset had no police force until 1856; the County and Borough Police Act 1856 mandated. Somerset Constabulary commenced policing the county in 1856 with Wells City Police and Glastonbury Borough Police merging into the new county force immediately, with Yeovil Borough Police following a year later.
In the 19th century the Local Government Act 1888 required that all boroughs with populations of less than 10,000 amalgamate their police force with the adjoining county constabulary. This signalled the end of Chard Borough Police who merged into Somerset Constabulary on 1 April 1888. In 1940, Bridgwater Borough Police voluntarily became part of Somerset constabulary, the small force having a 101-year history, with the 20 officers of the borough police becoming Somerset County officers upon merger. During the 20th century the number of individual police forces across the United Kingdom was reduced across the country on grounds of efficiency; the Police Act 1964 gave the Home Secretary the power to enforce amalgamations but this was not required when Somerset Constabulary and Bath City Police voluntarily agreed to merge forming the Somerset and Bath Constabulary on 1 January 1967. This resulted in 3 police forces left covering the geographic area, now the responsibility of Avon & Somerset Constabulary.
This situation ended 7 years on 1 April 1974 following the implementation the Local Government Act 1972 which created Avon and Somerset Constabulary following the amalgamation of Somerset and Bath Constabulary with Bristol Constabulary and the southern part of Gloucestershire Constabulary. **First Chief Constable of Avon & Somerset Constabulary upon its formation. Had been Chief Constable of one of the preceding forces – Somerset and Bath Constabulary from 1967, prior to, Chief Constable of Somerset Constabulary from 1955. Colin Port served as the Chief Constable of the Constabulary since January 2005, however after the Police and Crime Commissioner Sue Mountstevens announced on 22 November 2012 that she would invite applications for the role rather than extending his contract, Port decided not to re-apply for the position and retired in March 2013. In January 2013, Port took the PCC to court to seek an injunction to block the interviews of candidates for the post of Chief Constable, however the case did not succeed.
Nick Gargan was appointed as the next Chief Constable in March 2013, however just over a year in mid-May 2014, Gargan was suspended by Commissioner Mountstevens following allegations of'inappropriate behaviour towards female officers and staff'. The enquiry into the allegations was referred to the Independent Police Complaints Commission. Gargan is reported by the Commissioner to have denied the allegations. During the first part of Gargan's suspension, the force was run by Deputy Chief Constable, John Long. Long stood down as acting Chief Constable at the end of August 2015, where he was replaced by Gareth Morgan, serving as Deputy Chief Constable for Long. Gargan resigned from the position in October 2015. Morgan continued serving as acting Chief Constable after Gargan's resignation until Commissioner Mountstevens appointed Andy Marsh, the former Chief Constable of the Hampshire Constabulary, as the new Chief Constable of the Constabulary in February 2016; the constabulary is overseen by the Avon and Somerset Police and Crime Commissioner, a new elected position which replaced the Avon and Somerset Police Authority in November 2012.
The police and crime commissioner is scrutinised by the Avon and Somerset Police and Crime Panel, consisting of elected councillors from the police area. The first police and crime commissioner, elected on 15 November 2012 and took
Honda Civic Type R
The Honda Civic Type R is the highest performance version of the Honda Civic manufactured by Honda Motor Company of Japan. It features specially tuned engine and upgraded brakes and chassis. Red is used in the Honda badge background to give it a special sporting distinction and to separate it from other models; the first Civic to receive the'Type R' name plate was based on the 6th-generation of the fan-base'EK' Civic. The contributing base model was the JDM Civic 3-door hatchback called the SiR. Like its sibling, the Integra Type R DC2/JDM DB8, the Civic SiR's transformation into a Type R was achieved by working on the base model and improving it to Honda's idea of a car capable of high performance on the circuit; the first Civic to receive the Type R badge was introduced in August 1997, as the EK9. The EK9 shared many characteristics with the Integra Type R DC2/JDM DB8 such as omission of sound deadening and other weight reduction measures, a hand-ported B16B engine, front helical limited-slip differential and a Close-ratio transmission.
