The Tetrapharmakos "four-part remedy" is a summary of the first four of the Κύριαι Δόξαι in Epicureanism, a recipe for leading the happiest possible life. They are recommendations to avoid existential dread; the "tetrapharmakos" was a compound of four drugs. As expressed by Philodemos, preserved in a Herculaneum Papyrus, the tetrapharmakos reads: This is a summary of the first four of the forty Epicurean Principal Doctrines given by Diogenes Laërtius, which in the translation by Robert Drew Hicks read as follows: 1. A happy and eternal being brings no trouble upon any other being. Death is nothing to us. 3. The magnitude of pleasure reaches its limit in the removal of all pain; when pleasure is present, so long as it is uninterrupted, there is no pain either of body or of mind or of both together. 4. Continuous pain does not last long in the body. Illnesses of long duration permit of an excess of pleasure over pain in the body. In Hellenistic religion, the gods were conceived as hypothetical beings in a perpetual state of bliss, indestructible entities that are invulnerable.
Gods in this view are mere role models for human beings, who are to "emulate the happiness of the gods, within the limits imposed by human nature." As D. S. Hutchinson wrote concerning this line, "While you are alive, you don't have to deal with being dead, but when you are dead you don't have to deal with it either, because you aren't there to deal with it." In Epicurus' own words in his Letter to Menoeceus, "Death means nothing to us...when we exist, death is not yet present, when death is present we do not exist," for there is no afterlife. Death, says Epicurus, is the greatest anxiety of all, in intensity; this anxiety about death impedes the quality and happiness of one's life by the theory of afterlife: the worrying about whether or not one's deeds and actions in life will translate well into the region of the gods, the wondering whether one will be assigned to an eternity of pain or to an eternity of pleasure. Sustenance and shelter, these things can be acquired by anyone — by both animal and human — with minimal effort, regardless of wealth.
But if one wants more than one needs, one is limiting the chances of satisfaction and happiness, therefore creating a “needless anxiety” in one’s life. "What is good is easy to get" implies that the minimum amount of necessity it takes to satisfy an urge is the maximum amount of interest a person should have in satisfying that urge. The Epicureans understood that, in nature and pain is not suffered for long, for pain and suffering is either "brief or chronic... either mild or intense, but discomfort, both chronic and intense is unusual. Like "What is good is easy to get," recognizing one's physical and mental limit and one's threshold of pain — understanding how much pain the body or mind can endure — and maintaining confidence that pleasure only follows pain, is the remedy against prolonged suffering
Happiness is used in the context of mental or emotional states, including positive or pleasant emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy. It is used in the context of life satisfaction, subjective well-being, eudaimonia and well-being. Since the 1960s, happiness research has been conducted in a wide variety of scientific disciplines, including gerontology, social psychology and medical research and happiness economics.'Happiness' is the subject of debate on usage and meaning, on possible differences in understanding by culture. The word is used in several related areas: current experience, including the feeling of an emotion such as pleasure or joy, or a more general sense of'emotional condition as a whole'. For instance Daniel Kahneman has defined happiness as "what I experience here and now"; this usage is prevalent in dictionary definitions of happiness. Appraisal of life satisfaction, such as of quality of life. For instance Ruut Veenhoven has defined happiness as "overall appreciation of one's life as-a-whole."
Subjective well-being, which includes measures of life satisfaction. For instance Sonja Lyubomirsky has described happiness as “the experience of joy, contentment, or positive well-being, combined with a sense that one's life is good and worthwhile.” Eudaimonia, sometimes translated as flourishing. These uses can give different results. For instance the correlation of income levels has been shown to be substantial with life satisfaction measures, but to be far weaker, at least above a certain threshold, with affect measures; the implied meaning of the word may vary depending on context, qualifying happiness as a polyseme and a fuzzy concept. Some users continue to use the word because of its convening power. In the Nicomachean Ethics, written in 350 BCE, Aristotle stated that happiness is the only thing that humans desire for their own sake, unlike riches, health or friendship, he observed that men sought riches, or honour, or health not only for their own sake but in order to be happy. Note that eudaimonia, the term we translate as "happiness", is for Aristotle an activity rather than an emotion or a state.
