The Arleigh Burke class of guided missile destroyers is a United States Navy class of destroyer built around the Aegis Combat System and the SPY-1D multifunction passive electronically scanned array radar. The class is named for Admiral Arleigh Burke, an American destroyer officer in World War II, Chief of Naval Operations; the class leader, USS Arleigh Burke, was commissioned during Admiral Burke's lifetime. These warships were designed as multimission destroyers, able to fulfill the strategic land strike role with Tomahawk missiles. With upgrades to their AN/SPY-1 phased radar systems and their associated missile payloads as part of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System, the ships of this class have begun to demonstrate some promise as mobile antiballistic missile and anti-satellite weaponry platforms; some versions of the class no longer have Harpoon missile launcher. Their hull and superstructure were designed to have a reduced radar cross-section; the first ship of the class was commissioned on 4 July 1991.
With the decommissioning of the last Spruance-class destroyer, USS Cushing, on 21 September 2005, the Arleigh Burke-class ships became the U. S. Navy's only active destroyers, until the Zumwalt class became active in 2016; the Arleigh Burke class has the longest production run for any post-World War II U. S. Navy surface combatant. Besides the 62 vessels of this class in service by 2016, up to a further 42 have been envisioned. With an overall length of 505 to 509 feet, displacement ranging from 8,315 to 9,200 tons, weaponry including over 90 missiles, the Arleigh Burke class are larger and more armed than most previous ships classified as guided missile cruisers; the ships of the Arleigh Burke class are among the largest destroyers built in the United States. Only the Spruance and Zumwalt classes are longer; the larger Ticonderoga-class ships were constructed on Spruance-class hull forms, but are designated as cruisers due to their radically different mission and weapons systems than the Spruance and Kidd-class destroyers.
The Arleigh Burke class were designed with a new, water-plane area-hull form characterized by a wide flaring bow which improves sea-keeping ability. The hull form is designed to permit high speed in high sea states; the designers of Arleigh Burke incorporated lessons learned from the Ticonderoga-class guided-missile cruisers, which were deemed too expensive to continue building and too difficult to further upgrade. With the Arleigh Burke class, the U. S. Navy returned to all-steel construction. An earlier generation had combined a steel hull with a superstructure made of lighter aluminum to reduce top weight, but the lighter metal proved vulnerable to cracking. Aluminum is less fire-resistant than steel. Battle damage to Royal Navy ships exacerbated by their aluminum superstructures during the 1982 Falklands War supported the decision to use steel. Another lesson from the Falklands War led the navy to protect the ship's vital spaces with double-spaced steel armor and kevlar spall liners; the Arleigh Burke design incorporates stealth techniques, such as the angled rather than traditional vertical surfaces and the tripod mainmast, which make the ship more difficult to detect, in particular by antiship missiles.
A Collective Protection System makes the Arleigh Burke class the first U. S. warships designed with an air-filtration system against nuclear and chemical warfare. Other NBC defenses include a "countermeasure wash down system", their Aegis Combat System differs from a traditional rotating radar that mechanically rotates 360 degrees for each sweep scan of the airspace. Instead, Aegis uses a passive electronically scanned array, which allows continual tracking of targets simultaneous with area scans; the system's computer control allows centralization of the separate tracking and targeting functions. The system is resistant to electronic countermeasures, their stand-alone Harpoon antiship missile launchers give them an antiship capability with a range in excess of 64 nautical miles. With the retirement of the Tomahawk antiship missile variant, only the Arleigh Burke-class ships before Flight IIA versions are well-equipped for antisurface warfare with Harpoon launchers. Others are not, but are loaded with SM-2 missiles in their vertical launch cells capable of an antiship mode, though they have limited range and damage potential."The 127 mm 5-inch/54 caliber Mark 45 gun, in conjunction with the Mark 34 Gun Weapon System, is an antiship weapon which can be used for close-in air contacts or to support forces ashore with Naval gunfire support, with a range of up to 20 miles and capable of firing 20 rounds per minute."
The class's RIM-7 Sea Sparrow/RIM-162 ESSM missiles provide point defense against missiles and aircraft while the Standard Missile SM-2 and SM-6 provide area antiaircraft defense. The Standard Missile 3 and 6 provide Ballistic Missile Defense; the ship has an electronics warfare suite that provides passive decoy countermeasures. The class's Light Airborne Multi-Purpose System helicopter system improves the ship's capabilities against submarines and surface ships, a helicopter able to serve as a platform to monitor submarine
Louise Stephanie Watkin is a British Paralympic swimmer. Watkin swims in the S9 category and represented Great Britain in the 2012 Summer Paralympics, in which she won two silver and two bronze medals, she won one silver and three bronze medals at the 2008 Paralympics in Beijing. She came to the UK in 1996, she was born with Upper Limb Deficiency, is missing her left hand. After trying out several sports and activities as a child, she settled on swimming at the age of 12, her first major competition was the World Championships in Durban, South Africa in 2006, since she has competed in the Beijing Paralympic Games in 2008, the European Championships in Reykjavik in 2009, the World Short Course Championships in Rio. At the Beijing Paralympics, despite being only just 16, she won 3 bronze medals; as of August 2012, Watkin is ranked no 1 in the world in 50m freestyle. She is ranked 3rd in the 100m freestyle, 2nd in the 200m IM, 8th in the 100m breastroke, 10th in the 100m backstroke, Between 15 and 21 August 2010, she competed in the World Championships, in Eindhoven, where she became world champion in 50m freestyle, beating world record holder Natalie Du Toit.
She won a silver medal in the 200m IM, 100m breaststroke, the 4 × 100 m freestyle relay. Watkin won a bronze medal in the 100m freestyle, she is the European record holder for 100m freestyle and 200 I. M, she used to train at the City of Salford Swimming Club full-time under the Salford Competitive Training Scheme, was coached by John Stout, selected as the coach for Paralympics GB Swimming Team at the London 2012 Paralympic Games. However, Louise Watkin are looking for a new club after quitting City of Salford swim team after, according to BBC Sport, a breakdown in the relationship with coach John Stout. In her first event, she won a bronze medal as a member of the Women's 4 x 100 metre freestyle relay 34pts team, she won silver in the 50m freestyle S9 and bronze in the 200m individual medley SM9 events, before getting a silver medal in the Women's 4 x 100 metre medley relay 34pts. Profile at English Federation of Disabled sport Profile at ParalympicsGB
Russell Jonathan Leetch is the bass guitarist for Birmingham-based indie rock band Editors. He studied music technology at Staffordshire University where he met his fellow Editors band members, he went to secondary school at Knowle. He used to work with bandmate Tom Smith in a call centre, his favourite bands are Spiritualized. In February 2008, Leetch remixed The Hives single "T. H. E. H. I. V. E. S.", where it featured as a b-side on the single. He directed the video to Editors single "Bones", released in Europe, he ran the 2008 New York City Marathon for charity. In April 2011 Leetch ran the London Marathon along with lead singer Tom Smith, they raised over £10,000 for Oxfam. He supports Aston Villa F. C.. Russell Leetch Biography