Crawford County, Arkansas
Crawford County is a county located in the Ozarks region of the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 61,948, making it the 12th-most populous of Arkansas's 75 counties; the county seat and largest city is Van Buren. Crawford County was formed on October 18, 1820 from the former Lovely County and Indian Territory, was named for William H. Crawford, the United States Secretary of War in 1815. Located within the Ozarks, the southern border of the county is the Arkansas River, placing the extreme southern edge of the county in the Arkansas River Valley; the frontier county became an early crossroads, beginning with a California Gold Rush and developing into the Butterfield Overland Mail, Civil War trails and railroads such as the St. Louis and San Francisco Railway, the Little Rock and Fort Smith Railroad, the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Railway. Today the county is home to the intersection of two major interstate highways, Interstate 40 and I-49. Crawford County is part of the Fort Smith metropolitan area.
As a dry county, alcohol sales are prohibited, though recent changes to county law provide for exemptions. Crawford County is located in the northwest region of Arkansas. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 604 square miles, of which 593 square miles is land and 11 square miles is water. Crawford County is included in an area designated for a planned extension of I-49 into Arkansas; the final project will connect New Orleans, Louisiana, to Kansas City, Missouri, a large trucking corridor, not served by an Interstate highway. The proposed highway would utilize portions of I-49 which runs north from Van Buren toward the Missouri state line passing through Benton County, home of Walmart; the corridor was listed as the number-one high-priority corridor by transportation officials in the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act. Washington County Madison County Franklin County Sebastian County Le Flore County, Oklahoma Sequoyah County, Oklahoma Adair County, Oklahoma Ozark National Forest As of the 2000 census, there were 53,247 people, 19,702 households, 15,150 families residing in the county.
The population density was 35/km². There were 21,315 housing units at an average density of 14/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 92.19% White, 0.87% Black or African American, 2.01% Native American, 1.19% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.48% from other races, 2.24% from two or more races. 3.27% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 19,702 households out of which 37.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.20% were married couples living together, 10.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.10% were non-families. 20.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.07. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.20% under the age of 18, 8.40% from 18 to 24, 29.30% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64, 11.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.70 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,871, the median income for a family was $36,741. Males had a median income of $29,581 versus $20,352 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,015. About 10.90% of families and 14.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.30% of those under age 18 and 13.70% of those age 65 or over. Thousands of self-claimed "Western Band of Cherokee" fought for state and federal recognition as a political entity of Native Americans. Crawford County was part of the Cherokee Nation, which lost its tribal sovereignty status as a result of the U. S. Civil war in the 1860s; the Cherokee Nation was subsequently relocated to the west in the present-day state of Oklahoma. Alma Cedarville Dyer Kibler Mountainburg Mulberry Van Buren Chester Rudy Dora Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times.
However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Crawford County are listed below. List of lakes in Crawford County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Crawford County, Arkansas Crawford County government's website Crawford County Sheriff's Office
The speaker of a deliberative assembly a legislative body, is its presiding officer, or the chair. The title was first used in 1377 in England; the speaker's official role is to moderate debate, make rulings on procedure, announce the results of votes, the like. The speaker decides who may speak and has the powers to discipline members who break the procedures of the chamber or house; the speaker also represents the body in person, as the voice of the body in ceremonial and some other situations. The title was first recorded in 1377 to describe the role of Thomas de Hungerford in the Parliament of England. By convention, speakers are addressed in Parliament as'Mister Speaker', if a man, or'Madam Speaker', if a woman. In other cultures other styles are used being equivalents of English "chairman" or "president". Many bodies have a speaker pro tempore, designated to fill in when the speaker is not available; the Speaker of the House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the Australian House of Representatives, the lower house of the Parliament of Australia.
The President of the Senate is the presiding officer of the Australian Senate, the upper house of the Parliament. In Canada, the Speaker of the House of Commons is the individual elected to preside over the House of Commons, the elected lower house; the speaker is a Member of Parliament and is elected at the beginning of each new parliament by fellow MPs. The Speaker's role in presiding over Canada's House of Commons is similar to that of speakers elsewhere in other countries that use the Westminster system; the Speaker does not vote except in the case of a tie. By convention, if required to vote, the Speaker will vote in favour of continuing debate on a matter, but will not vote for a measure to be approved; the Speaker of the Senate of Canada is the presiding officer of the Senate of Canada, the appointed upper house. The Speaker represents the Senate at official functions, rules on questions of parliamentary procedure and parliamentary privilege, presides over debates and voting in the "Red Chamber".