The B16B engine boasted one of the highest power output per litre of all time for a aspirated engine with 185 PS at 8,200 rpm and 160 N⋅m at 7,500 rpm of torque from 1.6 L of displacement. For the first time, a strategically seam welded monocoque chassis was used to improve chassis rigidity; the interior featured red RECARO bucket seats, red door cards, red Type R floor mats, a titanium shift knob, a Momo leather-wrapped steering wheel. The EK9 was only available for sale in Japan. Performance figures include a 0–97 km/h acceleration time of 6.7 seconds and a quarter-mile time of 15.3 seconds. In 1998, the Civic Type R Motor Sports edition was introduced, it came without any creature comforts. Type Rx model was given a CD player, body coloured retractable electric door mirrors, power windows, auto air conditioning, keyless entry unlock system, aluminium sports pedals, a carbon type centre panel. In 1999, Honda tuning company Spoon Sports designed a N1 racing version of the Type R that had the B16B redline increased from 8,400 rpm to 11,000 rpm.
In 2001, Honda introduced the next generation of the Civic Type R as a unique 3-door hatchback to the UK market, manufactured in Swindon, England. This European Domestic Market Civic Type R featured a 200 PS 2.0-litre i-VTEC engine and the regular Type R treatment of seam welding, close ratio 6-speed transmission and upgraded brakes, but did not include some of the other higher-end features, such as the helical LSD and red Recaro race-seats, that were standard on the EK9. However, Honda marketed a JDM version of the EP3, which retained the renowned helical LSD similar to that of the EK9 and red Recaro race-seats. Other differences of the JDM model included a more track-oriented chassis/undercarriage settings as compared to the European model as well as a more powerful engine having a power output of 215 PS had a balanced crankshaft assembly with different intake manifold, exhaust manifold, higher-lift camshafts, higher-compression pistons, chrome-moly flywheel and ECU programming. All of the Japan-spec K20A Type R powertrains were built in Japan and shipped to the Swindon plant to be installed in the Japan-spec Type-R EP3.
The JDM EP3 was available in the traditional Type R championship white while the EDM was not. The EDM has more relaxed gear ratios and some high rpm torque traded for low rpm torque compared to the JDM. In 2003, the EP3 was updated with many improvements – revised EPS with quicker steering, revised suspension settings, projector headlamps, lighter clutch and flywheel assembly etc. Based on Honda literature, this facelifted model was targeted at addressing customers' and critics' feedback such as understeer on the limit, numb steering response and lack of low end torque. Performance 0–97 km/h in 5.8/6.5 seconds, 5.8/6.4 seconds 0–161 km/h in 15.1/16 secs Top speed 227 km/h and 235 km/h Note: JDM, EDM. Mugen Motorsports developed an upgraded version of the JDM Civic Type R, with a sport exhaust system and engine tuning, special Mugen Grille, anti-roll bars for pro racing activities. In 2003 Honda celebrated 30 years of the Civic badge by offering a special edition 30th Anniversary Civic Type R.
This special edition features red bucket seats from Recaro, air conditioning, privacy glass on the rear windows, a leather MOMO steering wheel, red interior carpet and door cards. The 30th Anniversary models in the UK were available in Nighthawk Black, Satin Silver and Milano Red. Only 300 of these models were produced, 100 in each colour. In 2005 towards the end of the EP3's production run, Honda introduced the Civic Type R Premier edition which had Recaro Trendline seats, a darker shade of fabric on the rear seat centre sections, a MOMO Steering Wheel, Red Carpet, Door Linings, "Type R" embossed into the front brake calipers and black privacy glass on the rear windows. Air conditioning was an option, they were available in Nighthawk Black, Cosmic Grey and Satin Silver. In 2004 Honda introduced the "C Package" option to Japan's Civ
This article is about four-wheeled vehicle suspension. For information on two wheeled vehicles' suspensions see Suspension, Motorcycle fork, Bicycle suspension, Bicycle fork. Suspension is the system of tires, tire air, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels and allows relative motion between the two. Suspension systems must support both road holding/handling and ride quality, which are at odds with each other; the tuning of suspensions involves finding the right compromise. It is important for the suspension to keep the road wheel in contact with the road surface as much as possible, because all the road or ground forces acting on the vehicle do so through the contact patches of the tires; the suspension protects the vehicle itself and any cargo or luggage from damage and wear. The design of front and rear suspension of a car may be different. An early form of suspension on ox-drawn carts had the platform swing on iron chains attached to the wheeled frame of the carriage.
