Arlington National Cemetery is a United States military cemetery in Arlington County, across the Potomac River from Washington, D. C. in whose 624 acres the dead of the nation's conflicts have been buried, beginning with the Civil War, as well as reinterred dead from earlier wars. The United States Department of the Army, a component of the United States Department of Defense, controls the cemetery; the national cemetery was established during the Civil War on the grounds of Arlington House, the estate of Confederate general Robert E. Lee's wife Mary Anna Custis Lee; the Cemetery, along with Arlington House, Memorial Drive, the Hemicycle, the Arlington Memorial Bridge, form the Arlington National Cemetery Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in April 2014. George Washington Parke Custis, grandson of Martha Washington and adopted son of George Washington, acquired the land that now is Arlington National Cemetery in 1802, began construction of Arlington House, named after the village of Arlington, England, where his family was from.
The estate passed to Custis's daughter, Mary Anna, who had married United States Army officer Robert E. Lee. Custis's will gave a "life inheritance" to Mary Lee, allowing her to live at and run Arlington Estate for the rest of her life but not enabling her to sell any portion of it. Upon her death, the Arlington estate passed to George Washington Custis Lee; when Virginia seceded from the Union after the start of the American Civil War at Fort Sumter, Robert E. Lee resigned his commission on April 20, 1861, took command of the armed forces of the Commonwealth of Virginia becoming commander of the Army of Northern Virginia. On May 7, troops of the Virginia militia occupied Arlington House. With Confederate forces occupying Arlington's high ground, the capital of the Union was left in an untenable military position. Although unwilling to leave Arlington House, Mary Lee believed her estate would soon be recaptured by federal soldiers. So she buried many of her family treasures on the grounds and left for her sister's estate at Ravensworth in Fairfax County, Virginia, on May 14.
On May 3, General Winfield Scott ordered Brigadier General Irvin McDowell to clear Arlington and the city of Alexandria, Virginia, of all troops not loyal to the United States. McDowell occupied Arlington without opposition on May 24. At the outbreak of the Civil War, most military personnel who died in battle near Washington, D. C. were buried at the United States Soldiers' Cemetery in Washington, D. C. or Alexandria Cemetery in Alexandria, but by late 1863 both were nearly full. On July 16, 1862, Congress passed legislation authorizing the U. S. federal government to purchase land for national cemeteries for military dead, put the U. S. Army Quartermaster General in charge of this program. In May 1864, Union forces suffered large numbers of dead in the Battle of the Wilderness. Quartermaster General Montgomery C. Meigs ordered that an examination of eligible sites be made for the establishment for a large new national military cemetery. Within weeks, his staff reported; the property was high and free from floods, it had a view of the District of Columbia, it was aesthetically pleasing.
It was the home of the leader of the armed forces of the Confederate States of America, denying Robert E. Lee use of his home after the war was a valuable political consideration; the first military burial at Arlington, for William Henry Christman, was made on May 13, 1864, close to what is now the northeast gate in Section 27. However, Meigs did not formally authorize establishment of burials until June 15, 1864. Arlington did not desegregate its burial practices until President Harry S. Truman issued Executive Order 9981 on July 26, 1948; the government acquired Arlington at a tax sale in 1864 for $26,800, equal to $438,094 today. Mrs. Lee had not appeared in person but rather had sent an agent, attempting to pay the $92.07 in property taxes assessed on the estate in a timely manner. The government turned away her agent. In 1874, Custis Lee, heir under his grandfather's will passing the estate in trust to his mother, sued the United States claiming ownership of Arlington. On December 9, 1882, the U.
S. Supreme Court ruled 5–4 in Lee's favor in United States v. Lee, deciding that Arlington had been confiscated without due process. After that decision, Congress returned the estate to him, on March 3, 1883, Custis Lee sold it back to the government for $150,000 at a signing ceremony with Secretary of War Robert Todd Lincoln; the land became a military reservation. President Herbert Hoover conducted the first national Memorial Day ceremony in Arlington National Cemetery, on May 30, 1929. Beginning in 1863, the federal government used the southern portion of the land now occupied by the cemetery as a settlement for freed slaves, giving the name of "Freedman's Village" to the land; the government constructed rental houses that 1,100 to 3,000 freed slaves occupied while farming 1,100 acres of the estate and receiving schooling and occupational training during the Civil War and after War ended. However, after the land became part of a military reservation, the government asked the Villagers to leave.
When some remained, John A. Commerford, the Superintendent of Arlington National Cemetery, asked the Army's Quartermaster General in 1887 to close the Village on the grounds that people living in the Village had been taking trees at night from the cemetery for use as fi
The Esterwegen concentration camp near Esterwegen was an early Nazi concentration camp within a series of camps first established in the Emsland district of Germany. It was established in the summer of 1933 as a concentration camp for 2000 so-called political Schutzhäftlinge and was for a time the second largest concentration camp after Dachau; the camp was closed in summer of 1936. Thereafter, until 1945 it was used as a prison camp. Political prisoners and so-called Nacht und Nebel prisoners were held there. After the war ended, Esterwegen served as a British internment camp, as a prison, until 2000, as a depot for the German Army; the most famous prisoner was writer and editor of the weekly magazine, Die Weltbühne, Carl von Ossietzky, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1935. Comedian Werner Finck was detained in Esterwegen for six weeks. SS-Hauptscharführer Gustav Sorge, nicknamed "The Iron Gustav" for his brutality, was a guard at Esterwegen prior to being assigned to Sachsenhausen, he was convicted of war crimes after the war.
