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The Arithmometer or Arithmomètre was the first digital mechanical calculator strong enough and reliable enough to be used daily in an office environment. This calculator could add and subtract two numbers directly and could perform long multiplications and divisions by using a movable accumulator for the result. Patented in France by Thomas de Colmar in 1820 and manufactured from 1851 to 1915, it became the first commercially successful mechanical calculator, its sturdy design gave it a strong reputation for reliability and accuracy and made it a key player in the move from human computers to calculating machines that took place during the second half of the 19th century. Its production debut of 1851 launched the mechanical calculator industry which built millions of machines well into the 1970s. For forty years, from 1851 to 1890, the arithmometer was the only type of mechanical calculator in commercial production, it was sold all over the world. During the part of that period two companies started manufacturing clones of the arithmometer: Burkhardt, from Germany, which started in 1878, Layton of the UK, which started in 1883.

About twenty European companies built clones of the arithmometer until the beginning of World War I. The arithmometers of this period were four-operation machines, it was a complicated design and few machines were built. Additionally, no machines were built between 1822 and 1844; this hiatus of 22 years coincides exactly with the period of time during which the British government financed the design of Charles Babbage's difference engine, which on paper was far more sophisticated than the arithmometer, but wasn’t finished at this time. In 1844 Thomas reintroduced his machine at the Exposition des Produits de l'Industrie Française in the newly created category of Miscellaneous measuring tools and calculating machines but only received an honorable mention, he restarted the development of the machine in 1848. In 1850, as part of a marketing effort, Thomas built a few machines with exquisite Boulle marquetry boxes that he gave to the crown heads of Europe, he filed two patents and two patents of addition in between 1849 and 1851.

The multiplier was removed, making the arithmometer a simple adding machine, but thanks to its moving carriage used as an indexed accumulator, it still allowed for easy multiplication and division under operator control. It was introduced in the UK at The Great Exhibition of 1851 and true industrial production started in 1851; each machine was given a serial number and user manuals were printed. At first, Thomas differentiated machines by capacity and therefore gave the same serial number to machines of different capacities; this was corrected in 1863 and each machine was given its own unique serial number starting with a serial number of 500. The constant use of some of the machines exposed some minor design flaws like a weak carry mechanism, given an adequate fix in 1856, an over rotation of the Leibniz cylinders when the crank handle is turned too fast, corrected by the addition of a Maltese cross. A patent covering all these innovations was filed in 1865; because of its reliability and accuracy, government offices, banks and businesses all over the world started using the arithmometer in their day-to-day operations.

Around 1872, for the first time in calculating machine history, the total number of machines manufactured passed the 1,000 mark. In 1880, twenty years before the competition, a mechanism to move the carriage automatically was patented and installed on some machines, but was not integrated into the production models. Under the management of Louis Payen, his widow, many improvements were introduced, such as an incline mechanism, a removable top and result windows that were easier to read, a faster re-zeroing mechanism. Many clone makers appeared during that period in Germany and the United Kingdom. Twenty independent companies manufactured clones of the arithmometer. All these companies were sold their machines worldwide; the fundamental design stayed the same. While in 1890, the arithmometer was still the most produced mechanical calculator in the world, ten years by 1900, four machines, the comptometer and Burroughs' adding machine in the USA, Odhner's Arithmometer in Russia, Brunsviga in Germany had passed it in volume of machines manufactured.

Production of the arithmometer stopped in 1915, during World War I. Alphonse Darras, who had bought the business in 1915, was unable to restart its manufacturing after the war because of the many shortages and a lack of qualified workers; because it was the first mass-marketed and the first copied calculator, its design marks the starting point of the mechanical calculator industry, which evolved into the electronic calculator industry and which, through the accidental design of the first microprocessor to be commercialized, the Intel 4004, for one of Busicom's calculators in 1971, led to the first commercially available personal computer, the Altair in 1975. Its user interface was used throughout during the 120 years that the mechanical calculator industry lasted. First with its clones and with the Odhner arithmometer and its clones, a redesign of the arithmometer with a pinwheel system but with the same user interface. Over the years, the term arithmometer or parts of it have been used on many different machines like Odhner's arithmometer, the Arithmaurel or the Comptometer, on some portable pocket calcu