Thus understood, the happy life is the good life, that is, a life in which a person fulfills human nature in an excellent way. Aristotle argues that the good life is the life of excellent rational activity, he arrives at this claim with the Function Argument. If it's right, every living thing has a function, that which it uniquely does. For humans, Aristotle contends, our function is to reason, since it is that alone that we uniquely do, and performing one's function well, or excellently, is good. Thus, according to Aristotle, the life of excellent rational activity is the happy life. Aristotle does not leave it at that, however, he argues. This second best life is the life of moral virtue. Many ethicists make arguments for how humans should behave, either individually or collectively, based on the resulting happiness of such behavior. Utilitarians, such as John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham, advocated the greatest happiness principle as a guide for ethical behavior. Friedrich Nietzsche savagely critiqued the English Utilitarians' focus on attaining the greatest happiness, stating that "Man does not strive for happiness, only the Englishman does."
Nietzsche meant that making happiness one's ultimate goal and the aim of one's existence, in his words "makes one contemptible." Nietzsche instead yearned for a culture that would set higher, more difficult goals than "mere happiness." He introduced the quasi-dystopic figure of the "last man" as a kind of thought experiment against the utilitarians and happiness-seekers. These small, "last men" who seek after only their own pleasure and health, avoiding all danger, difficulty, struggle are meant to seem contemptible to Nietzsche's reader. Nietzsche instead wants us to consider the value of what is difficult, what can only be earned through struggle, difficulty and thus to come to see the affirmative value suffering and unhappiness play in creating everything of great worth in life, including all the highest achievements of human culture, not least of all philosophy. Darrin McMahon claims that there has been a transition over time from emphasis on the happiness of virtue to the virtue of happiness.
Happiness may be said to be a relative concept. Not all cultures seek to maximise happiness, some cultures are averse to happiness. Happiness forms a central theme of Buddhist teachings. For ultimate freedom from suffering, the Noble Eightfold Path leads its practitioner to Nirvana, a state of everlasting peace. Ultimate happiness is only achieved by overcoming craving in all forms. More mundane forms of happiness, such as acquiring wealth and maintaining good friendships, are recognized as worthy goals for lay people. Buddhism encourages the generation of loving kindness and compassion, the desire for the happiness and welfare of all beings. In Advaita Vedanta, the ultimate goal of life is happiness, in the sense that duality between Atman and Brahman is transcended and one realizes oneself to be the Self in all. Patanjali, author of the Yoga Sutras, wrote quite exhaustively on the psychological and ontological roots of bliss; the Chinese Confucian thinker Mencius, who had sought to give advice to ruthless political leaders during China's Warring States period, was convinced that the mind played a mediating role between the "lesser self" and the "greater self", that getting the pr
Ancient Olympic Games
The ancient Olympic Games were a festival, or celebration of and for Zeus. The Olympic Games were a series of athletic competitions among representatives of city-states and one of the Panhellenic Games of ancient Greece, they were held in honor of Zeus, the Greeks gave them a mythological origin. The first Olympics is traditionally dated to 776 BC, they continued to be celebrated when Greece came under Roman rule, until the emperor Theodosius I suppressed them in AD 393 as part of the campaign to impose Christianity as the State religion of Rome. The games were held every four years, or olympiad, which became a unit of time in historical chronologies. During the celebration of the games, an Olympic Truce was enacted so that athletes could travel from their cities to the games in safety; the prizes for the victors were olive leaf crowns. The games became a political tool used by city-states to assert dominance over their rivals. Politicians would announce political alliances at the games, in times of war, priests would offer sacrifices to the gods for victory.