Memory on the Esterwegen concentration camp Kurt Buck: Esterwegen – Das Lager. In: Bettina Schmidt-Czaia: Esterwegen 1223 bis 1999 – "Moor und Heide nur ringsum...?" Esterwegen 1999, S. 205–253. Kurt Buck: Auf der Suche nach den Moorsoldaten. Emslandlager 1933–1945 und die historischen Orte heute. 6. Auflage. Papenburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-926277-16-9. Bernd Faulenbach, Andrea Kaltofen:'Hölle im Moor'. Die Emslandlager 1933–1945. Wallstein, Göttingen 2017, ISBN 978-3-8353-3137-2. Henning Harpel: Die Emslandlager des Dritten Reichs. Formen und Probleme der aktiven Geschichtserinnerung im nördlichen Emsland 1955–1993. In: Studiengesellschaft für Emsländische Regionalgeschichte: Emsländische Geschichte. Band 12. Haselünne 2005, S. 134–239. Hans-Peter Klausch: Tätergeschichten. Die SS-Kommandanten der frühen Konzentrationslager im Emsland.. Bremen 2005, ISBN 3-86108-059-1. Habbo Knoch: Die Emslandlager 1933–1945. In: Wolfgang Benz, Barbara Distel: Der Ort des Terrors. Geschichte der nationalsozialistischen Konzentrationslager.
Band II: Frühe Lager, Emslandlager. München 2005, ISBN 3-406-52962-3, S. 532–570. Erich Kosthorst, Bernd Walter: Konzentrations- und Strafgefangenenlager im Dritten Reich. Beispiel Emsland. Dokumentation und Analyse zum Verhältnis von NS-Regime und Justiz. Droste, Düsseldorf 1983, ISBN 3-7700-0638-0. Erich Kosthorst: Die Lager im Emsland unter dem NS-Regime 1933–1945. Aufgabe und Sinn geschichtlicher Erinnerung. In: Karl Dietrich Erdmann, J. Rohlfes: Geschichte in Wissenschaft und Unterricht. Nr. 6/1984, Seelze 1984, S. 365–379, S. 372–373. Wolfgang Langhoff: Die Moorsoldaten. Verlag Neuer Weg, Stuttgart 1974, ISBN 3-88021-093-4. Elke Suhr: Die Emslandlager. Die politische und wirtschaftliche Bedeutung der emsländischen Konzentrations- und Strafgefangenenlager 1933–1945. Donat & Temmen, Bremen 1985, ISBN 3-924444-07-2. Willy Perk: Hölle im Moor. Zur Geschichte der Emslandlager 1933–1945. Röderberg, Frankfurt am Main 1979, ISBN 3-87682-713-2. Dirk Riedel: Ordnungshüter und Massenmörder im Dienst der "Volksgemeinschaft": Der KZ-Kommandant Hans Loritz.
Alfred Thomas Agate was a noted American artist and miniaturist. Agate lived in New York from 1831 to 1838, he studied with Frederick Styles Agate, a portrait and historical painter. He went on to study with Thomas Seir Cummings. By the late 1830s, Agate was exhibiting his work at the National Academy of Design in New York, established himself as a skilled painter in oils, he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an honorary member in 1840. Agate drew landscapes and scientific illustrations. For much of his landscapes, Agate used a camera lucida, a device which projected the scene onto a piece of paper for purposes of tracing. Agate created many artworks during his service with the United States Exploring Expedition of 1838–1842 under Charles Wilkes, he was good at botanical illustrations, was the designated portrait and botanical artist of the expedition. The United States Exploring Expedition passed through the Ellice Islands and visited Funafuti and Vaitupu in 1841. During the visit of the expedition to the Ellice Islands Alfred Thomas Agate recorded the dress and tattoo patterns of men of Nukufetau.
Agate created the first known picture of Mount Shasta. Agate contributed more than half of the sketches and paintings reproduced as lithographs illustrating the five volumes of the expedition's reports, he sketched the Oregon Territory, including a look into a Chinook Lodge, an Indian Burial Place, an Indian Mode of Rocking Cradle, a picture of the wreck of one of the expedition's sailing ships at the mouth of the Columbia River. Agate lived in Washington, D. C. from 1842 onward, but his health suffered from the expedition and he died four years of consumption. On Agate's death in 1846, the drawings passed to his widow, Elizabeth Hill Kennedy Agate, who married Dr. William J. C. Du Hamel of Washington, D. C. In 1926, one of her daughters from this marriage, Elizabeth A. Du Hamel, sold them to the Naval Historical Foundation; the Naval Historical Foundation donated Agate's artwork to the Navy Art Collection in 1998. In 1841, Agate Passage near Bainbridge Island, was named by Lt. Charles Wilkes in honor of Agate.
Agate Island in Fiji was named in honor of Agate. Botanist Asa Gray used Agate's drawings and the expedition's specimens for botanical reports, named a violet, Agatea violaris, after him. Who Was Who in America: Historical Volume 1607–1896. Chicago: Marquis Who's Who, 1963. Alfred Thomas Agate at American Art Gallery Exhibit: The Alfred Agate Collection: The United States Exploring Expedition, 1838–1842 from the Navy Art Gallery