The Speaker of the Senate is appointed by the Governor General of Canada from amongst sitting senators upon the advice of the Prime Minister. The Speaker has a vote on all matters. In the event of a tie, the matter fails. At the provincial level, the presiding officer of the provincial legislatures is called the "Speaker" in all provinces except Quebec, where the term "President" is used; the presiding officer fulfills the same role as the Speaker of the House of Commons. Parliamentarism in Italy is centered on the Presidents of the two Houses, vested in defense of the members and of the assembly as a whole. Now constitutional community highlights changes in this role. In Singapore, the Speaker of the Parliament of Singapore is the head officer of the country's legislature. By recent tradition, the Prime Minister nominates a person, who may or may not be an elected Member of Parliament, for the role; the person's name is proposed and seconded by the MPs, before being elected as Speaker. The Constitution states.
While the Speaker does not have to be an elected MP, they must possess the qualifications to stand for election as an MP as provided for in the Constitution. The Speaker cannot be a Cabinet Minister or Parliamentary Secretary, must resign from those positions prior to being elected as Speaker; the Speaker is one of the few public sector roles which allow its office-holder to automatically qualify as a candidate in the Singapore presidential elections. The Speaker is the individual elected to preside over the elected House of Commons; the speaker is a Member of Parliament and is elected at the beginning of each new parliament by fellow MPs. The Lord Speaker is the presiding officer of the House of Lords; the used "Speaker of the House of Lords" is not correct. The presiding officer of the House of Lords was until the Lord Chancellor, a member of the government and the head of the judicial branch; the Lord Chancellor did not have the same authority to discipline members of the Lords that the speaker of the Commons has in that house.
The Lord Speaker is elected by the members of the House of Lords and is expected to be politically impartial. Both chambers of the United States Congress have a presiding officer defined by the United States Constitution; the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives presides over the lower house of Congress, the House of Representatives, is elected to that position by the entire House membership. Unlike in Commonwealth realms, the position is partisan, the Speaker plays an important part in running the House and advancing a political platform; the Vice President of the United States, as provided by the United States Constitution formally presides over the upper house, the Senate. In practice, the Vice President has a rare presence in Congress owing to responsibilities in the Executive branch and the fact that the Vice President may only vote to break a tie. In the Vice President's absence, the presiding role is delegated to the most Senior member of the majority party, the President pro tempore of the United States Senate.
Since the Senate's rules give little power to its non-member presider, the task of presiding over daily business is rotated among junior members of the majority party. In the forty-nine states that have a bicameral legislature, the highest leadership position in the
David Fielding is an American politician and a Democratic member of the Arkansas House of Representatives representing District 5 since January 2011. Fielding attended Southern Arkansas University. 2012 Fielding was unopposed for both the May 22, 2012 Democratic Primary and the November 6, 2012 General election. 2010 When District 5 Representative Willie Hardy left the Legislature and left the seat open, Fielding placed first in the three-way May 18, 2010 Democratic Primary with 1,866 votes, won the June 8 runoff election with 1,545 votes, was unopposed for the November 2, 2010 General election. Official page at the Arkansas House of Representatives Profile at Vote Smart David Fielding at Ballotpedia David Fielding at the National Institute on Money in State Politics
Scott County, Arkansas
Scott County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 11,233; the county seat is Waldron. Scott County is Arkansas' 28th county, formed on November 5, 1833, named for Andrew Scott, a justice of the Supreme Court of the Arkansas Territory, it is an dry county. Scott County is represented the Arkansas House of Representatives by the Republicans Marcus Richmond, a businessman from Harvey, Jon Eubanks, a farmer and Certified Public Accountant from Paris. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 898 square miles, of which 892 square miles is land and 5.8 square miles is water. Future Interstate 49 U. S. Highway 71 U. S. Highway 270 Highway 23 Highway 28 Highway 80 Highway 250 Sebastian County Logan County Yell County Montgomery County Polk County Le Flore County, Oklahoma Ouachita National Forest As of the 2000 census, there were 10,996 people, 4,323 households, 3,121 families residing in the county; the population density was 12 people per square mile.
There were 4,924 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93.53% White, 0.23% Black or African American, 1.40% Native American, 0.95% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 2.56% from other races, 1.32% from two or more races. 5.71% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,323 households out of which 32.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.5% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.8% were non-families. 24.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.5% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, 14.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 101.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.6 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $26,412, the median income for a family was $30,311. Males had a median income of $23,118 versus $17,127 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,609. About 15.3% of families and 18.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.2% of those under age 18 and 14.1% of those age 65 or over. As of 2010 Scott County had a population of 11,233; the racial makeup was 85.35% white, 0.47% black, 1.85% Native American, 3.42% Asian, 2.12% Non-Hispanics reporting more than one race and 6.96% Hispanics or Latinos. Mansfield Waldron Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications.