2018–19 División de Honor de Rugby

The 2018–19 División de Honor was the 65th season of the top flight of the Spanish domestic rugby union competition since its inception in 1970. The championship playoffs began in May finishing with the Final on 28 May. Valladolid won its third consecutive title, its ninth overall, after defeating local arch-rivals SilverStorm El Salvador in the Final; the División de Honor season takes place between September and March, with every team playing each other home and away for a total of 22 matches. Points are awarded according to the following: 4 points for a win 2 points for a draw 1 bonus point is awarded to a team scoring 4 tries or more in a match 1 bonus point is awarded to a team that loses a match by 7 points or fewerThe six teams with the highest number of points at the end of 22 rounds of matches play the championship playoffs; the top two teams win a semifinal birth automatically, while the next four teams play off to take the remaining two spots. The club which finishes bottom is relegated, while the club that finishes 11th goes into a playoff with a team from División de Honor B.

The bottom team in the standings is relegated to División de Honor B, while the team finishing 11th play the relegation playoff. The top team from División de Honor B is promoted to División de Honor; the relegation playoff was played over two legs by La Vila, the team finishing 11th in División de Honor, Santander, the losing team from División de Honor B promotion playoff final. Santander won 57–53 on aggregate and gained promotion to the División de Honor for the 2019–20 season. Official site

List of Boston College people

Stemming from its nickname as "The Heights," persons affiliated with Boston College have been referred to as Heightsmen, Heightswomen and Eagles, the latter in reference to the University's mascot, the Eagle. The following is a partial list of notable alumni and faculty. Gretchen Andrew, 2010, painter and search engine artist Robert Ambrose, 1990, professional conductor. D. 1994, writer Brendan Galvin, 1960, 76 poet, 2005 National Book Award finalist George V. Higgins, 1961, J. D. 1967, novelist Mary Elizabeth Hirsh, novelist Joseph McLellan, 1951, M. A. 1953, music critic, The Washington Post Brian Murphy, nonfiction writer, essayist David Plante, 1961, novelist Maurice Sagoff, poet Mary Sherman and curator Elliot Silverstein, 1949, director. D. 1969, CEO, NexMed Wayne Budd, 1963, executive vice president, John Hancock Financial Services Kathleen Corbet, 1982, CEO, fixed income division, Alliance Capital Management Joseph Donahue, S. B. 1978, president, Microtech Stephen L. Green, J. D. 1962, founder of S.

L. Green Realty Charlie Jacobs, Boston Bruins, Delaware North Companies Christopher George Kennedy, 1986, President of Merchandise Mart Properties, Inc. a subsidiary of Vornado Realty Trust, son of Robert F. Kennedy Ronald Logue, S. B. 1967, M. B. A. 1974, Chairman and former CEO, State Street Corporation David H. Long, CEO of Liberty Mutual Group Peter Lynch, 1965, mutual fund manager for Fidelity John Mara, 1976, president, CEO, co-owner, New York Giants Harry Markopolos, 1997, Bernard Madoff whistleblower to SEC Denise Morrison, 1975, President and CEO, Campbell Soup Company James Moses, 1979, Elderhostel Denis O'Brien, MBA 1982, Digicel Ferit Sahenk, 1989, head of Turkey's Dogus Holding conglomerate Philip W. Schiller, B. S. 1982, vice president of Apple Computer Bill Simon, J. D. 1982, businessman and former gubernatorial candidate in California Patrick Stokes, 1964, Anheuser-Busch Richard Syron, 1966, president and CEO, Thermo Electron Corporation. A. 1972, Ph. D. 1976, Russian history specialist at Texas A&M University Francis Kilcoyne, President of Brooklyn College Paul J. LeBlanc, Southern New Hampshire University.