The games were used to help spread Hellenistic culture throughout the Mediterranean. The Olympics featured religious celebrations; the statue of Zeus at Olympia was counted as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Sculptors and poets would congregate each olympiad to display their works of art to would-be patrons; the ancient Olympics had fewer events than the modern games, only freeborn Greek men were allowed to participate, although there were victorious women chariot owners. As long as they met the entrance criteria, athletes from any Greek city-state and kingdom were allowed to participate, although the Hellanodikai, the officials in charge, allowed king Alexander I of Macedon to participate in the games only after he had proven his Greek ancestry; the games were always held at Olympia rather than moving between different locations as is the practice with the modern Olympic Games. Victors at the Olympics were honored, their feats chronicled for future generations. To the Greeks, it was important to root the Olympic Games in mythology.
During the time of the ancient games their origins were attributed to the gods, competing legends persisted as to, responsible for the genesis of the games. These origin traditions have become nearly impossible to untangle, yet a chronology and patterns have arisen that help people understand the story behind the games; the earliest myths regarding the origin of the games are recounted by the Greek historian, Pausanias. According to the story, the dactyl Heracles and four of his brothers, Epimedes and Idas, raced at Olympia to entertain the newborn Zeus, he crowned the victor with an olive wreath, which explains the four year interval, bringing the games around every fifth year. The other Olympian gods would engage in wrestling and running contests. Another myth of the origin of the games is the story of a local Olympian hero; the story of Pelops begins with Oenomaus, the king of Pisa, who had a beautiful daughter named Hippodamia. According to an oracle, the king would be killed by her husband.
Therefore, he decreed that any young man who wanted to marry his daughter was required to drive away with her in his chariot, Oenomaus would follow in another chariot, spear the suitor if he caught up with them. Now, the king's chariot horses were a present from the god Poseidon and were therefore supernaturally fast. Pelops was a handsome young man and the king's daughter fell in love with him. Before the race, she persuaded her father's charioteer Myrtilus to replace the bronze axle pins of the king's chariot with wax ones. During the race, the wax melted and the king fell from his chariot and was killed. At the same time, the king's palace was struck by lightning and reduced to ashes, save for one wooden pillar, revered in the Altis for centuries, stood near what was to be the site of the temple of Zeus. Pelops was proclaimed married Hippodamia. After his victory, Pelops organized chariot races as thanksgiving to the gods and as funeral games in honor of King Oenomaus, in order to be purified of his death.
It was from this funeral race held at Olympia that the beginnings of the Olympic Games were inspired. Pelops became a great king, a local hero, he gave his name to the Peloponnese. One myth, attributed to Pindar, states that the festival at Olympia involved Heracles, the son of Zeus: According to Pindar, Heracles established an athletic festival to honor his father, after he had completing his labors; the games of previous millennia were discontinued and revived by Lycurgus of Sparta, Iphitos of Elis, Cleisthenes of Pisa at the behest of the Oracle of Delphi who claimed that the people had strayed from the gods, which had caused a plague and constant war. Restoration of the games would end the plague, usher in a time of peace, signal a return to a more traditional lifestyle; the patterns that emerge from these myths are that the Greeks believed the games had their roots in religion, that athletic competition was tied to worship of the gods, the revival of the ancient games was intended to bring peace, harmony and a return to the origins of Greek life.
Since these myths were documented by historians like Pausanias, who lived during the reign of Marcus Aurelius in the AD 160, it is that these stories are more fable than fact. It
Michel Onfray is a contemporary French writer and philosopher who writes in favour of a hedonistic and atheist world view. He is a prolific author on philosophy, having written more than 100 books, he has gained notoriety for writing such works as Traité d'athéologie: Physique de la métaphysique, Politique du rebelle: traité de résistance et d'insoumission, Physiologie de Georges Palante, portrait d'un nietzchéen de gauche, La puissance d'exister and La sculpture de soi for which he won the annual Prix Médicis in 1993. His philosophy is influenced by such thinkers as Nietzsche, the cynic and cyrenaic schools, French materialism. Born in Argentan to a family of Norman farmers, Onfray was sent to a weekly Catholic boarding school from ages 10 to 14; this was a solution many parents in France adopted at the time when they lived far from the village school or had working hours that made it too hard or too expensive to transport their children to and from school daily. The young Onfray, did not appreciate his new environment, which he describes as a place of suffering.
