Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she adopted the title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, both the Duke of Kent and King George III died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne aged 18, after her fathers three brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was already a constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments, Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together, after Alberts death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength and her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration. Her reign of 63 years and seven months is known as the Victorian era and it was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover and her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victorias father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, until 1817, Edwards niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent. In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen and her brother Leopold was Princess Charlottes widower.
The Duke and Duchess of Kents only child, was born at 4.15 a. m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace and she was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of the Dukes eldest brother, the Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarences daughters died as infants. Victorias father died in January 1820, when Victoria was less than a year old, a week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son, George IV. The Duke of York died in 1827, when George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, William IV, and Victoria became heir presumptive
San Fernando, Trinidad and Tobago
San Fernando, officially the City Corporation of San Fernando, is the most populous city in Trinidad and Tobago. It occupies 18 km² and is located in the part of the island of Trinidad. It is bounded to the north by the Guaracara River, the south by the Oropouche River, the east by the Sir Solomon Hochoy Highway, the former borough was elevated to the status of a city corporation on November 18,1988. The motto of San Fernando is, Sanitas Fortis - In a Healthy Environment We Will Find Strength, many local Trinidadians refer to the city with the shortened name Sando. The Amerindians called the area Anaparima, which has been translated as either single hill or without water, a single hill, San Fernando Hill, rises from the centre of the city. A town named San Fernando de Naparima was established by Spanish Governor Don José Maria Chacón in 1784, with time, the de Naparima was dropped. Following the 1783 Cedula of Population, many plantations were established in the Naparima Plains surrounding San Fernando.
The town grew as part of the country came to dominate sugar production. This growth continued throughout the century as consolidation in the sugar industry led to the construction of what was the largest sugar refinery in the world. Madeline factory a few miles east of the town, the development of cacao cultivation and the petroleum industry helped San Fernando grow since the town served as the gateway to these areas. The growth of the town placed severe strains on the supply of water, the nearby oil refinery at Pointe-à-Pierre played an important role in San Fernandos development between World War II and the 1980s. The refinery was constructed by Trinidad Leaseholds Limited during World War II, the oil boom of the 1970s and 80s led to the growth of the suburbs of San Fernando, especially Marabella and Gasparillo of the Pointe-à-Pierre refinery. In 1991 the boundaries of the city were extended, bringing the refinery immediately adjacent to the Citys northern boundary, the extended City now includes the suburbs of Marabella, Bel Air, Gulf View and Cocoyea.
The administration of San Fernando is done by San Fernando City Corporation and it is a corporate body, and the staff is instrumental in the exercise of the powers of the Corporation through the Council. Functions of this Corporation are delegated by the Central Government, Local government administration started in 1845, when the Town Council was established and the Municipality of San Fernando came into being. Circa 1853, San Fernando was elevated to a Borough, the first Mayor was Robert Johnstone, from the simple start of a fishing village, San Fernando blossomed financially, and became the Industrial Capital of Trinidad and Tobago. This crest incorporates the City motto, the sea, the hill, the sea and boat represent the beginnings as a fishing village. The sugar cane stalk represents the sugar industry, the oil tank represents productivity and the oil industry
Asa Wright Nature Centre
The Asa Wright Nature Centre and Lodge is a nature resort and scientific research station in the Arima Valley of the Northern Range in Trinidad and Tobago. The centre is one of the top birdwatching spots in the Caribbean, the centre is owned by a non-profit trust. The nature centre is on 270 acres and includes a main house with inn. Non-adjacent properties have added to the centres land holdings. Beebe bought the Verdant Vale estate in 1949 and named it after Simla in India, both properties had previously been cacao estates but contained large stands of original rainforest. The Wrights home became internationally renowned for its access to wildlife, especially the oilbird colonies in the nearby Dunston Cave. After the death of Newcombe Wright in 1967, the Spring Hill Estate was acquired by a non-profit trust, Asa Wright continued to live at the centre until her death in 1971. In 1974, the New York Zoological Society donated Simla to the trust, the nature centre in 2001 acquired the Rapsey Estate, known as El Naranjo in the Aripo Valley, just west of the Arima Valley for TT$3,3 million.