This system remained the basis for all suspension systems until the turn of the 19th century, although the iron chains were replaced with the use of leather straps by the 17th century. No modern automobiles use the'strap suspension' system. Automobiles were developed as self-propelled versions of horse-drawn vehicles. However, horse-drawn vehicles had been designed for slow speeds, their suspension was not well suited to the higher speeds permitted by the internal combustion engine; the first workable spring-suspension required advanced metallurgical knowledge and skill, only became possible with the advent of industrialisation. Obadiah Elliott registered the first patent for a spring-suspension vehicle. Within a decade, most British horse carriages were equipped with springs; these were made of low-carbon steel and took the form of multiple layer leaf springs. Leaf springs have been around since the early Egyptians. Ancient military engineers used leaf springs in the form of bows to power their siege engines, with little success at first.
The use of leaf springs in catapults was refined and made to work years later. Springs were not only made of metal. Horse-drawn carriages and the Ford Model T used this system, it is still used today in larger vehicles mounted in the rear suspension. Leaf springs were the first modern suspension system and, along with advances in the construction of roads, heralded the single greatest improvement in road transport until the advent of the automobile; the British steel springs were not well-suited for use on America's rough roads of the time, so the Abbot-Downing Company of Concord, New Hampshire re-introduced leather strap suspension, which gave a swinging motion instead of the jolting up and down of a spring suspension. In 1901 Mors of Paris first fitted an automobile with shock absorbers. With the advantage of a damped suspension system on his'Mors Machine', Henri Fournier won the prestigious Paris-to-Berlin race on 20 June 1901. Fournier's superior time was 11 hrs 46 min 10 sec, while the best competitor was Léonce Girardot in a Panhard with a time of 12 hrs 15 min 40 sec.
Coil springs first appeared on a production vehicle in 1906 in the Brush Runabout made by the Brush Motor Company. Today, coil springs are used in most cars. In 1920, Leyland Motors used torsion bars in a suspension system. In 1922, independent front suspension was pioneered on the Lancia Lambda and became more common in mass market cars from 1932. Today, most cars have independent suspension on all four wheels. In 2002, a new passive suspension component was invented by Malcolm C. Smith, the inerter; this has the ability to increase the effective inertia of a wheel suspension using a geared flywheel, but without adding significant mass. It was employed in Formula One in secrecy but has since spread to other motorsport. Any four wheel vehicle needs suspension for both the front wheels and the rear suspension, but in two wheel drive vehicles there can be a different configuration. For front-wheel drive cars, rear suspension has few constraints and a variety of beam axles and independent suspensions are used.
For rear-wheel drive cars, rear suspension has many constraints and the development of the superior but more expensive independent suspension layout has been difficult. Four-wheel drive has suspensions that are similar for both the front and rear wheels. Henry Ford's Model T used a torque tube to restrain this force, for his differential was attached to the chassis by a lateral leaf spring and two narrow rods; the torque tube surrounded the true driveshaft and exerted the force to its ball joint at the extreme rear of the transmission, attached to the engine. A similar method was used in the late 1930s by Buick and by Hudson's bathtub car in 1948, which used helical springs which could not take fore-and-aft thrust; the Hotchkiss drive, invented by Albert Hotchkiss, was the most popular rear suspension system used in American cars from the 1930s to the 1970s. The system uses longitudinal leaf springs attached both forward and behind the differential of the live axle; these springs transmit the torque to the frame.
Although scorned by many European car makers of the time, it was accepted by American car makers because it was inexpensive to manufacture. The dynamic defects of this design were suppressed by the enormous weight of US passenger vehicles before implementation of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy
A manual transmission known as a manual gearbox, a standard transmission or colloquially in some countries as a stick shift, is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications. It uses a driver-operated clutch engaged and disengaged by a foot pedal or hand lever, for regulating torque transfer from the engine to the transmission. A conventional 5-speed manual transmission is the standard equipment in a base-model vehicle, while more expensive manual vehicles are equipped with a 6-speed transmission instead; the number of forward gear ratios is expressed for automatic transmissions as well. Manual transmissions feature a driver-operated clutch and a movable gear stick. Most automobile manual transmissions allow the driver to select any forward gear ratio at any time, but some, such as those mounted on motorcycles and some types of racing cars, only allow the driver to select the next-higher or next-lower gear; this type of transmission is sometimes called a sequential manual transmission.