Onfray went on to graduate with a teaching degree in philosophy. He taught this subject to senior students at a high school that concentrates on technical degrees in Caen between 1983 and 2002. At that time, he and his supporters established the Université populaire de Caen, proclaiming its foundation on a free-of-charge basis and on the manifesto written by Onfray in 2004. Onfray is an atheist and author of Traité d'Athéologie, which "became the number one best-selling nonfiction book in France for months when it was published in the Spring of 2005; this book repeated its popular French success in Italy, where it was published in September 2005 and soared to number one on Italy's bestseller lists."In the 2002 election, Onfray endorsed the French Revolutionary Communist League and its candidate for the French presidency, Olivier Besancenot. In 2007, he endorsed José Bové, but voted for Olivier Besancenot, conducted an interview with the future French president Nicolas Sarkozy, who, he declared for Philosophie Magazine, was an "ideological enemy".
His book Le crépuscule d'une idole: L'affabulation freudienne, published in 2010, has been the subject of considerable controversy in France because of its criticism of Freud. He recognizes Freud as a philosopher, but he brings attention to the considerable cost of Freud's treatments and casts doubts on the effectiveness of his methods. In 2015, he published the first book of a trilogy. Onfray considers that it constitutes his "very first book". Onfray writes, he considers theist religion to be indefensible. Onfray has published 9 books under a project of history of philosophy called Counter-history of Philosophy. In each of these books Onfray deals with a particular historical period in western philosophy; the series of books are composed by the titles I. Les Sagesses Antiques, II. Le Christianisme hédoniste, III. Les libertins baroques, IV. Les Ultras des Lumières, V. L'Eudémonisme social, VI. Les Radicalités existentielles and VII. La construction du surhomme: Jean-Marie Guyau, Friedrich Nietzsche.
VIII Les Freudiens hérétiques. IX Les Consciences réfractaires. In an interview he establishes his view on the history of philosophy. For him: There is in fact a multitude of ways to practice philosophy, but out of this multitude, the dominant historiography picks one tradition among others and makes it the truth of philosophy:, to say the idealist, spiritualist lineage compatible with the Judeo-Christian world view. From that point on, anything that crosses this partial – in both senses of the word – view of things finds itself dismissed; this applies to nearly all non-Western philosophies, Oriental wisdom in particular, but sensualist, materialist, hedonistic currents and everything that can be put under the heading of "anti-Platonic philosophy". Philosophy that comes down from the heavens is the kind that – from Plato to Levinas by way of Kant and Christianity – needs a world behind the scenes to understand and justify this world; the other line of force rises from the earth because it is satisfied with the given world, so much.
"His mission is to rehabilitate materialist and sensualist thinking and use it to re-examine our relationship to the world. Approaching philosophy as a reflection of each individual's personal experience, Onfray inquires into the capabilities of the body and its senses and calls on us to celebrate them through music and fine cuisine." He defines hedonism "as an introspective attitude to life based on taking pleasure yourself and pleasuring others, without harming yourself or anyone else." "Onfray's philosophical project is to define an ethical hedonism, a joyous utilitarianism, a generalized aesthetic of sensual materialism that explores how to use the brain's and the body's capacities to their fullest extent – while restoring philosophy to a useful role in art and everyday life and decisions."Onf
Hegesias of Cyrene
Hegesias of Cyrene was a Cyrenaic philosopher, the Cyrenaics forming one of the earliest Socratic schools of philosophy. He argued that happiness is impossible to achieve, that the goal of life was the avoidance of pain and sorrow. Conventional values such as wealth, poverty and slavery are all indifferent and produce no more pleasure than pain. Cicero claims that Hegesias wrote a book called Death by Starvation, which persuaded so many people that death is more desirable than life that Hegesias was banned from teaching in Alexandria, it has been thought by some. Diogenes Laërtius describes Hegesias as the pupil of Paraebates, a pupil of Epitimedes, a pupil of Antipater of Cyrene, a pupil of Aristippus, he was the fellow-student of Anniceris, but he differed from Anniceris by presenting the system which Anniceris softened and improved in its most nihilistic form. Hegesias followed Aristippus in considering pleasure as the goal of life. Happiness, he said, could not be the goal of life, because it is not attainable, therefore concluded that the wise person's only goal should be to become free from pain and sorrow.