The total nature centre holdings are now over 1,300 acres, the centre is one of the most biodiverse areas in the West Indies and is home to more than 400 bird species. Bird species at the centre include purple honeycreeper, tufted coquette, tropical mockingbird. Red brocket deer as well as the elusive ocelot can be seen in the nature centres trails, agouti is a common animal that occurs in the centre. A Guide to the Birds of Trinidad and Tobago, the Remarkable Life of William Beebe. The Birds of Trinidad and Tobago, the old house and the dream, The story of The Asa Wright Nature Centre. Prospect Press and Editorial Projects Limited, Port of Spain, coro-Coro, The World of the Scarlet Ibis. Lippincott Company and New York, official website William Beebe Tropical Research Station Article on the centre from Nalis
A golden jubilee is a celebration held to mark a 50th anniversary. The golden jubilee is a ceremony to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the accession of the king. The first Golden Jubilee of Thailand was the celebration of King Bhumibol Adulyadej, King Rama IX celebrated his golden jubilee on 9 June 1996, having acceded to the throne in 1946 which makes him Thailands longest-reigning monarch and the longest-living monarch today. The largest faceted diamond in the world, known as the Golden Jubilee Diamond, was purchased as a gift for the King on the 50th anniversary of his coronation by Thai businessmen, the diamond is located in the Royal Thai Palace as part of the crown jewels. In 1996, Banharn Silpa-archa, the Prime Minister, and the Thai people celebrated the King with a large celebration, the symbol of the golden jubilee of King Bhumibol Adulyadej was designed by Wiyada Charoensuk, who won the contest for the design. The golden jubilee of George III of the United Kingdom was celebrated on 25th October 1809, Queen Elizabeth II celebrated her golden jubilee in 2002, having ascended the throne in 1952.
In 1887 the United Kingdom and the British Empire celebrated Queen Victorias golden jubilee, Victoria marked 20 June 1887—the fiftieth anniversary of her accession—with a banquet, to which fifty European kings and princes were invited. Although she could not have been aware of it, there was a plan by Irish Republicans to blow up Westminster Abbey while the Queen attended a service of thanksgiving and this assassination attempt, when it was discovered, became known as the Jubilee Plot. At the time, Victoria was a popular monarch. Emperor Wu of Han dynasty Kangxi Emperor of Qing dynasty Qianlong Emperor of Qing dynasty Yeongjo of Joseon In Japan, Emperor Hirohito, celebrated his golden jubilee on 10 November 1976. Showa Memorial Park was established as part of a project to commemorate his golden jubilee, for the year 2015, the Singapore50 initiative is launched in Singapore to celebrate 50 years of independence from Malaysia. The logo is meant to identify with the SG50 celebrations, national Day Parade ceremonies for that year are themed Majulah Singapura - Our Golden Jubilee.
In Bavaria, Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria celebrated his jubilee as Elector Palatine in 1792. In Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Grand Duke Karl August celebrated his golden jubilee in 1826, in Austria-Hungary, Emperor Franz Josef celebrated his golden jubilee in 1898. In Baden, Grand Duke Frederick I celebrated his golden jubilee in 1906, in Liechtenstein, Prince Johann II celebrated his golden jubilee in 1908. In Greece, King George I was assassinated mere weeks before his golden jubilee was due to be celebrated in 1913, in Montenegro, Nikola I Petrović-Njegoš celebrated his golden jubilee in 1914. In Norway, King Haakon VII celebrated his golden jubilee in 1955, in Burundi, King Mwambutsa IV Bangiriceng celebrated his golden jubilee in 1965. In Ethiopia, Emperor Haile Selassie celebrated his jubilee, dating from when he became regent
Trinidad and Tobago
During the same period, the island of Tobago changed hands among Spanish, French and Courlander colonizers, more times than any other island in the Caribbean. Trinidad and Tobago were ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens, the country Trinidad and Tobago obtained independence in 1962, becoming a republic in 1976. Trinidad and Tobago is the third richest country by GDP per capita in the Americas after the United States, furthermore, it is recognised as a high-income economy by the World Bank. Unlike most of the English-speaking Caribbean, the economy is primarily industrial, with an emphasis on petroleum. The countrys wealth is attributed to its reserves and exploitation of oil. Historian E. L. Joseph claimed that Trinidads Amerindian name was Iere or Land of the Humming Bird, derived from the Arawak name for hummingbird, Boomert claims that neither cairi nor caeri means hummingbird and tukusi or tucuchi does. Others have reported that kairi and iere simply mean island, christopher Columbus renamed it La Isla de la Trinidad, fulfilling a vow made before setting out on his third voyage of exploration.
Trinidad and Tobago are islands situated between 10°2 and 11°12 N latitude and 60°30 and 61°56 W longitude, at the closest point, Trinidad is just 11 kilometres from Venezuelan territory. Trinidad is 4,768 km2 in area with a length of 80 km. Tobago has an area of about 300 km2, or 5. 8% of the area, is 41 km long and 12 km at its greatest width. Trinidad and Tobago lie on the shelf of South America. The terrain of the islands is a mixture of mountains and plains, the highest point in the country is found on the Northern Range at El Cerro del Aripo, which is 940 metres above sea level. As the majority of the live in the island of Trinidad. There are four municipalities in Trinidad, Port of Spain. The main town in Tobago is Scarborough, Trinidad is made up of a variety of soil types, the majority being fine sands and heavy clays. The alluvial valleys of the Northern Range and the soils of the East-West Corridor are the most fertile, the Northern Range consists mainly of Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous metamorphic rocks.