The townships of Scott County are listed below. List of lakes in Scott County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Scott County, Arkansas Scott County, Arkansas entry on the Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture Scott County official website
Little Rock, Arkansas
Little Rock is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Arkansas. It is the county seat of Pulaski County, it was incorporated on November 7, 1831, on the south bank of the Arkansas River close to the state's geographic center. The city derives its name from a rock formation along the river, named the "Little Rock" by the French explorer Jean-Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe in the 1720s; the capital of the Arkansas Territory was moved to Little Rock from Arkansas Post in 1821. The city's population was 198,541 in 2016 according to the United States Census Bureau; the six-county Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR Metropolitan Statistical Area is ranked 78th in terms of population in the United States with 738,344 residents according to the 2017 estimate by the United States Census Bureau. Little Rock is a cultural, economic and transportation center within Arkansas and the South. Several cultural institutions are in Little Rock, such as the Arkansas Arts Center, the Arkansas Repertory Theatre, the Arkansas Symphony Orchestra, in addition to hiking and other outdoor recreational opportunities.
Little Rock's history is available through history museums, historic districts or neighborhoods like the Quapaw Quarter, historic sites such as Little Rock Central High School. The city is the headquarters of Dillard's, Windstream Communications, Stephens Inc. University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Heifer International, the Clinton Foundation, the Rose Law Firm, Arkansas Blue Cross and Blue Shield. Other corporations, such as Dassault Falcon Jet, LM Wind Power, Simmons Bank, Euronet Worldwide, AT&T, Entergy have large operations in the city. State government is a large employer, with many offices downtown. Two major Interstate highways, Interstate 30 and Interstate 40, meet in Little Rock, with the Port of Little Rock serving as a shipping hub. Little Rock derives its name from a small rock formation on the south bank of the Arkansas River called the "Little Rock"; the Little Rock was used by early river traffic as a landmark and became a well-known river crossing. The Little Rock is across the river from The Big Rock, a large bluff at the edge of the river, once used as a rock quarry.
Archeological artifacts provide evidence of Native Americans inhabiting Central Arkansas for thousands of years before Europeans arrived. The early inhabitants may have been the Folsom people, Bluff Dwellers, Mississippian culture peoples who built earthwork mounds recorded in 1541 by Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto. Historical tribes of the area were the Caddo, Osage and Cherokee. Little Rock was named for a stone outcropping on the bank of the Arkansas River used by early travelers as a landmark, it was named in 1722 by French explorer and trader Jean-Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe, marked the transition from the flat Mississippi Delta region to the Ouachita Mountain foothills. Travelers referred to the area as the "Little Rock." Though there was an effort to name the city "Arkopolis" upon its founding in the 1820s, that name did appear on a few maps made by the US Geological Survey, the name Little Rock is what stuck. Little Rock is located at 34°44′10″N 92°19′52″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 116.8 square miles, of which 116.2 square miles is land and 0.6 square miles is water.
Little Rock is located on the south bank of the Arkansas River in Central Arkansas. Fourche Creek and Rock Creek run through the city, flow into the river; the western part of the city is located in the foothills of the Ouachita Mountains. Northwest of the city limits are Pinnacle Mountain and Lake Maumelle, which provides Little Rock's drinking water; the city of North Little Rock is located just across the river from Little Rock, but it is a separate city. North Little Rock was once the 8th ward of Little Rock. An Arkansas Supreme Court decision on February 6, 1904, allowed the ward to merge with the neighboring town of North Little Rock; the merged town renamed itself Argenta, but returned to its original name in October 1917. The 2017 U. S. Census population estimate for the Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR Metropolitan Statistical Area was 738,344; the MSA covers the following counties: Pulaski, Grant, Lonoke and Saline. The largest cities are Little Rock, North Little Rock, Jacksonville, Sherwood, Cabot and Bryant.
Little Rock lies in the humid subtropical climate zone, with hot, humid summers and cool winters, with little snow. It has experienced temperatures as low as −12 °F, recorded on February 12, 1899, as high as 114 °F, recorded on August 3, 2011; as of the 2005–2007 American Community Survey conducted by the U. S. Census Bureau, White Americans made up 52.7% of Little Rock's population. Blacks or African Americans made up 42.1% of Little Rock's population, with 42.0% being non-Hispanic blacks. American Indians made up 0.4% of Little Rock's population while Asian Americans made up 2.1% of the city's population. Pacific Islander Americans made up less than 0.1% of the city's population. Individuals from some other race made up 1.2% of the city's population. Individuals from two or more races made up 1.4% of the city's population. In addition and Latinos made up 4.7% of Little Rock's population. As of the 2010 census, there were 193,524 people, 82,018 households, 47,799 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,576.0 people p
Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians; the state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas is the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States; the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population and economic center; the largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.
The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. In 1861, Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice; the culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows and athletic venues across the state. People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; the name Arkansas was applied to the Arkansas River and derives from a French term, the plural term for Quapaws, a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking Native American people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century.