Since, every person is self-sufficient, all external goods were rejected as not being true sources of pleasure. Complete happiness cannot exist. Moreover, that both life and death are desirable, they say that there is nothing pleasant or unpleasant, but that owing to want, or rarity, or satiety, some people are pleased and some vexed. In the same way they say that slavery and freedom are things indifferent, if measured by the standard of pleasure, nobility and baseness of birth, glory and infamy, they add that, for the foolish person it is expedient to live, but to the wise person it is a matter of indifference. Hence the sage ought to regard nothing but himself; the wise person would not be so much absorbed in the pursuit of what is good, as in the attempt to avoid what is bad, considering the chief good to be living free from all trouble and pain: and that this end was attained best by those who looked upon the efficient causes of pleasure as indifferent. None of this, however, is as strong as the testimony of Cicero, who claims that Hegesias wrote a book called Death by Starvation, in which a man who has resolved to starve himself is introduced as representing to his friends that death is more to be desired than life, that the gloomy descriptions of human misery which this work contained were so overpowering that they inspired many people to kill themselves, in consequence of which the author received the surname of Death-persuader.
This book was published at Alexandria, where he was, in consequence, forbidden to teach by king Ptolemy II Philadelphus. The philosophy of the Cyrenaics around the time of Hegesias of Cyrene evolved in a way that has similarities with Skepticism and Buddhism; the rulers of Cyrene around the time Hegesias flourished were Ophellas and Magas, as governors of the Ptolemaic king of Egypt Ptolemy II Philadelphus, from 276 BC Magas as independent king. Both Ptolemy and Magas are claimed to have been recipients of Buddhist missionaries from the Indian king Ashoka according to the latter's Edicts. Ashoka claimed in his rock edicts No13: Now it is conquest by Dhamma that Beloved-of-the-Gods considers to be the best conquest, and it has been won here, on the borders six hundred yojanas away, where the Greek king Antiochos rules, beyond there where the four kings named Ptolemy, Antigonos and Alexander rule in the south among the Cholas, the Pandyas, as far as Tamraparni. Here in the king's domain among the Greeks, the Kambojas, the Nabhakas, the Nabhapamktis, the Bhojas, the Pitinikas, the Andhras and the Palidas, everywhere people are following Beloved-of-the-Gods' instructions in Dhamma.
Where Beloved-of-the-Gods' envoys have not been, these people too, having heard of the practice of Dhamma and the ordinances and instructions in Dhamma given by Beloved-of-the-Gods, are following it and will continue to do so. The philosophy of Hegesias displays striking similarities with the tenets of Buddhism, in particular the Four Noble Truths and the concept of Dukkha or "suffering", it is therefore sometimes thought that Hegesias may have been directly influenced by Buddhist teachings through contacts with the alleged missionaries sent to his rulers in the 3rd century BC. Existential nihilism Negative utilitarianism Pessimism Dorandi, Tiziano. "Chapter 2: Chronology". In Algra, Keimpe; the Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. 47. ISBN 9780521250283. Laërtius, Diogenes. "Socrates, with predecessors and followers: Hegesias". Lives of the Eminent Philosophers. 1:2. Transla
Utilitarianism is a family of consequentialist ethical theories. Although different varieties of utilitarianism admit different characterizations, the basic idea behind all of them is to in some sense maximize utility, defined in terms of well-being or related concepts. For instance, Jeremy Bentham, the founder of utilitarianism, described utility as that property in any object, whereby it tends to produce benefit, pleasure, good, or happiness... to prevent the happening of mischief, evil, or unhappiness to the party whose interest is considered. Utilitarianism is a version of consequentialism, which states that the consequences of any action are the only standard of right and wrong. Unlike other forms of consequentialism, such as egoism and altruism, utilitarianism considers the interests of all beings equally. Proponents of utilitarianism have disagreed on a number of points, such as whether actions should be chosen based on their results or whether agents should conform to rules that maximize utility.