The Northern Lowlands consist of shallow marine clastic sediments. South of this, the Central Range fold and thrust belt consists of Cretaceous and Eocene sedimentary rocks, the Naparima Plains and the Nariva Swamp form the southern shoulder of this uplift
Sangre Grande is the largest town in northeastern Trinidad, in Trinidad and Tobago. It is located east of Arima and southwest of Toco and it is the seat of the Sangre Grande Regional Corporation. The town falls into the Toco/Sangre constituency of the Elections and Boundaries Commission, the Member of Parliament for the Toco/Sangre Grande constituency and by extension of Sangre Grande itself is Rupert Griffith. The name Sangre Grande means big blood, and it has suggested that the town was named for a battle that took place between the native Amerindians and the Spanish settlers. However, this interpretation is not supported by historical records, the neighbouring town is called Sangre Chiquito is named for the presence of a smaller, similarly colored river in that town. Sangre Grande grew as a result of the growth of cacao cultivation in the nineteenth century. It grew further when it became the terminus of the railroad, construction of the railroad caused the town to migrate down the hill to meet the railroad.
When the town relocated to the foot of the hill, the name Sangre Grande moved with it, as a result, the name of the pre-existing village, was largely, but not entirely, lost. Sangre Grande is more developed than its surrounding areas, many residents from surrounding areas depend on Sangre Grande for Government facilities as well as for shopping. Many residents in surrounding villages come to Sangre Grande as a means of getting transportation to larger towns for example Arima. Sangre Grande has both a Government hospital and a Government Health Clinic, there are many roads that lead in and out of Sangre Grande. The Eastern Main Road is the most important road leading into Sangre Grande as the Churchill Roosevelt Highway ends in Wallerfield, the Eastern Main Road connects Sangre Grande to the east to Sangre Chiquito and Manzanilla and to the west to Arima and Port of Spain. The second major road in Toco Road connects Sangre Grande to villages in the northeast, for example Toco, the railways in Trinidad closed in the late 20th century, but many traces of the railroads passage through Sangre Grande still exist.
The current Public Transport Service Corporation terminal was formerly the train station, tracks leading into Sangre Grande have been converted into roads, although it still bears the name of Railway Road. However, with growing traffic congestion on the nations roads. Buses still ply the routes in and out of Sangre Grande, the bus terminus in the heart of Sangre Grande was recently upgraded. Maxi taxis as well as traditional taxis service Sangre Grande, Maxi taxis heading to both Arima and Port of Spain can be found. Taxis heading to Port of Spain and Arima can still be found around the bus terminus, while heading to Mayaro, Toco
The Northern Range is the range of tall hills across north Trinidad, the major island in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. The hills range from the Chaguaramas peninsula on the west coast to Toco in the east, the Northern Range covers approximately twenty-five percent of the land area of Trinidad. The hills rise abruptly from the lowlands of northern Trinidad, on the summits of El Cerro del Aripo and El Tucuche, the vegetation is quite different from the lower montane forests. Elfin woodland and cloud cover the summits, and are home to the endemic El Tucuche golden tree frog. The south-facing valleys run deep into the hills and support major rivers, such as the Caroni River, the biodiversity within the Northern Range, which represents a combination of species from the South American continent and from the Caribbean islands further north is high. The densely forested peaks are home to over 100 species of mammals and 430 species of birds, there are numerous streams and waterfalls in the Northern Range.
The highest waterfall is Maracas waterfall, towering 91.5 metres high, other waterfalls include the Rincon Falls, Rio Seco Falls and Marianne Falls. Numerous sulphur springs occur on the beds of Rio Seco Falls. The Northern Range consists mainly of sedimentary rocks - schists and limestones, the hills are mostly forested, although deforestation and the formation of fire-savannahs is one of the major environmental concerns in Trinidad. The countrys largest cave system, the Aripo Cave, is located in the Northern Range, the caves feature stunning stalagmite and stalactite formations. These caves are inhabited by oilbirds, the only bird in the world. The Northern Range runs from the Chaguaramas Peninsula in the west to Toco in the east, the eastern Northern Range remain most heavily forested. Portions west of Arima, especially the slopes and valleys, have been extensively deforested. At the western end of the Northern Range, the city, Port of Spain, climbs into the hills. The Arima Valley remains as the westernmost valley that is primarily forested.
