Arman was a French-born American artist. Born Armand Fernandez in Nice, Arman was a painter who moved from using objects for the ink or paint traces they leave to using them as the painting itself, he is destruction/recomposition of objects. Arman's father, Antonio Fernandez, an antiques dealer from Nice, was an amateur artist and cellist. From his father, Arman learned oil photography. After receiving his bachelor's degree in philosophy and mathematics in 1946, Arman began studying at the École Nationale des Arts Décoratifs in Nice, he started judo at a police school in Nice where he met Yves Klein and Claude Pascal. The trio bonded on a subsequent hitch-hiking tour around Europe. Completing his studies in 1949, Arman enrolled as a student at the École du Louvre in Paris, where he concentrated on the study of archaeology and oriental art. In 1951, he became a teacher at the Bushido Kai Judo Club in Madrid. During this time he served in the French military, completing his tour of duty as a medical orderly during the Indo-China War.

Early on, it was apparent that Arman's concept of the accumulation of vast quantities of the same objects was to remain a significant component of his art. He had focused more attention on his abstract paintings, considering them to be of more consequence than his early accumulations of stamps. Only when he witnessed viewer reaction to his first accumulation in 1959 did he recognize the power of such art. In 1962, he began welding together accumulations of the same kinds such as axes. Inspired by an exhibition for the German Dadaist Kurt Schwitters in 1954, Arman began working on "Cachets," his first major artistic undertaking. At his third solo exhibition held in Paris's Galerie Iris Clert in 1958, Arman showed some of his first 2D accumulations he called "cachets." These stamps on paper and fabric proved a success and provided an important change of course for the young artist's career. At the time, he was signing with his first name as an homage to Van Gogh, who signed his works with his first name, "Vincent."

And, thus, in 1957, Arman chose to change his name from Armand to Arman. On January 31, 1973, upon becoming a citizen of the United States, he took the American civil name, Armand Pierre Arman, he continued to use "Arman" as his public persona. From 1959 to 1962, Arman developed his most recognizable style, beginning with his two most renowned concepts: "Accumulation" and "Poubelle". Accumulations were collections of common and identical objects which he arranged in polyester castings or within Plexiglas cases, his first welded accumulations were created in 1962. The "Poubelles" were collections of strewn refuse. In 1960, he filled the Galerie Iris Clert in Paris with garbage, creating "Le Plein" as a counterpoint of the exhibition called "Le Vide" at the same gallery two years earlier by his friend Yves Klein; these works began to garner the attention of the European art community. In October 1960, Yves Klein, François Dufrêne, Raymond Hains, Martial Raysse, Daniel Spoerri, Jean Tinguely and Jacques Villeglé, art critic and philosopher Pierre Restany founded the Nouveau réalisme group.

Joined by Cesar, Mimmo Rotella, Niki de Saint Phalle, Christo, the group of young artists defined themselves as bearing in common their "new perspective approaches of reality." They were reassessing the concept of art and the artist for a 20th-century consumer society by reasserting the humanistic ideals in the face of industrial expansion. In 1961, Arman made his debut in the United States, the country, to become his second home. During this period, he explored creation via destruction; the "Coupes" and the "Colères" featured sliced, burned, or smashed objects arranged on canvas using objects with a strong "identity" such as musical instruments or bronze statues. Arman can be seen in Andy Warhol's film Dinner at Daley's, a documentation of a dinner performance by the Fluxus artist Daniel Spoerri that Warhol filmed on March 5, 1964. Throughout the portrait-screen-test film, Arman sits in profile, looking down, appearing to be entranced in his reading unaware of Warhol's camera, only making small gestures, rubbing his eyes, licking the corner of his mouth.

He remained silent, eyes gazing over the pages of what seemed to be a newspaper, in this four-minute, 16mm black-and-white reel. Warhol owned two of Arman's Poubelles and another accumulation called Amphetamines, which were sold at Sotheby's auction of the Andy Warhol Collection in May 1988. Fascinated with the scene in New York, Arman took up part-time residency there from his home in Nice in 1961, after his first exhibition at the Cordier Warren Gallery. In the city, he met Marcel Duchamp at a dinner given by collector William Copley. First living at the Chelsea Hotel and in Church street while keeping a studio in Bowery in TriBeCa, Arman began work on large public sculptures. There were varied expansions of the accumulations, their content included tools, clocks, automobile parts, and, of course, musical instruments in various stages of dismemberment. Musical instruments the strings and bronze, through his collaboration with a foundry in Normandy, became a major avenue in Arman's work. Of Arman's accumulations, one of the largest is Long Term Parking, on permanent display at the Château de Montcel in Jouy-en-Josas, France.

Completed in 1982, the sculpture is an 18-meter high accumulation of 60 automobiles embedded in over 18,000 kg of concret

Keck and Mithouard

Reference for a Preliminary Ruling in the Criminal Proceedings against Bernard Keck and Daniel Mithouard C-267/91 is an EU law case, concerning the conflict of law between a national legal system and European Union law. The Court found that "selling arrangements" did not constitute a measure having equivalent effect to a quantitative restriction on trade between Member States of the European Community, as it was then. Keck and Mithouard were prosecuted in France under anti-dumping retail laws for selling Picon liqueur at below cost price; the Court distinguished the case from its earlier jurisprudence on the content or characteristics or the products concerned. Thus the legislation in question fell outside the scope of the article 30 of the Treaty of the European Community. Keck and Mithouard contended that their prosecution under French law, for selling products below wholesale prices, contravened TEEC article 30. A French competition law prohibited retail of products for prices below that which they had been purchased wholesale.