D. 1999, University of Massachusetts Boston. House of Representatives Peter Blute

Jean Drèze

Jean Drèze is a Belgian-born Indian economist, social scientist and activist. He has worked on several developmental issues facing India like hunger, gender inequality, his co-authors include Nobel laureate in economics Amartya Sen, with whom he has written on famine, Nicholas Stern, with whom he has written on policy reform when market prices are distorted, Nobel laureate in economics Angus Deaton. He is an honorary Professor at the Delhi School of Economics, Visiting Professor at the Department of Economics, Ranchi University, he was a member of the National Advisory Council of India in both first and second term, but only for a year each time. He excused himself after the first year both times. Jean Drèze is from a prominent Belgian academic family, his father is the economist Jacques Drèze, founder of the Center for Operations Research and Econometrics, at the Université catholique de Louvain. His brother, Xavier Drèze, is consumer research scholar, he studied Mathematical Economics at the University of Essex in the 1980s and did his PhD at the Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi.

He has lived in India since 1979 and became an Indian citizen in 2002. He was based in Allahabad, he lives in Ranchi. Jean Drèze taught at the London School of Economics in the 1980s, his only full-time post, at the Delhi School of Economics, had been Visiting Professor at the G. B. Pant Social Science Institute, Allahabad. Presently, he is an Honorary Chair Professor of the "Planning and Development Unit" created by the Planning Commission, Government of India, in the Department of Economics, University of Allahabad, India, he has made wide-ranging contributions to development economics and public economics, with special reference to India. He has worked on many issues relating to development economics including hunger, education, gender inequality, school feeding, employment guarantee etc, his works combine standard economic methods and tools that are used more by anthropologists. The combination of extensive field work and qualitative analysis of everyday life and poverty, along with quantitative work makes his work distinctive in the field of economics.

He uniquely brings to the table his extensive fieldwork—few economists live as much in the country's villages—combined with outstanding analytical skills. It is not coincidence that Amartya Sen coauthored on a number of major publications on India, given his unique contacts with the grassroots and has remarked that the "agreeable thing" about working with Dreze is that "he does most of the work and I get most of the credit". A key work cited that Dreze worked on as part of a small team was the primary education study of key states in northern India referred to by its short name, The PROBE Report, or The Public Report on Basic Education, it remains a key reference due to the lack of comprehensive studies using grassroots development specialists. Dreze is well known for his commitment in India and internationally. During and after his PhD in India, he adopted a lifestyle of voluntary simplicity. While in the LSE, he slept rough and lived with homeless squatters, helping to start a squatters movement in 1988 that opened buildings to the homeless and defied eviction.

He wrote a short book about this movement and the life of the homeless in London, called No. 1 Clapham Road: the diary of a squat. Dreze is known for refusing luxury and, while doing fieldwork, still lives and works in the same conditions as his respondents. In Delhi he and his wife Bela Bhatia had a one-room house in a jhuggi. Apart from academic work he has been involved in many social movements including the peace movement, the Right to Information campaign that led to the Right to Information Act in India, the Right to Food campaign in India, among others. During the 1990–1991 Iraq War, he joined a peace camp stationed on the Iraq-Kuwait border, his 1992 article with Haris Gazdar, "Hunger and Poverty in Iraq, 1991", was one of the first assessments of Iraq's economy after the Gulf war, an early warning about the potential human costs of the Iraq sanctions. Another book that came out of Iraq is War and Peace in the Gulf, edited by Bela Bhatia, Jean Dreze and Kathy Kelly. Books Drèze J. and Sen, A.