Southern Range Central Range and Tobago Caroni Plain Naparima Plain Nariva Plain
Area code 868
The area code 868 is assigned to Trinidad and Tobago, a member of the North American Numbering Plan. The telephone numbering plan for the country is known as the National Numbering Plan and it is part of a system used for assigning telephone numbers in Trinidad and Tobago, and functions as a part of the North American Numbering Plan. It is regulated by the governments Telecommunications Authority, which responsibility for telecommunications. Due to a long established affiliation with NANP, phone numbers in the Republic of Trinidad, the International Telecommunications Unions standards such as E.164 and E.123 both strongly advocate the inclusion of a +1 prefix to indicate 868 is a part of the NANP. Area code 868 was created during a split from the original Area code 809 around 1 June 1997, by 31 May 1998 all calls placed to the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago required the use of the +1868 prefix. From within North America When calling Trinidad and Tobago from elsewhere in the North American Numbering Plan, callers must simply dial 1 +868 + seven digit phone number.
From outside NANP When calling to Trinidad and Tobago from outside the NANP, for example, a call placed from the United Kingdom would be dialled as 00 +1 +868 + local seven digit phone number. When placing a call from Trinidad and Tobago, known as HNPA dialling. To North America When calling other places in the North American Numbering Plan, callers dial 1 + NPA area code + seven digit phone number. Though usually toll-free when dialled from the US, not all 1-800 phone numbers are toll-free when dialled from Trinidad and Tobago, to areas outside the NANP When calling to areas outside the NANP, callers dial 011 + country calling code + phone number. In the case of the UK, a user would dial 011 +44 + UK phone number. Police Force,999 &911, Ambulance,811, Fire,990 Information/Directory Assistance,6411,611 Operator,0 List of NANP area codes North American Numbering Plan Area codes in the Caribbean Admin and Tobago National Numbering Plan. Telecommunications Authority of Trinidad and Tobago North American Numbering Plan Administrator List of exchanges from AreaCodeDownload.
com,868 Area Code
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. The term Amerindian is used in Quebec, the Guianas, Indigenous peoples of the United States are commonly known as Native Americans or American Indians, and Alaska Natives. Application of the term Indian originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for Asia, the Americas came to be known as the West Indies, a name still used to refer to the islands of the Caribbean Sea. This led to the blanket term Indies and Indians for the indigenous inhabitants, although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time, although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms and empires.
Many parts of the Americas are still populated by peoples, some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Chile, Greenland, Mexico. At least a different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Guaraní, Mayan languages, many maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization, and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects, some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples. The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the dates and routes traveled, are the subject of ongoing research. According to archaeological and genetic evidence and South America were the last continents in the world with human habitation. During the Wisconsin glaciation, 50–17,000 years ago, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the bridge of Beringia that joined Siberia to northwest North America.
Alaska was a glacial refugium because it had low snowfall, allowing a small population to exist, the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of North America, blocking nomadic inhabitants and confining them to Alaska for thousands of years. Indigenous genetic studies suggest that the first inhabitants of the Americas share a single population, one that developed in isolation. The isolation of these peoples in Beringia might have lasted 10–20,000 years, around 16,500 years ago, the glaciers began melting, allowing people to move south and east into Canada and beyond. These people are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct Pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran Ice Sheets. Another route proposed involves migration - either on foot or using primitive boats - along the Pacific Northwest coast to the south, archeological evidence of the latter would have been covered by the sea level rise of more than 120 meters since the last ice age
Multiracial is defined as made up of or relating to people of many races. Many terms exist for people of multiracial backgrounds. While some of the used in the past are considered insulting and offensive. Individuals of multiracial backgrounds make up a significant portion of the population in parts of the world. In North America, studies have found that the population is continuing to grow. Because of a decline in racism, multiracial people no longer feel the need to hide their heritage, in many countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, mixed-race people make up the majority of the population. While defining race is controversial, race remains a commonly used term for categorization, insofar as race is defined differently in different cultures, perceptions of multiraciality will naturally be subjective. Some percentage of people who look black will possess genetic markers indicating the majority of their recent ancestors were European. The revised OMB standards identify a minimum of five categories, Black or African American, American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian.
Perhaps the most significant change for Census 2000 was that respondents were given the option to one or more races on the questionnaire to indicate their racial identity. Census 2000 race data are shown for people who reported a race either alone or in combination with one or more other races, in the English-speaking world, many terms for people of various multiracial backgrounds exist, some of which are pejorative or are no longer used. Mulato and mestizo are used in Spanish, caboclo, cafuzo and mestiço in Portuguese and mulâtre and these terms are in certain contexts used in the English-speaking world. In Canada, the Métis are an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nation descent. Half-breed is a term that referred to people of partial Native American ancestry, it is now considered pejorative. Mestee, once used, is now used mostly for members of historically mixed-race groups, such as Louisiana Creoles, Redbones. In South Africa, and much of English-speaking southern Africa, the term Coloured was used to describe a mixed-race person, while the term is socially accepted, it is becoming an outdated due to its association with the apartheid era.
Charts and diagrams intended to explain the classifications were common, the well-known Casta paintings in Mexico and, to some extent, were illustrations of the different classifications. Most Brazilians of all groups are to some extent mixed-race according to genetic research