In a manual transmission, the flywheel is attached to the engine's crankshaft and spins along with it. The clutch disc is in between the pressure plate and the flywheel, is held against the flywheel under pressure from the pressure plate; when the engine is running and the clutch is engaged, the flywheel spins the clutch plate and hence the transmission. As the clutch pedal is depressed, the throw out bearing is activated, which causes the pressure plate to stop applying pressure to the clutch disk; this makes the clutch plate stop receiving power from the engine, so that the gear can be shifted without damaging the transmission. When the clutch pedal is released, the throw out bearing is deactivated, the clutch disk is again held against the flywheel, allowing it to start receiving power from the engine. Manual transmissions are characterized by gear ratios that are selectable by locking selected gear pairs to the output shaft inside the transmission. Conversely, most automatic transmissions feature epicyclic gearing controlled by brake bands and/or clutch packs to select gear ratio.
Automatic transmissions that allow the driver to manually select the current gear are called manumatics. A manual-style transmission operated by computer is called an automated transmission rather than an automatic though no distinction between the two terms need be made. Contemporary automobile manual transmissions use four to six forward gear ratios and one reverse gear, although consumer automobile manual transmissions have been built with as few as two and as many as seven gears. Transmissions for heavy trucks and other heavy equipment have 8 to 25 gears so the transmission can offer both a wide range of gears and close gear ratios to keep the engine running in the power band. Operating aforementioned transmissions use the same pattern of shifter movement with a single or multiple switches to engage the next sequence of gear selection. French inventors Louis-Rene Panhard and Emile Levassor are credited with the development of the first modern manual transmission, they demonstrated their three-speed transmission in 1894 and the basic design is still the starting point for most contemporary manual transmissions.
This type of transmission offered multiple gear ratios and, in most cases, reverse. The gears were engaged by sliding them on their shafts, which required careful timing and throttle manipulation when shifting, so the gears would be spinning at the same speed when engaged; these transmissions are called sliding mesh transmissions or sometimes crash boxes, because of the difficulty in changing gears and the loud grinding sound that accompanied. Newer manual transmissions on 4+-wheeled vehicles have all gears mesh at all times and are referred to as constant-mesh transmissions, with "synchro-mesh" being a further refinement of the constant mesh principle. In both types, a particular gear combination can only be engaged when the two parts to engage are at the same speed. To shift to a higher gear, the transmission is put in neutral and the engine allowed to slow down until the transmission parts for the next gear are at a proper speed to engage; the vehicle slows while in neutral and that slows other transmission parts, so the time in neutral depends on the grade and other such factors.
To shift to a lower gear, the transmission is put in neutral and the throttle is used to speed up the engine and thus the relevant transmission parts, to match speeds for engaging the next lower gear. For both upshifts and downshifts, the clutch is released; some drivers use the clutch only for starting from a stop, shifts are done without the clutch. Other drivers will depress the clutch, shift to neutral engage the clutch momentarily to force transmission parts to match the engine speed depress the clutch again to shift to the next gear, a process called double clutching. Double clutching is easier to get smooth, as speeds that are close but not quite matched need to speed up or slow down only transmission parts, whereas with the clutch engaged to the engine, mismatched speeds are fighting the rotational inertia and power of the engine. Though automobile and light truck transmissions are now universally synchronized, transmissions for heavy trucks and machinery, motor
A V8 engine is an eight-cylinder V configuration engine with the cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two sets of four, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft. Most banks are set at a right angle to each other, some at a narrower angle, with 45°, 60°, 72° most common. In its simplest form, the V8 is two parallel inline-four engines sharing a common crankshaft. However, this simple configuration, with a flat- or single-plane crankshaft, has the same secondary dynamic imbalance problems as two straight-4s, resulting in vibrations in large engine displacements. Since the 1920s, most V8s have used the somewhat more complex crossplane crankshaft with heavy counterweights to eliminate the vibrations; this results in an engine, smoother than a V6, while being less expensive than a V12. Many racing V8s continue to use the single plane crankshaft because it allows faster acceleration and more efficient exhaust system designs. In 1902, Léon Levavasseur took out a patent on a light but quite powerful gasoline injected V8 engine.
