Arizona Cardinals

The Arizona Cardinals are a professional American football franchise based in Phoenix, Arizona. They compete in the National Football League as a member club of the National Football Conference West division; the Cardinals were founded as the Morgan Athletic Club in 1898, are the oldest continuously run professional football team in the United States. The Cardinals play their home games at State Farm Stadium, which opened in 2006 and is located in the northwestern suburb of Glendale; the team was established in Chicago in 1898 as an amateur football team and joined the NFL as a charter member on September 17, 1920. Along with the Chicago Bears, the club is one of two NFL charter member franchises still in operation since the league's founding; the club moved to St. Louis in 1960 and played in that city through 1987. Before the 1988 season, the team moved west to Tempe, Arizona, a college suburb east of Phoenix, played their home games for the next 18 seasons at Sun Devil Stadium on the campus of Arizona State University.

In 2006, the club moved to their current home field in Glendale, although the team's executive offices and training facility remain in Tempe. The franchise has won two NFL championships, both; the first occurred in 1925, but is the subject of controversy, with supporters of the Pottsville Maroons believing that Pottsville should have won the title. Their second title, the first to be won in a championship game, came in 1947, nearly two decades before the first Super Bowl, they returned to the title game to defend in 1948, but lost the rematch 7–0 in a snowstorm in Philadelphia. Since winning the championship in 1947, the team suffered many losing seasons, holds the longest active championship drought of North American sports at 72 consecutive seasons. In 2012 the Cardinals became the first NFL franchise to lose 700 games since its inception; the franchise's all-time win-loss record at the conclusion of the 2019 season is 565–772–41. They have been to the playoffs ten times and have won seven playoff games, three of which were victories during their run in the 2008–09 NFL playoffs.

During that season, they won their only NFC Championship Game since the 1970 AFL–NFL merger, reached Super Bowl XLIII. The team has won five division titles since their 1947–48 NFL championship game appearances; the Cardinals are the only NFL team who have never lost a playoff game at home, with a 5–0 record: the 1947 NFL Championship Game, two postseason victories during the aforementioned 2008–09 NFL playoffs, one during the 2009–10 playoffs, one during the 2015–16 playoffs. From 1988 to 2012, the Cardinals conducted their annual summer training camp at Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff; the Cardinals moved their training camp to State Farm Stadium in 2013. The stadium was the site of the 2015 Pro Bowl, unlike in past years, where it was held at Aloha Stadium in Honolulu, Hawaii; the stadium played host to Super Bowls XLII and XLIX, will host Super Bowl LVII in 2023. The franchise's inception dates back to 1898, when a neighborhood group gathered to play in the Chicago South Side, calling themselves Morgan Athletic Club.

Chicago painting and building contractor Chris O'Brien acquired the team, which he relocated to Normal Field on Racine Avenue. The team was known as Racine Normals until 1901, when O'Brien bought used jerseys from the University of Chicago, he described the faded maroon clothing as "Cardinal red" and the team became the Racine Street Cardinals. The team became in 1920 a charter member of the American Professional Football Association, which two years was rechristened to National Football League; the team entered the league as the Racine Cardinals, however the name was changed in 1922 to Chicago Cardinals to avoid confusion with the Horlick-Racine Legion, who entered the league the same year. Except for 1925, when they were awarded the championship after the Pottsville Maroons were suspended, the Cardinals experienced only minimal success on the playing field during their first 26 seasons in the league. During the post-World War II years, the team reached two straight NFL finals against the Philadelphia Eagles, winning in 1947 – eight months after Charles Bidwill's death – and losing the following year.