There is disagreement as to whether total, average or minimum utility should be maximized. Though the seeds of the theory can be found in the hedonists Aristippus and Epicurus, who viewed happiness as the only good, the tradition of utilitarianism properly began with Bentham, has included John Stuart Mill, Henry Sidgwick, R. M. Hare, David Braybrooke, Peter Singer, it has been applied to social welfare economics, the crisis of global poverty, the ethics of raising animals for food and the importance of avoiding existential risks to humanity. Benthamism, the utilitarian philosophy founded by Jeremy Bentham, was modified by his successor John Stuart Mill, who popularized the word'Utilitarianism'. In 1861, Mill acknowledged in a footnote that, though "believing himself to be the first person who brought the word'utilitarian' into use, he did not invent it. Rather, he adopted it from a passing expression in" John Galt's 1821 novel Annals of the Parish. Mill seems to have been unaware that Bentham had used the term'utilitarian' in his 1781 letter to George Wilson and his 1802 letter to Étienne Dumont.
The importance of happiness as an end for humans has long been recognized. Forms of hedonism were put forward by Epicurus. Happiness was explored in depth by Aquinas. Different varieties of consequentialism existed in the ancient and medieval world, like the state consequentialism of Mohism or the political philosophy of Niccolò Machiavelli. Mohist consequentialism advocated communitarian moral goods including political stability, population growth, wealth, but did not support the utilitarian notion of maximizing individual happiness. Utilitarianism as a distinct ethical position only emerged in the eighteenth century. Although utilitarianism is thought to start with Jeremy Bentham, there were earlier writers who presented theories that were strikingly similar. In An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals, David Hume writes: In all determinations of morality, this circumstance of public utility is principally in view. If any false opinion, embraced from appearances, has been found to prevail.
Hume studied the works of, corresponded with, Francis Hutcheson, it was he who first introduced a key utilitarian phrase. In An Inquiry into the Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue, Hutcheson says when choosing the most moral action, virtue is in proportion to the number of people a particular action brings happiness to. In the same way, moral evil, or vice, is proportionate to the number of people made to suffer; the best action is the one that procures the greatest happiness of the greatest numbers—and the worst is the one that causes the most misery. In the first three editions of the book, Hutcheson included various mathematical algorithms "...to compute the Morality of any Actions." In this, he pre-figured the hedonic calculus of Bentham. Some claim. In Concerning the Fundamental Principle of Virtue or Morality, Gay argues that: happiness, private happiness, is the proper or ultimate end of all our actions… each particular action may be said to have its proper and peculiar end……, they still ought to tend to something farther.
To ask why I pursue happiness, will admit of no other answer than an explanation of the terms. This pursuit of happiness is given a theological basis: Now it is evident from the nature of God, viz. his being infinitely happy in himself from all eternity, from his goodness manifested in his works, that he could have no other design in creating mankind than their happiness.
Pleasure is a broad class of mental states that humans and other animals experience as positive, enjoyable, or worth seeking. It includes more specific mental states such as happiness, enjoyment and euphoria; the early psychological concept of pleasure, the pleasure principle, describes it as a positive feedback mechanism that motivates the organism to recreate the situation it has just found pleasurable, to avoid past situations that caused pain. The experience of pleasure is subjective and different individuals experience different kinds and amounts of pleasure in the same situation. Many pleasurable experiences are associated with satisfying basic biological drives, such as eating, hygiene and sex; the appreciation of cultural artifacts and activities such as art, music and literature is pleasurable. Based upon the incentive salience model of reward – the attractive and motivational property of a stimulus that induces approach behavior and consummatory behavior – an intrinsic reward has two components: a "wanting" or desire component, reflected in approach behavior, a "liking" or pleasure component, reflected in consummatory behavior.