This comes from an Algonquian term, /akansa/, for the Quapaws, is also the root term for Kansas. The name has been spelled in a variety of fashions. In 1881, the pronunciation of Arkansas with the final "s" being silent was made official by an act of the state legislature after a dispute arose between Arkansas's two U. S. senators as one favored the pronunciation as AR-kən-saw while the other favored ar-KAN-zəs. In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, followed by the state government. Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east; the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene, counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, in many places where the channel of the Mississippi has meandered from its original 1836 course.
Arkansas can be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half. The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains; the southern lowlands include the Arkansas Delta. This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas; these directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions; the southeastern part of Arkansas along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas Delta. This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape.
Both are fertile agricultural areas. The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; these mountain ranges are part of the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains; the highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 2,753 feet above sea level. Arkansas has many rivers and reservoirs within or along its borders. Major tributaries of the Mississippi River include the Arkansas River, the White River, the St. Francis River; the Arkansas is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fou
State legislature (United States)
A state legislature in the United States is the legislative body of any of the 50 U. S. states. The formal name varies from state to state. In 25 states, the legislature is called the Legislature, or the State Legislature, while in 19 states, the legislature is called the General Assembly. In Massachusetts and New Hampshire, the legislature is called the General Court, while North Dakota and Oregon designate the legislature the Legislative Assembly; every state except Nebraska has a bicameral legislature, meaning that the legislature consists of two separate legislative chambers or houses. In each case the smaller chamber is called the Senate and is referred to as the upper house; this chamber but not always, has the exclusive power to confirm appointments made by the governor and to try articles of impeachment. Members of the smaller chamber represent more citizens and serve for longer terms than members of the larger chamber four years. In 41 states, the larger chamber is called the House of Representatives.
Five states designate the larger chamber the Assembly and three states call it the House of Delegates. Members of the larger chamber serve for terms of two years; the larger chamber customarily has the exclusive power to initiate taxing legislation and articles of impeachment. Prior to United States Supreme Court decisions Reynolds v. Sims and Baker v. Carr in the 1960s, the basis of representation in most state legislatures was modeled on that of the U. S. Congress: the state senators represented geographical units while members of the larger chamber represented population. In 1964, the United States Supreme Court announced the one man, one vote standard and invalidated state legislative representation based on geography. Nebraska had a bicameral legislature like the other states, but the lower house was abolished following a referendum, effective with the 1936 elections; the remaining unicameral legislature is called the Nebraska Legislature, but its members continue to be called senators. As a legislative branch of government, a legislature performs state duties for a state in the same way that the United States Congress performs national duties at the national level.
The same system of checks and balances that exists at the Federal level exists between the state legislature, the state executive officer and the state judiciary, though the degree to which this is so varies from one state to the next. During a legislative session, the legislature considers matters introduced by its members or submitted by the governor. Businesses and other special interest organizations lobby the legislature to obtain beneficial legislation, defeat unfavorably perceived measures, or influence other legislative action. A legislature approves the state's operating and capital budgets, which may begin as a legislative proposal or a submission by the governor. Under the terms of Article V of the U. S. Constitution, state lawmakers retain the power to ratify Constitutional amendments which have been proposed by both houses of Congress and they retain the ability to call for a national convention to propose amendments to the U. S. Constitution. After the convention has concluded its business 75% of the states will be required to ratify what the convention has proposed.
Under Article II, state legislatures choose the manner of appointing the state's presidential electors. State legislatures appointed the U. S. Senators from their respective states until the ratification of the 17th Amendment in 1913 required the direct election of Senators by the state's voters; the legislative bodies and their committees use either Mason's Manual of Legislative Procedure or an amended form thereof. During official meetings, a professional parliamentarian is available to ensure that legislation and accompanying discussion proceed as orderly as possible without bias; the lawmaking process begins with the introduction of a bill in either the House of Representatives or the Senate. Bills may be introduced in either house, sometimes with the exception of bills increasing or decreasing revenue, which must originate in the House of Representatives; the order of business in each house provides a proper time for the introduction of bills. Bills are assigned consecutive numbers, given in the order of their introduction, to facilitate identification.
A bill cannot become enacted until it has been read on a certain number of days in each house. Upon introduction, a bill is read by its title only, constituting the first reading of the bill; because a bill is read by title only, it is important that the title give the members notice of the subject matter contained in the bill. As with other legislative bodies throughout the world, U. S. state legislatures operate through committees when considering proposed bills. Thus, committee action is the most important phase of the legislative process. Most bills cannot be enacted into law until it has been referred to, acted upon by, returned from, a standing committee in each house. Reference to committee follows the first reading of the bill; each committee is set up to consider bills relating to a particular subject. Standing committees are charged with the important responsibility of examining bills and recommending action to the Senate or House. On days when a legislature is not in session, the committees of each house meet and consider the bills that have been referred to them to decide if the assigned bills should be reported f