After years of bad seasons and losing fans to the cross-town rivals Chicago Bears, by the late 1950s the Cardinals were bankrupt, owner Violet Bidwill Wolfner became interested in a relocation. Due to the formation of the rival American Football League, the NFL allowed Bidwill to relocate the team to St. Louis, where they became the St. Louis Cardinals. During the Cardinals' 28-year stay in St. Louis, they advanced to the playoffs just three times, never hosting or winning in any appearance; the overall mediocrity of the Cardinals, combined with a then-21-year-old stadium, caused game attendance to dwindle, owner Bill Bidwill decided to move the team to Arizona. Not long after the 1987 NFL season, Bidwill agreed to move to Arizona on a handshake deal with state and local officials, the team became the Phoenix Cardinals; the franchise chan

NFL on television in the 1950s

The NFL, along with boxing and professional wrestling, was a pioneer of sports broadcasting during a time when baseball and college football were more popular than professional football. Due to the NFL understanding television at an earlier time, they were able to surpass Major League Baseball in the 1960s as the most popular sport in the United States. NBC's coverage of the National Football League goes back to the beginnings of the network's relationship with the league in 1939, when its New York City flagship station known as W2XBS aired the first televised professional football game between the Philadelphia Eagles and the now-defunct Brooklyn Dodgers football team. Before this, in 1934, NBC Radio's Blue Network had carried the Detroit Lions' inaugural Thanksgiving game nationwide. Regular broadcasts of games began after World War II and the first NFL championship to be televised was the 1948 match between the Eagles and Cardinals. In 1950, the Los Angeles Rams and the Washington Redskins became the first NFL teams to have all of their games—home and away—televised.

In the same year, other teams made deals to have selected games telecast. The DuMont Network paid a rights fee of US$75,000 to broadcast the 1951 NFL Championship Game across the entire nation. Locally and regionally televised games were broadcast as early as 1939, but on December 23, 1951, DuMont televised the first live, coast-to-coast professional football game, the NFL Championship Game between the Los Angeles Rams and Cleveland Browns. DuMont paid $75,000 for the rights to broadcast the game. From the 1951 thru the 1964 seasons, the Pro Bowl television rightsholders were the Los Angeles Newspaper Charities, as opposed to the National Football League. Since the 1965 season, the NFL has owned the telecast rights. In 1952, DuMont only aired New York Giants games before moving to a more national scope the following season. During the 1953 and 1954 seasons, DuMont broadcast Saturday night NFL games, it was the first time that National Football League games were televised live, coast-to-coast, in prime time, for the entire season.

This predated Monday Night Football on ABC by 17 years. Several of the games in 1953 and 1954 originated in Pittsburgh, or Washington. In 1953, DuMont televised a Thanksgiving NFL game between the Detroit Lions and the Green Bay Packers. DuMont did not win. DuMont proved to be a less than ideal choice for a national broadcaster; the network had only eighteen primary affiliates in 1954, dwarfed by the 120 available to NBC. Coverage of Canadian football's "Big Four" was more available on NBC than NFL games were in most markets on DuMont. In January 1955, DuMont obtained rights from the Los Angeles Newspaper Charities to cover the Pro Bowl only one week before the game date; as they had trouble lining up affiliates to cover the game on such short notice, the telecast was cancelled. By 1955, the DuMont network was beginning to crumble. For instance, in 1955, NBC replaced DuMont as the network for the NFL Championship Game, paying a rights fee of $100,000. ABC acquired the rights to the Thanksgiving game.

Meanwhile, most teams were left to fend for themselves in terms of TV coverage. DuMont ceased most entertainment programs in early April 1955. DuMont still broadcast some sports events until either August 1956, or Thanksgiving 1957. Prior to the 1956 NFL season, DuMont sold its broadcast rights to CBS. By 1955, NBC became the television home to the NFL Championship Game, the precursor to the Super Bowl, paying US$100,000 to the league for the rights; the network had taken over the broadcast rights from the DuMont Television Network, which had struggled to give the league a national audience and was on the brink of failure. In August 1956, the DuMont Television Network, the NFL's primary television partner, ended network operations after years of decline. DuMont had sold the rights to the NFL Championship to NBC in 1955, when DuMont ended its regular season coverage, CBS acquired the rights. CBS' coverage began on September 1956, before the 1970 AFL -- NFL merger. Prior to 1968, CBS had an assigned crew for each NFL team.