While all pleasurable stimuli are rewards, some rewards do not evoke pleasure. Pleasure is a component of reward. Stimuli that are pleasurable, therefore attractive, are known as intrinsic rewards, whereas stimuli that are attractive and motivate approach behavior, but are not inherently pleasurable, are termed extrinsic rewards. Extrinsic rewards are rewarding as a result of a learned association with an intrinsic reward. In other words, extrinsic rewards function as motivational magnets that elicit "wanting", but not "liking" reactions once they have been acquired; the reward system contains pleasure centers or hedonic hotspots – i.e. brain structures that mediate pleasure or "liking" reactions from intrinsic rewards. As of October 2017, hedonic hotspots have been identified in subcompartments within the nucleus accumbens shell, ventral pallidum, parabrachial nucleus, orbitofrontal cortex, insular cortex; the hotspot within the nucleus accumbens shell is located in the rostrodorsal quadrant of the medial shell, while the hedonic coldspot is located in a more posterior region.
The posterior ventral pallidum contains a hedonic hotspot, while the anterior ventral pallidum contains a hedonic coldspot. Microinjections of opioids and orexin are capable of enhancing liking in these hotspots; the hedonic hotspots located in the anterior OFC and posterior insula have been demonstrated to respond to orexin and opioids, as has the overlapping hedonic coldspot in the anterior insula and posterior OFC. On the other hand, the parabrachial nucleus hotspot has only been demonstrated to respond to benzodiazepine receptor agonists. Hedonic hotspots are functionally linked, in that activation of one hotspot results in the recruitment of the others, as indexed by the induced expression of c-Fos, an immediate early gene. Furthermore, inhibition of one hotspot results in the blunting of the effects of activating another hotspot. Therefore, the simultaneous activation of every hedonic hotspot within the reward system is believed to be necessary for generating the sensation of an intense euphoria.
Pleasure is considered one of the core dimensions of emotion. It can be described as the positive evaluation that forms the basis for several more elaborate evaluations such as "agreeable" or "nice"; as such, pleasure is an affect and not an emotion, as it forms one component of several different emotions. Pleasure is sometimes subdivided into fundamental pleasures that are related to survival and higher-order pleasures; the clinical condition of being unable to experience pleasure from enjoyable activities is called anhedonia. An active aversion to obtaining pleasure is called hedonophobia. Pleasure is regarded as a bipolar construct, meaning that the two ends of the spectrum from pleasant to unpleasant are mutually exclusive; this view is e.g. inherent in the circumplex model of affect. Yet, some lines of research suggest that people do experience pleasant and unpleasant feelings at the same time, giving rise to so-called mixed feelings; the degree to which something or someone is experienced as pleasurable not only depends on its objective attributes, but on beliefs about its history, about the circumstances of its creation, about its rarity, fame, or price, on other non-intrinsic attributes, such as the social status or identity it conveys.
For example, a sweater, worn by a celebrity is more desired than an otherwise identical sweater that has not, though less so if it has been washed. Another example was when Grammy-winning, internationally acclaimed violinist Joshua Bell played in the Washington D. C. subway for 43 minutes, attracting little attention from the 1,097 people who passed by, earning about $59 in tips. Paul Bloom describes these phenomena as arising from a form of essentialism. Epicurus and his followers defined the highest pleasure as the absence of suffering and pleasure itself as "freedom from pain in the body and freedom from turmoil in the soul". According to Cicero Epicurus believed that pleasure was the chief good and pain the chief evil. In the 12th century Razi's "Treatise of the Self and the Spirit" analyzed different types of pleasure and intellectual, explained their relations with one another, he concludes that human needs and desires are endless, "their