K. 1989. Hunger and Public Action. Oxford University Press. 1990. No.1 Clapham Road: The diary of a squat. Peaceprint. Drèze J. and Sen, A.. 1991. The Political Economy of Hunger. Three volumes. Oxford University Press. Ahmad E, Drèze J, Hills J, Sen A K 1991. Social Security in Developing Countries. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Drèze J. and Sen, A. 1995. The political Economy of Hunger: selected essays. Clarendon Press. Drèze J. and Sen, A. K. 1995. India: Economic Development and Social Opportunity. Oxford University Press. Dreze and Amartya Sen, 1997. Indian Development: Selected Regional Perspectives. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Drèze J. M. Samson and S. Singh. 1997. The Dam and the Nation: Displacement and Resettlement in the Narmada Valley. Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-564004-7. A. De and J Drèze. 1999. Public Report on Basic Education in India; the PROBE report. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195648706 Drè

Robert Hobart, 4th Earl of Buckinghamshire

Robert Hobart, 4th Earl of Buckinghamshire, styled Lord Hobart from 1793 to 1804, was a British Tory politician. Buckinghamshire was born at Hampden House, the son of George Hobart, 3rd Earl of Buckinghamshire and Albinia, daughter of Lord Vere Bertie, younger son of Robert Bertie, 1st Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven, he was educated at Westminster School and served in the American Revolutionary War. Buckinghamshire was a Member of Parliament in the Irish House of Commons for Portarlington from 1784 to 1790 and thereafter for Armagh Borough from 1790 to 1797, he sat in the British House of Commons for the rotten borough of Bramber in 1788, a seat he held until 1790, for Lincoln from 1790 to 1796. He acted as aide-de-camp to successive Lord Lieutenants of Ireland from 1784 onwards, from 1789 to 1793 he was chief secretary to the Lord Lieutenant, exerting his influence in this country to prevent any concessions to Roman Catholics. In 1793 he was invested a member of the Privy Council, appointed Governor of Madras.

In 1798 he was recalled to England by the President of the Board of Control responsible for Indian affairs, Henry Dundas and summoned to the House of Lords through a writ of acceleration in his father's junior title of Baron Hobart. In the Lords he favoured the union between Ireland, he served as Secretary of State for War and the Colonies from 1801 to 1804 when it was said he had "a better grasp of the local or colonial conditions, a more active spirit than did some of his successors." He was Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster in 1805 and again in 1812, Postmaster General from 1806 to 1807 and President of the Board of Control, a post for which his time in India suited him, from 1812 to 1816. Hobart, the capital of Tasmania, is named after Lord Buckinghamshire. Lord Buckinghamshire married firstly Margaretta, daughter of Edmund Bourke, in 1792, they had one son and a daughter, Lady Sarah, who married Prime Minister Lord Goderich and was the mother of George Robinson, 1st Marquess of Ripon.

After Margaretta's death in 1796 he married secondly the Hon. Eleanor Agnes, daughter of William Eden, 1st Baron Auckland, in 1799. There were no children from this marriage. Lord Buckinghamshire died in February 1816 after a fall from his horse, he was succeeded in the earldom by George. Lady Buckinghamshire died in October 1851, aged 74. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl of Buckinghamshire

Jun Xia (architect)

Jun Xia is a Chinese architect who has worked in the United States and China. Xia was Regional Design Director of the Gensler architecture firm. Xia was born in China, he attended Tongji University from. He earned a master's degree in architecture from the University of Colorado Denver. Art Gensler, founder of Gensler, credited Xia as "designer of the building". Xia was credited as having "helped the firm score the Shanghai Tower contract and led the team’s work on it", as "the design principal for Gensler on the project."Two years before the state owned Shanghai Chengtou Group, the leading party of the joint venture developer owning the Shanghai Tower was assigned by the Shanghai Government to develop this tallest Chinese giant, Jun had completed at least one round of full concept scheme design for an anonymous developer, as an land acquisition scheme for this parcel, planned for the tallest building in China. Although not released to public, this scheme was related to the form of the Shanghai Tower today, in the similarity of a twisting shape.

It is not the exterior geometry of the building, but the interior space of the Shanghai Tower that distinguish it from other super high rises. The signature atriums in the sky are “community spaces” in the sky, a translation of the traditional narrow lanes in Shanghai urban setting, where Jun grew up as a native Shanghainese. Jun said “the concept comes from my childhood memory in Shanghai”Designing the Shanghai Tower, Jun always said "not to be the tallest, but be the best"