He called it the'Antoinette' after the young daughter of his financial backer. From 1904 he installed this engine in a number of early aircraft; the aviation pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont saw one of these boats in Côte d'Azur and decided to try it on his pusher configuration, canard-design 14-bis aircraft. Its early 24 hp at 1400 rpm version with only 55 kg of weight was interesting, but proved to be underpowered. Santos-Dumont ordered a more powerful version from Levavasseur, he changed its dimensions from the original 80 mm stroke and 80 mm bore to 105 mm stroke and 110 mm bore, obtaining 50 hp with 86 kg of weight, including cooling water. Its power-to-weight ratio was not surpassed for 25 years. Levavasseur produced its own line of V8 equipped aircraft, named Antoinette I to VIII. Hubert Latham piloted the V8 powered Antoinette IV and Antoinette VII in July 1909 on two failed attempts to cross the English Channel. However, in 1910, Latham used the VII with the same engine to become the first in the world to reach an altitude of 3600 feet.
Voisin constructed pusher biplanes with Antoinette engines notably the one first flown by Henry Farman in 1908. The V8 engine configuration was used in France by 1904, in race car and aircraft engines introduced by Renault, Buchet among others; some of these engines found their way into automobiles in small quantities. In 1905, Darracq built a special car to beat the world speed record, they came up with two racing car engines built on camshaft. The result was an engine with a displacement of 1,551 cu in, 200 bhp. Victor Hemery achieved the record on 30 December 1905 with a speed of 109.65 mph. This car still exists. Rolls-Royce built a 3,535 cc V8 car from 1905 to 1906, but only three copies were made and Rolls-Royce reverted to a I6 design. In 1907, the Hewitt Motor Company built a large five-passenger Touring Car, it was equipped with a V8 engine that developed 50/60 horsepower and had a bore of 4 in and a stroke of 4.5 in. The Hewitt was the first American automobile to be equipped with a V8 engine.
De Dion-Bouton introduced a 7,773 cc automobile V8 in 1910 and displayed it in New York in 1912. It inspired a number of manufacturers to follow suit; the limiting factor in mass production and sales of V8s was the difficulty in starting large engines using a hand crank. Not only does increasing the size of the engine make this harder, the number of pistons is a factor, because with a 4 cylinder engine, a piston comes into compression every half turn of the crank, overcoming this with the crank is not difficult. With eight cylinders, there is only 1/4 of a turn of the crank before another cylinder comes into compression. To overcome this problem, electric starters were developed; the first marque to equip its cars with electric starter motors was Cadillac, in 1912, Cadillac was the first production automobile with V8s, introduced 2 years later. It sold 13,000 of the 5.4 L L-head engines in its first year of production, 1914. Cadillac has been a V8 company since. Oldsmobile, another division of General Motors, introduced its own 4 L V8 engine in 1916.
Chevrolet introduced a 4.7 L V8 engine in 1917 and installed in the Chevrolet Series D. In February 1915, Swiss automotive engineer Marc Birkigt designed the first example of the famous Hispano-Suiza V8 single overhead cam aviation engines, in differing displacements, using dual ignition systems and in power levels from 150 horsepower to around 300 horsepower, in both direct-drive and geared output shaft versions. 50,000 of these engines were built in Spain, the United Kingdom, Italy. Wright Aeronautical built them in the United States during World War I, with the French-produced versions getting almost-exclusive use to power the SPAD S. VII and SPAD S. XIII fighter aircraft. E.5 fighters and Sopwith Dolphin fighters. The H. S. 8-series overhead cam valvetrain V8 aviation engines are said to have powered half of all Allied aircraft of the WW I era. By 1932, Henry Ford introduced one of his last great personal engineering triumphs: his "en block", or one piece, V8 engine, its simple design made possible the greatest production V8 to the masses.
Offered as an option to an improved 4-cylinder Mo