As a result, CBS became the first network to broadcast some NFL regular season games to selected television markets across the country. From 1970 until the end of the 1993 season, when Fox won the broadcast television contract to that particular conference, CBS aired NFL games from the National Football Conference. Since 1975, game coverage has been preceded by pre-game show The NFL Today, which features game previews, extensive analysis and interviews. CBS's first attempts to broadcast the NFL on television were notable for there being no broadcasting contract with the league as a whole. Instead, CBS had to strike de

B├╝ren, Solothurn

Büren is a municipality in the district of Dorneck in the canton of Solothurn in Switzerland. Büren is first mentioned in 1194 as Buoron. In 1317 it was mentioned as Bürron. Büren has an area, as of 2009, of 6.23 square kilometers. Of this area, 2.92 km2 or 46.9% is used for agricultural purposes, while 2.84 km2 or 45.6% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.44 km2 or 7.1 % is settled, 0.02 km2 or 0.3 % is either lakes. Of the built up area and buildings made up 4.7% and transportation infrastructure made up 1.9%. Out of the forested land, 43.3% of the total land area is forested and 2.2% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 14.9% is used for growing crops and 22.8% is pastures, while 9.1% is used for orchards or vine crops. All the water in the municipality is flowing water; the municipality is located at the foot of Schlingenberg mountain. The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Azure a Pear Tree issuant from a Mount of 3 Coupeaux Vert surrounded with three Mullets Or, one and two.

Büren has a population of 1,043. As of 2008, 9.4% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 7.3%. Most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most common and Serbo-Croatian being third. There are 3 people who speak 1 person who speaks Romansh; as of 2008, the gender distribution of the population was 50.2 % female. The population was made up of 53 non-Swiss men. There were 47 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality 326 or about 37.5% were born in Büren and lived there in 2000. There were 67 or 7.7% who were born in the same canton, while 382 or 43.9% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 74 or 8.5% were born outside of Switzerland. In 2008 there were 7 deaths of Swiss citizens. Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens increased by 4 while the foreign population remained the same. There were 1 Swiss woman who emigrated from Switzerland. At the same time, there were 3 non-Swiss men and 2 non-Swiss women who immigrated from another country to Switzerland.

The total Swiss population change in 2008 was a decrease of 14 and the non-Swiss population decreased by 1 people. This represents a population growth rate of -1.6%. The age distribution, as of 2000, in Büren is. Of the adult population, 46 people or 5.3 % of the population are between 24 years old. 265 people or 30.5% are between 25 and 44, 202 people or 23.2% are between 45 and 64. The senior population distribution is 95 people or 10.9% of the population are between 65 and 79 years old and there are 14 people or 1.6% who are over 80. As of 2000, there were 386 people who never married in the municipality. There were 33 individuals who are divorced; as of 2000, there were 328 private households in the municipality, an average of 2.6 persons per household. There were 70 households that consist of 26 households with five or more people. Out of a total of 331 households that answered this question, 21.1% were households made up of just one person and there were 3 adults who lived with their parents.

Of the rest of the households, there are 101 married couples without children, 130 married couples with children There were 17 single parents with a child or children. There were 7 households that were made up of unrelated people and 3 households that were made up of some sort of institution or another collective housing. In 2000 there were 205 single family homes out of a total of 272 inhabited buildings. There were 25 multi-family buildings, along with 33 multi-purpose buildings that were used for housing and 9 other use buildings that had some housing. Of the single family homes 41 were built before 1919, while 55 were built between 1990 and 2000; the greatest number of single family homes were built between 1981 and 1990. In 2000 there were 388 apartments in the municipality; the most common apartment size was 4 rooms of which there were 123. There were 173 apartments with five or more rooms. Of these apartments, a total of 320 apartments were permanently occupied, while 51 apartments were seasonally occupied and 17 apartments were empty.

As of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 3.2 new units per 1000 residents. The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 2.11%. The historical population is given in the following chart: In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 30.09% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the CVP, the FDP and the SP. In the federal election, a total of 350 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 51.6%. As of 2010, Büren had an unemployment rate of 2.2%. As of 2008, there were 36 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 13 businesses involved in this sector. 8 people were employed in the secondary sector and there were 4 businesses in this sector. 123 people were employed with 22 businesses in this sector. There were 447 residents of the municipalit