The aim of this law was to prevent retailers engaging in'cut-throat competition' by dumping excess produce onto the market, forcing competitors out of business. Keck and Mithouard were charged with having sold Picon liqueur and Sati Rouge coffee below the purchase price, they argued that the law would discourage imports because importers are new entrants to the market, while trying to acquire market share and brand recognition they may wish to cut prices. The Court of Justice held that the French law was not incompatible with TEEC article 30 because the purpose was not to regulate trade. If a rule applies to all traders in the same manner, affects them in the same way in law and in fact, it is lawful if it is a selling arrangement; this was the case for the French anti-dumping rules. The judgment has been subject to a number of criticisms in the academic literature. In response to this, the Court has meanwhile diminished the importance of the Keck judgment, giving way to a refined 3-tiers-test.

Kai Purnhagen Keck is Dead, Long Live Keck? – How the CJEU Tries to Avoid a Sunday Trading Saga 2.0, Wageningen Working Papers in Law and Governance 1/2018,

Canal Latéral de la Garonne

The Canal de Garonne known as Canal latéral à la Garonne, is a French canal dating from the mid-19th century which connects Toulouse to Castets-en-Dorthe. The remainder of the route to Bordeaux uses the river Garonne, it is the continuation of the Canal du Midi. Together they and the Garonne form the Canal des Deux Mers which connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic Ocean; the canal runs along the right bank of the Garonne, crosses the river in Agen via the Agen aqueduct continues along the left bank. It is connected to the Canal du Midi at its source in Toulouse, emerges at Castets-en-Dorthe on the Garonne, 54 km southwest of Bordeaux, a point where the river is navigable; the canal is supplied with water from the Garonne by two sources: The Canal de Brienne in Toulouse, taking up to 7 m3/s from the river Garonne upstream of Bazacle dam The Brax pumping station near Agen. With the exception of the five locks at Montech, bypassed by the water slope, all of the locks have a length of 40.5m and a width of 6m.

The locks at Montech are as built, 30.65m long. More than 100 bridges were built on the canal. Many were rebuilt in 1933 as prestressed concrete bow bridges, to allow for the requirements of larger barges; the canal has a width of 18 meters at the water level. It has 53 locks, with a total difference in level of 128 meters, its design depth is 2.00 metres, for a draught of 1.80 metres. The minimum headroom beneath bridges and other structures is 3.60 metres. The Canal de Garonne was considered a possibility from ancient times. Before the Canal du Midi was constructed, the passage between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea was along the Spanish Atlantic coast and through the Strait of Gibraltar; this route, more than 3,000 kilometers long, subjected sailors to the risks of attack and storms. Nero and Augustus in ancient times Charlemagne, Francis I of France, Charles IX of France, Henry IV of France were all interested in constructing a canal which avoided the passage around Spain, they asked for the idea to be studied and many projects resulted.

The primary difficulty was in supplying sufficient water at the watershed between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic to ensure continuous navigation. Between 1614 and 1662, under the influence of Louis XIII and Louis XIV, five projects were born but none solved the water supply problem. In 1662 Pierre-Paul Riquet sought to bring water to the area which would become the canal du Midi, at a watershed near Seuil de Naurouze, where water flows both to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic, he was inspired by the theories of Adam de Craponne which were put into practice at the beginning of the same century by Hugues Cosnier for the "canal de Loyre en Seyne". Riquet's knowledge of the Montagne Noire and its watercourses led him to imagine a provisioning system based on the diversion of water from many streams and rivers. While this enabled boats to cross the watershed, they still had to use the Garonne to reach the ocean and this presented more problems with floods and groundings as the size of cargo boats increased.

It is said that when Pierre-Paul Riquet built the Canal Royal du Languedoc between Sète and Toulouse from 1667-1681 he envisaged continuing the canal closer to the Atlantic: the future Canal Latéral à la Garonne. However successive enlargements of the Château de Versailles and the poor finances of Louis XIV emptied the kingdom's coffers and the project never materialised. For two centuries people had to be content with navigating the Garonne, it was not until 1828 that a new survey was ordered, a survey completed in 1830. This was during France's industrial revolution and it was vital for its development that better methods of transporting raw materials be created. While this was the purpose of the Becquey plan of 1821 to 1822, it was only in 1832 that the state granted the concession in perpetuity to the private Magendie-Sion company, owned by Sieur Doin; the act allowing the construction of the Canal Latéral à la Garonne envisioned the provision of water from the Garonne utilising the Canal de Saint-Pierre or the Canal de Brienne.

However, Sieur Doin did not agree with these commitments. Sieur Doin died. A third act in 1838 allocated a sum of 100,000 francs to the heirs of Sieur Dion and repurchased parts of the project for 150,000 francs; the project was taken back by the state, the divisionary inspector of Bridges and Roads Jean-Baptiste de Baudre was placed in charge, work started in 1838 with a budget of forty million francs. Construction began at several points with thousands of workmen building the 193 kilometres of canal and remarkable structures such as the famous Agen aqueduct. In 1844, the section from Toulouse to Montech to Montauban was opened; the canal was open for navigation to Buzet-sur-Baïse in 1853 and upstream by 1856. The canal was completed at the same time as the Bordeaux to Sète railway, which followed the same route; the first trains left Agen station in 1857. At first the railway did not compete with water transport but the state conceded the canal's exploitation rights to the Compagnie des chemins de fer du Midi, the direct competitor of the boatmen.

The railway company increased levies on water transport such that by the time the concession was withdrawn in 1898 the damage had been done: between 1850 and 1893, water freight diminished by two thirds. However, until about 1970, the Canal Lat